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tert-Butanol

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  • 1.
    Data/Software
    Data/
    Software
    ChemDraw

    (2009) (Version 12) [Software]. Cambridge, MA: CambridgeSoft. [Computer Program]

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  • 2.
    Book/Book Chapter
    Book/Book
    Chapter
    Applied Chemistry at protein interfaces

    (1975)

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  • 3.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Inhalation of butanols: changes in the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system

    Authors: Aarstad, K; Zahlsen, K; Nilsen, OG
    (1985) Archives of Toxicology 8:418-421.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. After inhalation of different butanol isomers for 3 days (2000 ppm) and 5 days (500 ppm), liver and . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. After inhalation of different butanol isomers for 3 days (2000 ppm) and 5 days (500 ppm), liver and kidney parameters of the microsomal cytochrome P-450 enzyme system were increased. sec-Butanol caused the highest increase in cytochrome P-450 concentration with a 47% rise in the kidneys (500 ppm for 5 days) and 33% in the liver (2000 ppm for 3 days). A concomitant increase of the in vitro n-hexane metabolism in liver microsomes was observed with a 77% increased formation of the preneurotoxic metabolite 2-hexanol compared with control. iso-Butanol did not alter total cytochrome P-450 concentration but caused a significant 30% decrease in the formation of 2-hexanol. Inhalation of all butanols slightly decreased the enzyme levels in the lung. Changes in microsomal enzymes did not correlate with measured serum concentrations of the different butanols showing different inducing capacities among the butanol isomers themselves or the participation of metabolites in the inducing process. As a conclusion sec-butanol, probably through its metabolite methyl-ethyl-ketone, is the most potent inducer of microsomal cytochrome P-450 in liver and kidney while iso-butanol does not alter total cytochrome P-450.
    Tags: Considered Studies, Electronic Search, Other mechanistic studies , Sources of Health Effects Data, Supporting Studies
  • 4.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    The use of organic solvents in mutagenicity testing

    Authors: Abbondandolo, A; Bonatti, S; Corsi, C; Corti, G; Fiorio, R; Leporini, C; Mazzaccaro, A; Nieri, R; Barale, R; Loprieno, N
    (1980) DNA Repair 79:141-150.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. 13 organic substances (dimethylsulfoxide, methanol, ethanol, n-propyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, tert-butyl . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. 13 organic substances (dimethylsulfoxide, methanol, ethanol, n-propyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol, dl-sec-amyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, 1,4-diethylene dioxide, acetone, methyl acetate and formamide) were considered from the standpoint of their use as solvents for water-insoluble chemicals to be tested for mutagenicity. First, the effect of these solvents on cell survival was studied in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and in V79 Chinese hamster cells. 8 solvents showing relatively low toxicity on either cell system (dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol, ethylene glycol, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, 1,4-diethylene dioxide, acetone, methyl acetate and formamide) were tested for their effect on aminopyrine demethylase. 4 solvents (ethanol, 1,4-diethylene dioxide, methyl acetate and formamide) showed a more or less pronounced adverse effect on the microsomal enzymic activity. The remaining 4 and methanol (whose effect on aminopyrine demethylase was not testable) were assayed for mutagenicity in S. pombe. They all gave negative results both with and without the post-mitochondrial fraction from mouse liver.
    Tags: Considered Studies, Electronic Search, Genotoxicity studies, Supporting Studies
  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Solvation effects on self-association and segregation processes in tert-butanol-aprotic solvent binary mixtures

    Authors: Abdel Hamid, AR; Lefort, R; Lechaux, Y; Moréac, A; Ghoufi, A; Alba-Simionesco, C; Morineau, D
    (2013)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The present study reveals that the fully miscible binary mixtures consisting of tert-butanol with aprotic . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The present study reveals that the fully miscible binary mixtures consisting of tert-butanol with aprotic solvents form well-defined ordered supermolecular structures, which have been characterized on different length scales. Three different types of microstructures have been determined. They are separated by distinct crossovers that appear as a function of the dilution rate, going from "correlated clusters" to "diluted clusters" and "diluted monomer" microstructures. These observations have been made possible by the combination of Raman vibration spectroscopy, (1)H NMR, and neutron diffraction that probe, respectively, the cluster formation (self-association) and the intercluster correlations (cluster segregation). The solvation effects on both the cluster formation and the intercluster correlations have been assessed by tuning the alcohol-solvent interaction, i.e., changing the chemical nature of the diluting solvent from a purely inert alkane to a weakly interacting aromatic system.
    Tags: Considered Studies, Electronic Search, Excluded (not pertinent), Methodology/Solvent
  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Premalignant Variations in Extracellular Matrix Composition in Chemically Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats

    Author: Abdel-Hamid, NM
    (2009) Journal of Membrane Biology 230:155-162.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Chemical composition of extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a pivotal role in cellular and tissue development, . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Chemical composition of extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a pivotal role in cellular and tissue development, regeneration, and differentiation. It also plays a key role in pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study explored premalignant changes in the liver tissue content of collagen (as hydroxyproline, HP), total glycosaminoglycans (TGAGs), free glucosamine (FGA), total sialic acid (TSA), lysosomal membrane integrity variations (calculated as total and free cathepsin D activities), and liver histology. Serum alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) level was used as an early marker for HCC in two groups of Wistar rats. One group of rats served as control and was provided normal saline orally. The other group was provided trichloroacetic acid (TCA) as 0.5 g/kg/day for five consecutive days by oral gavage. Animals were killed before tumor development. The treatment revealed dysplastic changes in addition to microsteatosis (fatty changes). Both sinusoids and the portal vein among dysplastic cells were dilated and congested. These dysplastic foci are believed to be premalignant and may be precancerous lesions. The following things were observed: a highly significant increase in serum AFP (as a key marker for HCC), a significant decrease in HP and TSA, a significant increase in FGA, nonsignificant decrease in TGAGs, significant up-regulation of free cathepsin D, nonsignificant decrease in total cathepsin D activities, and destabilization of lysosomal membrane integrity. Down-regulation of HP, TSA, and TGAGs seems to be a prerequisite for cancer development. This might be stimulated by up-regulation of free cathepsin D activity. Perhaps tissue fibrosis is not a condition for developing HCC because collagen was significantly depressed. Up-regulated FGA could be assumed to be a defense mechanism against TCA-induced proteolysis of membrane proteins because it is frequently reported to be of value in cancer chemotherapy. Studied ECM perturbations can be assumed as preliminary changes during chemical hepatocarcinogenesis at the tissue level. Prospective studies on blood levels of cathepsins, TGAGs, and individual ECM variables such as TSA, FGA, and Hp in patients at risk for HCC, performed in parallel with assessments of AFP, may provide a cost-effective way to find new links between tissue changes and circulation that would permit early prediction of disease. It may also provide a way to monitor HCC and compensate for the missed peak AFP values.
    Tags: Considered Studies, Electronic Search, Excluded (not pertinent), Excluded (not pertinent), Other Chemical/Non-tert-butanol
  • 7.
    Journal Article
    Journal
    Article
    Effect of alcohol structure on the optimum condition for novozym 435-catalyzed synthesis of adipate esters

    Authors: Abdul Rahman, MB; Chaibakhsh, N; Basri, M
    (2011) 2011:162987.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B, Novozym 435, was used as the biocatalyst in the esterification . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B, Novozym 435, was used as the biocatalyst in the esterification of adipic acid with four different isomers of butanol (n-butanol, sec-butanol, iso-butanol, and tert-butanol). Optimum conditions for the synthesis of adipate esters were obtained using response surface methodology approach with a four-factor-five-level central composite design concerning important reaction parameters which include time, temperature, substrate molar ratio, and amount of enzyme. Reactions under optimized conditions has yielded a high percentage of esterification (>96%) for n-butanol, iso-butanol, and sec-butanol, indicating that extent of esterification is independent of the alcohol structure for primary and secondary alcohols at the optimum conditions. Minimum reaction time (135 min) for achieving maximum ester yield was obtained for iso-butanol. The required time for attaining maximum yield and also the initial rates in the synthesis of di-n-butyl and di-sec-butyl adipate were nearly the same. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B was also capable of esterifying tert-butanol with a maximum yield of 39.1%. The enzyme is highly efficient biocatalyst for the synthesis of adipate esters by offering a simple production process and a high esterification yield.
    Tags: Considered Studies, Electronic Search, Excluded (not pertinent), Other Chemical/Non-tert-butanol, Supporting Studies
  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Effects of prenatal exposure to methanol and T-butanol in Long Evans rats

    Authors: Abel, EL; Bilitzke, PJ
    (1992) American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 166:433. [Abstract]
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Pregnant rats consumed liquid diets containing methanol (1.6%, 0.9%, 0.6% v/v) or t-butanol (10.9%, . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Pregnant rats consumed liquid diets containing methanol (1.6%, 0.9%, 0.6% v/v) or t-butanol (10.9%, 1.3%, 0.65% v/v) beginning on gestation day B until parturition. Each group had its own pair-fed controls. After parturition mothers were put on lab chow ad lib. Methanol did not affect fecundity but reduced maternal weight gain, decreased litter sizes (from 12 to 5 pups per litter), increased perinatal mortality (from 4% to 25%) and postnatal mortality (from 0% for controls to 100% for offspring in the highest dose group), and decreased weights at weaning (or survivors in the other methanol groups. Since methanol treated animals did not differ from pair fed controls in weight gain, these effects could not be due to decreased maternal weight gain. T-butanol reduced maternal weight gain, litter sizes (from 11 to 3 pups per litter), birth weights, and weights at weaning and increased perinatal mortality (from 2% to 14%) and postnatal mortality (from 6% to 100%). These results indicate that prenatal exposure to methanol and t-butanol can result in very high postnatal mortality rates. These rates are much higher than we have previously seen in connection with prenatal alcohol exposure. Supported in part by grant P50 AA07606 from NIAAA.
    Tags: Abstract only/comment/society abstracts, Considered Studies, Electronic Search, Excluded (not pertinent)

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  • 9.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Separation of methyl parathion and fenitrothion metabolites by liquid chromatography

    Authors: Abe, T; Fujimoto, Y; Tatsuno, T; Fukami, J
    (1979)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. PESTAB. Methods of analysis of methyl parathion metabolites and fenitrothion by high pressure liquid . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. PESTAB. Methods of analysis of methyl parathion metabolites and fenitrothion by high pressure liquid chromatography are presented. Iso-propanol: methanol: water 5.10:0.75 was used as a solvent for separating desmethylfenitrothion, 4-nitocresol, and fenitrooxon. A mixture of p-nitrophenol, 4-nitrocresol, methyl paraoxon, fenitrooxon, methyl parathion and fenitrothion was separated using tert-butanol: methanol: water 30:65:5. Results were in the pmole range.
    Tags: Considered Studies, Electronic Search, Excluded (not pertinent), Methodology/Solvent

    Details
       
  • 10.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Lipase-catalysed production of biodiesel fuel from some Nigerian lauric oils

    Authors: Abigor, RD; Uadia, PO; Foglia, TA; Haas, MJ; Jones, KC; Okpefa, E; Obibuzor, JU; Bafor, ME
    (2000) Biochemical Society Transactions 28:979-981.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. #Fatty acids esters were produced from two Nigerian lauric oils, palm kernel oil and coconut oil, by . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. #Fatty acids esters were produced from two Nigerian lauric oils, palm kernel oil and coconut oil, by transesterification of the oils with different alcohols using PS30 lipase as a catalyst. In the conversion of palm kernel oil to alkyl esters (biodiesel), ethanol gave the highest conversion of 72%, t-butanol 62%, 1-butanol 42%, n-propanol 42% and iso-propanol 24%, while only 15% methyl ester was observed with methanol. With coconut oil, 1-butanol and iso-butanol achieved 40% conversion, 1-propanol 16% and ethanol 35%, while only traces of methyl esters were observed using methanol. Studies on some fuel properties of palm kernel oil and its biodiesel showed that palm kernel oil had a viscosity of 32.40 mm(2)/s, a cloud point of 28 degrees C and a pour point of 22 degrees C, while its biodiesel fuel had a viscosity of 9.33 mm(2)/s, a cloud point of 12 degrees C and a pour point of 8 degrees C. Coconut oil had a viscosity of 28.58 mm(2)/s, a cloud point of 27 degrees C and a pour point of 20 degrees C, while its biodiesel fuel had a viscosity of 7.34 mm(2)/s, a cloud point of 5 degrees C and a pour point of -8 degrees C. Some of the fuel properties compared favourably with international biodiesel specifications.
    Tags: Considered Studies, Electronic Search, Excluded (not pertinent), Methodology/Solvent
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