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Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

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  • 1.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Anaerob nedbrytning av ftalater med ymp fraan anaerobt behandlat hushaallsavfall. (Anaerobic degradation of phthalates in unsorted household wastes)

    Author: Aaberg, H
    (1993)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Phthalic acid and diethyl phthalate were tested for their biodegradability in anaerobic, unsorted household . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Phthalic acid and diethyl phthalate were tested for their biodegradability in anaerobic, unsorted household wastes. The compounds were analyzed by measuring absorbance after centrifugation of a water suspension. This cheap and rapid method was proven to be applicable. Both phthalic acid and diethyl phthalate disappeared almost completely in 1-3 months, using initial concentrations from 50 to 250 mg/l. The same methodology was used for diethylhexyl phthalate, but did not work. The stoichiometrically expected amounts of methane were not found for any of the compounds, and in case of diethyl phthalate an inhibition of the methane production was observed. (36 refs., 17 figs.)
    Tags: Additional Resource, Database searches, Fate and transport, Initial Litsearch, Merged reference set, Merged reference set, Toxline, Toxline, Toxline

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  • 2.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Superlattice formation in binary mixtures of block copolymer micelles

    Authors: Abbas, S; Lodge, TP
    (2008)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Two distinct diblock copolymers, poly(styrene-b-isoprene) (SI) and poly(styrene-b-dimethylsiloxane) . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Two distinct diblock copolymers, poly(styrene-b-isoprene) (SI) and poly(styrene-b-dimethylsiloxane) (SD), were codissolved at various concentrations in the polystyrene selective solvent diethyl phthalate. Two SI diblocks, with block molar masses of 12,000-33,000 and 30,000-33,000, and two SD diblocks, with block molar masses of 19,000-6000 and 16,000-9000, were employed. The size ratio of the smaller SD micelles (S) to the larger SI micelles (L) varied from approximately 0.5 to 0.6, based on hydrodynamic radii determined by dynamic light scattering on dilute solutions containing only one polymer component. Due to incompatibility between the polyisoprene and polydimethylsiloxane blocks, a binary mixture of distinct SI and SD micelles was formed in each mixed solution, as confirmed by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. When the total concentration of polymer was increased to 20-30%, the micelles adopted a superlattice structure. Small angle X-ray scattering revealed the lattice to be the full LS13 superlattice (space group Fm3c) in all cases, with unit cell dimensions in excess of 145 nm. A coexistent face-centered cubic phase composed of SD micelles was also observed when the number ratio of S to L micelles was large.
    Tags: Database searches, Excluded , Initial Litsearch, Manufacture/Use, Merged reference set, Pubmed, PubMed
  • 3.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Development and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of etodolac controlled porosity osmotic pump tablets

    Authors: Abd-Elbary, A; Tadros, MI; Alaa-Eldin, AA
    (2011) AAPS PharmSciTech 12:485-495.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The aim of the current work was the design and evaluation of etodolac controlled porosity osmotic pump . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The aim of the current work was the design and evaluation of etodolac controlled porosity osmotic pump (CPOP) tablets exhibiting zero-order release kinetics. Variables influencing the design of (1) core tablets viz., (a) osmogent type (sodium chloride, potassium chloride, mannitol, and fructose) and (b) drug/osmogent ratio (1:0.25, 1:0.50, and 1:0.75), and (2) CPOP tablets viz., (a) coating solution composition, (b) weight gain percentage (1-5%, w/w), and (c) pore former concentration (5%, 10%, and 20%, v/v), were investigated. Statistical analysis and kinetic modeling of drug release data were estimated. Fructose-containing core tablets showed significantly (P < 0.05) more retarded drug release rates. An inverse correlation was observed between drug/fructose ratio and drug release rate. Coating of the optimum core tablets (F4) with a mixture of cellulose acetate solution (3%, w/v), diethyl phthalate, and polyethylene glycol 400 (85:10:5, v/v, respectively) till a 4% w/w weight gain enabled zero-order sustained drug delivery over 24 h. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs of coating membrane confirmed pore formation upon contact with dissolution medium. When compared to the commercial immediate-release Napilac® capsules, the optimum CPOP tablets (F4-34) provided enhanced bioavailability and extended duration of effective etodolac plasma concentration with minimum expected potential for side effects in healthy volunteers.
    Tags: Database searches, Excluded , Initial Litsearch, Manufacture/Use, Merged reference set, Pubmed, WOS, WOS
  • 4.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Metronidazole twin ester prodrugs. Part 2. Nonidentical twin esters of metronidazole and some antiprotozoal halogenated hydroxyquinoline derivatives

    Authors: Aboul-Fadl, T; Mahfouz, NM
    (1998)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. IPA COPYRIGHT: ASHP The synthesis, prodrug suitability, lipophilic properties, chemical stability, . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. IPA COPYRIGHT: ASHP The synthesis, prodrug suitability, lipophilic properties, chemical stability, and in vitro and in vivo enzymatic hydrolysis of the following 4 nonidentical twin ester prodrugs by linking metronidazole and some antiprotozoal halogenated 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives are reported: 1-(5-chloro-7-iodoquinolin-8-yl)-4-(2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazolyl)ethyl)butandioate (I), 1-(5,7-diiodoquinolin-8-yl)-4-(2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazolyl)ethyl)butandioate, 1-(5-chloro-7-iodoquinolin-8-yl)-2-(2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazolyl)ethyl)phthalate, and 1-(5,7-diiodoquinolin-8-yl)-2-(2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazolyl)ethyl)phthalate. The prodrugs showed enhanced lipophilicity compared with the parent drugs. Hydrolysis kinetics indicated quantitative release of pane drugs in a 2-step reaction. Twin esters were adequately stable in aqueous buffer solutions. Bioavailability studies in rabbits of I showed that the plasma level of released metronidazole is higher than that resulting from a physical combination. A considerable amount of 5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline was detected in plasma. however, no measurable concentration of the quinoline derivative was observed in rabbit plasma from the physical mixture.
    Tags: Database searches, Excluded , Initial Litsearch, Merged reference set, Not chemical specific, Toxline, Toxline

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  • 5.
    Book/Book Chapter
    Book/Book
    Chapter
    Diethyl phthalate

    Author: ACGIH
    (2007)
    Tag:

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  • 6.
    Book/Book Chapter
    Book/Book
    Chapter
    Diethyl phthalate

    Author: ACGIH
    (1999) In Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices (Sixth, pp. DP1-DP6). Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. TLV Recommendation Acute animal toxicity of DEP is of a low order.(7~11) Exposure of workers to the . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. TLV Recommendation Acute animal toxicity of DEP is of a low order.(7~11) Exposure of workers to the heated vapor of DEP may cause transient irritation of the nose and throat.<2) While occupational exposures to mixtures of phthalate plasticizers have been associated with polyneuritis and vestibular dysfunction,(35) concomitant exposure to the human neurotoxin TOCP in that cohort precludes drawing any cause-and-effect relation here. Since there has been no scientifically defensible indication of central or peripheral neuropathy in animal bioassays,(3A12) or in occupational cohorts, the TLV Committee concluded that DEP exposure under current workplace conditions should not present a neurotoxic hazard. To minimize the potential for respiratory irritation, a TLV-TWA of 5 mg/m3 is recommended for exposure to DEP; equivalent to that recommended for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) (see Documentation for DEHP). At this time, no STEL is recommended until additional toxicological data and industrial hygiene experience become available to provide a better base for quantifying on a toxicological basis what the STEL should be. The reader is encouraged to review the section on Excursion Limits in the "Introduction to the Chemical Substances" of the current TLV/BEI Booklet for guidance and control of excursions above the TLV-TWA, even when the 8-hour TWA is within the recommended limits. Given that lifetime bioassays in rodents provided no or equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity, the A4, Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen, designation is assigned.
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  • 7.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    ACTIVATED SLUDGE BIODEGRADATION OF 12 COMMERCIAL PHTHALATE ESTERS CONTRACT NO. PE-17.0-ET-SRC

    (2000)
    Tags: Additional Resource, Additional Resource, Database searches, Fate and transport, Initial Litsearch, Merged reference set, Merged reference set, Merged reference set, Toxline, Toxline, TSCATS, TSCATS, TSCATS, TSCATS

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  • 8.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    ACUTE TOXICITY OF FOURTEEN PHTHALATE ESTERS TO FATHEAD MINNOWS

    (1984)
    Tags: Additional Resource, Additional Resource, Database searches, Ecosystem effects, Initial Litsearch, Merged reference set, Merged reference set, Merged reference set, Toxline, Toxline, TSCATS, TSCATS, TSCATS, TSCATS, TSCATS, TSCATS

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  • 9.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    ACUTE TOXICITY OF FOURTEEN PHTHALATE ESTERS TO RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO GAIRDNERI) UNDER FLOW-THROUGH CONDITIONS

    (2000)
    Tags: Additional Resource, Additional Resource, Database searches, Ecosystem effects, Initial Litsearch, Merged reference set, Merged reference set, Merged reference set, Toxline, Toxline, TSCATS, TSCATS, TSCATS, TSCATS, TSCATS, TSCATS

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  • 10.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    ACUTE TOXICITY OF FOURTEEN PHTHALATE ESTERS TO RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO GAIRDNERI) UNDER FLOW THROUGH CONDITIONS

    (1984)
    Tags: Additional Resource, Additional Resource, Database searches, Ecosystem effects, Initial Litsearch, Merged reference set, Merged reference set, Merged reference set, Toxline, Toxline, TSCATS, TSCATS, TSCATS, TSCATS, TSCATS, TSCATS

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