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Nanoscale Silver

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  • 1.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Report on nanosilver

    Author: ACHS
    (2009)
    Tags: Effects, External Review Draft, Final Case Study
  • 2.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Silver speciation in wastewater effluent, surface waters, and pore waters

    Authors: Adams, NWH; Kramer, JR
    (1999) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18:2667-2673.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Silver, inorganic sulfide, and thiol compounds were measured in municipal wastewater effluent, receiving . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Silver, inorganic sulfide, and thiol compounds were measured in municipal wastewater effluent, receiving waters, and pore waters from an anoxic lake sediment in order to predict silver speciation in these systems. We found submicromolar concentrations of inorganic sulfide even in fully oxic surface water. This inorganic sulfide is likely to exist in the form of colloidal metal sulfides, which have been shown to be stable under oxidizing conditions for periods of several hours. Inorganic sulfide in both the wastewater effluent and receiving waters was found to be 200 to 300 times in excess of silver concentrations, whereas inorganic sulfide in the pore waters was 1,000 to 15,000 times in excess of silver concentrations. With sulfide in excess of silver, we predict silver sulfide complexes to dominate silver speciation. Thiols were present at low nanomolar levels in pore waters but were not detectable (<1nM) in wastewater effluent or receiving waters. Thiols do not appear to be important to silver speciation in these freshwater systems. Partitioning of silver into particulate (>0.45 μm), colloidal (10 kDa, 0.45 μm), and dissolved (<10 kDa) size fractions showed that a significant proportion of silver is in the colloidal (30-35%) and dissolved phases (15-20%). Dissolved phase concentrations were relatively constant in the treatment plant effluent and receiving waters, suggesting that silver in the <10-kDa size fraction is strongly complexed by ligands that are not significantly affected by aggregation or sorption processes.
    Tags: External Review Draft
  • 3.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Nanomaterials: Effects on the environment and human health

    Author: AFSSET
    (2006)
    Tags: External Review Draft, Final Case Study
  • 4.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Surfaces modified with nanometer-thick silver-impregnated polymeric films that kill bacteria but support growth of mammalian cells

    Authors: Agarwal, A; Weis, TL; Schurr, MJ; Faith, NG; Czuprynski, CJ; McAnulty, JF; Murphy, CJ; Abbott, NL
    (2010) Biomaterials 31:680-690.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Silver is widely used as a biocidal agent in ointments and wound dressings. However, it has also been . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Silver is widely used as a biocidal agent in ointments and wound dressings. However, it has also been associated with tissue toxicity and impaired healing. In vitro characterization has also revealed that typical loadings of silver employed in ointments and dressings (~100 mu g/cm super(2)) lead to cytotoxicity. In this paper, we report the results of an initial study that sought to determine if localization of carefully controlled loadings of silver nanoparticles within molecularly thin films immobilized on surfaces can lead to antimicrobial activity without inducing cytotoxicity. Polymeric thin films of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were prepared by layer-by-layer deposition and loaded with } .4 mu g/cm super(2) to ~23.6 mu g/cm super(2) of silver nanoparticles. Bacterial killing efficiencies of the silver-loaded films were investigated against Staphylococcus epidermidis, a gram-positive bacterium, and it was determined that as little as } .4 mu g/cm super(2) of silver in the polymeric films caused a reduction of 6log sub(1) sub(0)CFU/mL (99.9999%) bacteria in suspensions incubated in contact with the films (water-borne assays). Significantly, whereas the antibacterial films containing high loadings of silver were found to be toxic to a murine fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3), the polymeric films containing } .4 mu g/cm super(2) of silver were not toxic and allowed attachment, and growth of the mammalian cells. Thus, the results of this study go beyond prior reports by identifying silver-impregnated, polymeric thin films that are compatible with in vitro mammalian cell culture yet exhibit antibacterial activity. These results support the hypothesis that localization of carefully controlled loadings of silver nanoparticles within molecularly thin polymeric films can lead to antimicrobial activity without cytotoxicity. More broadly, this strategy of modifying surfaces with minimal loadings of bioactive molecules indicates the basis of approaches that may permit management of microbial burden in wound beds without impairment of wound healing.
  • 5.
    Journal Article
    Journal
    Article
    Occupational allergic contact dermatitis to silver and colophonium in a jeweler

    Authors: Agarwal, S; Gawkrodger, DJ
    (2002) American Journal of Contact Dermatitis 13:74.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The aim of this study was to determine any occupationally relevant allergic contact sensitizations in . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The aim of this study was to determine any occupationally relevant allergic contact sensitizations in hand dermatitis in a jeweler. Patch test with European Standard, vehicle, medicaments, and metal series (Finn chambers on Scanpor) was performed. Readings were taken on day 2 and day 4. Allergic positive reaction to colophonium 20% pet and silver nitrate 0.5% aq was detected. The contact sensitivities to silver and colophonium seem to be occupationally relevant in this case.
  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Silver nanoparticle applications and human health

    Authors: Ahamed, M; Alsalhi, M; Siddiqui, M
    (2010) Clinica Chimica Acta 411:1841-1848. [Review]
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Nanotechnology is rapidly growing with nanoparticles produced and utilized in a wide range of commercial . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Nanotechnology is rapidly growing with nanoparticles produced and utilized in a wide range of commercial products throughout the world. For example, silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) are used in electronics, bio-sensing, clothing, food industry, paints, sunscreens, cosmetics and medical devices. These broad applications, however, increase human exposure and thus the potential risk related to their short- and long-term toxicity. A large number of in vitro studies indicate that Ag NPs are toxic to the mammalian cells derived from skin, liver, lung, brain, vascular system and reproductive organs. Interestingly, some studies have shown that this particle has the potential to induce genes associated with cell cycle progression, DNA damage and apoptosis in human cells at non-cytotoxic doses. Furthermore, in vivo bio-distribution and toxicity studies in rats and mice have demonstrated that Ag NP administered by inhalation, ingestion or intra-peritoneal injection were subsequently detected in blood and caused toxicity in several organs including brain. Moreover, Ag NP exerted developmental and structural malformations in non-mammalian model organisms typically used to elucidate human disease and developmental abnormalities. The mechanisms for Ag NP induced toxicity include the effects of this particle on cell membranes, mitochondria and genetic material. This paper summarizes and critically assesses the current studies focusing on adverse effects of Ag NPs on human health.
  • 7.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    DNA damage response to different surface chemistry of silver nanoparticles in mammalian cells

    Authors: Ahamed, M; Karns, M; Goodson, M; Rowe, J; Hussain, SM; Schlager, JJ; Hong, Y
    (2008) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 233:404-410.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have recently received much attention for their possible applications . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have recently received much attention for their possible applications in biotechnology and life sciences. Ag NPs are of interest to defense and engineering programs for new material applications as well as for commercial purposes as an antimicrobial. However, little is known about the genotoxicity of Ag NPs following exposure to mammalian cells. This study was undertaken to examine the DNA damage response to polysaccharide surface functionalized (coated) and non-functionalized (uncoated) Ag NPs in two types of mammalian cells; mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). Both types of Ag NPs up-regulated the cell cycle checkpoint protein p53 and DNA damage repair proteins Rad51 and phosphorylated-H2AX expression. Furthermore both of them induced cell death as measured by the annexin V protein expression and MTT assay. Our observations also suggested that the different surface chemistry of Ag NPs induce different DNA damage response: coated Ag NPs exhibited more severe damage than uncoated Ag NPs. The results suggest that polysaccharide coated particles are more individually distributed while agglomeration of the uncoated particles limits the surface area availability and access to membrane bound organelles.
    Tags: Effects, External Review Draft, Final Case Study
  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Silver nanoparticles induced heat shock protein 70, oxidative stress and apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster

    Authors: Ahamed, M; Posgai, R; Gorey, T; Nielsen, M; Hussain, S; Rowe, J
    (2010) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 242:263-269.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Due to the intensive commercial application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), risk assessment of this . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Due to the intensive commercial application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), risk assessment of this nanoparticle is of great importance. Our previous in vitro study demonstrated that Ag NPs caused DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells and fibroblasts. However, toxicity of Ag NPs in vivo is largely lacking. This study was undertaken to examine the toxic effects of well-characterized polysaccharide coated 10 nm Ag NPs on heat shock stress, oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Third instar larvae of D. melanogaster were fed a diet of standard cornmeal media mixed with Ag NPs at the concentrations of 50 and 100 microg/ml for 24 and 48 h. Ag NPs up-regulated the expression of heat shock protein 70 and induced oxidative stress in D. melanogaster. Malondialdehyde level, an end product of lipid peroxidation was significantly higher while antioxidant glutathione content was significantly lower in Ag NPs exposed organisms. Activities of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and catalase were also significantly higher in the organisms exposed to Ag NPs. Furthermore, Ag NPs up-regulated the cell cycle checkpoint p53 and cell signaling protein p38 that are involved in the DNA damage repair pathway. Moreover, activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9, markers of apoptosis were significantly higher in Ag NPs exposed organisms. The results indicate that Ag NPs in D. melanogaster induce heat shock stress, oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis. This study suggests that the organism is stressed and thus warrants more careful assessment of Ag NPs using in vivo models to determine if chronic exposure presents developmental and reproductive toxicity.
    Tags: Effects, Final Case Study
  • 9.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum

    Authors: Ahmad, A; Mukherjee, P; Senapati, S; Mandal, D; Khan, M; Kumar, R; Sastry, M
    (2003) Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 28:313-318.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The development of reliable, eco-friendly processes for the synthesis of nanomaterials is an important . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The development of reliable, eco-friendly processes for the synthesis of nanomaterials is an important aspect of nanotechnology today. One approach that shows immense potential is based on the biosynthesis of nanoparticles using biological micro-organisms such as bacteria. In this laboratory, we have concentrated on the use of fungi in the intracellular production of metal nanoparticles. As part of our investigation, we have observed that aqueous silver ions when exposed to the fungus Fusarium oxysporum are reduced in solution, thereby leading to the formation of an extremely stable silver hydrosol. The silver nanoparticles are in the range of 5–15 nm in dimensions and are stabilized in solution by proteins secreted by the fungus. It is believed that the reduction of the metal ions occurs by an enzymatic process, thus creating the possibility of developing a rational, fungal-based method for the synthesis of nanomaterials over a range of chemical compositions, which is currently not possible by other microbe-based methods.
    Tags: External Review Draft, Final Case Study
  • 10.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Nanoparticles: An occupational hygiene review

    Authors: Aitken, RJ; Creely, KS; Tran, CL
    (2004) Edinburgh, UK: Institute of Occupational Medicine for the Health and Safety Executive.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Nanoparticles are the end products of a wide variety of physical, chemical and biological processes . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Nanoparticles are the end products of a wide variety of physical, chemical and biological processes some of which are novel and radically different, others of which are quite commonplace. We have reviewed processes for the deliberate development and manufacture of nanoparticle products and have considered sources and routes of exposure, levels of exposure, numbers exposed, knowledge gaps and future trends. We conclude that all of the four main groups of nanoparticle production processes may potentially result in exposure by inhalation, dermal or ingestion routes and that little is known about current levels of exposure. Control approaches are available which should be effective for exposure by inhalation but this has not been demonstrated. Control approaches for dermal and ingestion exposure may not be as effective as they are for larger particles. Surface area is probably the best exposure metric for some but not necessarily all nanoparticles but there are no effective methods by which this can be measured in the workplace. Current knowledge is insufficient for risk assessment purposes. The number of workers who may be exposed to nanoparticles in the university sector and in emerging nanoparticle companies may be as high as 2000. Around 100,000 individuals may potentially be exposed to fine powders through various powder handling processes. It is not possible to say what proportion of these may be exposed to nanoparticles although it is likely to grow. More that 1,000,000 workers in the UK may be exposed to nanoparticles via incidental production in processes such as welding and refining. In summary, we conclude that there is little evidence to suggest that the exposure of workers arising from the production of nanoparticles has been adequately assessed. This report and the work it describes were funded by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Its contents, including any opinions and/or conclusions expressed, are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily reflect HSE policy.
    Tags: External Review Draft, Final Case Study
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