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Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)

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  • 1.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Analysis of brominated flame retardants in house dust

    Authors: Abb, M; Stahl, B; Lorenz, W
    (In Press) Chemosphere.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The main objective of this study was to create a robust analytical method to analyse the flame retardants . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The main objective of this study was to create a robust analytical method to analyse the flame retardants decabromodiphenylether (BDE-209), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) in house dust in order to estimate the degree of contamination of indoor environment. A liquid chromatography method equipped with a UV-detector and electro spray-tandem mass spectrometry was used to achieve this result. Applying an external calibration for BDE-209, an internal calibration for TBBPA, and a standard addition method for HBCD low limits of quantification were obtained. The analytical procedure was carried out under exclusion of UV-light as the target compounds potentially degrade when being exposed to UV-light. Empirical data were obtained in addition to the dust samples to estimate potential influences of apartment characteristics. A weak correlation between the number of electric devices and TBBPA was found.
    Tags: Database Searches, Exposure levels , Merged reference set, Pubmed, Secondary Literature and Sources of Contextual Information, WOS
  • 2.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Hexabromocyclododecanes in indoor dust from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    Authors: Abdallah, MAE; Harrad, S; Ibarra, C; Diamond, M; Melymuk, L; Robson, M; Covaci, A
    (2008) Environmental Science and Technology 42:459-464.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs) were measured in house dust from . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs) were measured in house dust from Birmingham, U.K. (n=31, median concentration=730 ng sigmaHBCDs g(-1)); Amarillo/Austin, TX (n=13, 390 ng g(-1)); and Toronto, Canada (n=8, 640 ng g(-1)). Concentrations in dust (n=6, 650 ng g(-1)) from U.K. offices were within the range for UK homes. Concentrations from each country were statistically indistinguishable. In one UK house dust sample, 110,000 ng g(-1) was recorded-the highest recorded in indoor dust to date. While upper bound average U.K. dietary exposures for adults and toddlers, respectively, are 413 and 240 ng sigmaHBCDs day(-1), U.K. adults and toddlers daily ingesting, respectively, 50 and 200 mg of dust contaminated at the 95th percentile concentration are exposed, respectively, to 1100 and 4400 ng sigmaHBCDs day(-1). Normalized to body weight, this high-end exposure scenario estimate for toddlers is within the range reported elsewhere for occupationally exposed adults. While in commercial formulations gamma-HBCD predominates (>80%), alpha-HBCD in dust constitutes 14-67% of sigmaHBCDs (average 32%). Hence the predominance of the alpha-diastereomer in humans may arise partly from dust ingestion, and not solely to in vivo metabolism (when alpha-HBCD is formed from bioisomerization of other diastereomers), or dietary exposure (where alpha-HBCD predominates in most foodstuffs).
    Tags: Database Searches, Exposure levels , Merged reference set, Pubmed, Secondary Literature and Sources of Contextual Information, WOS
  • 3.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Tetrabromobisphenol-A, hexabromocyclododecane and its degradation products in UK human milk: relationship to external exposure

    Authors: Abdallah, MA; Harrad, S
    (2011) Environment International 37:443-448.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and its degradation products were determined . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and its degradation products were determined in 34 human milk samples from Birmingham, UK. TBBP-A was detected in 36% of samples (average=0.06 ng g(-1) lw), with HBCDs detected in all samples (average ΣHBCDs=5.95 ng g(-1) lw). α-HBCD comprised 62-95% ΣHBCDs while β- and γ-HBCD constituted 2-18% and 3-33% respectively. Enantioselective enrichment of (-)-α-HBCD (average enantiomer fraction=0.29) was observed indicating potential enantioselectivity associated with HBCD absorption, metabolism and/or excretion. The degradation products pentabromocyclododecenes (average=0.04 ng g(-1) lw; n=9) and tetrabromocyclododecadienes (average=0.15 ng g(-1) lw; n=25) were detected for the first time in human tissues. Average exposures of a nursing infant to ΣHBCDs and TBBP-A (35 and 1 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) respectively) via breast milk exceeded upper-bound dietary intakes of both UK adults and toddlers. Using a simple pharmacokinetic model, intakes of UK adults via inhalation, diet and dust ingestion were converted to predicted body burdens. Predictions compared well with those observed for HBCDs but observed body burdens of TBBP-A exceeded predictions. This may indicate the human half-life of TBBP-A is greater than observed previously, that intakes may be underestimated, or that concentrations reported here reflect recent elevated episodic exposure.
    Tags: Database Searches, Merged reference set, Pubmed, Studies with Supporting Data, Toxicokinetics, WOS
  • 4.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Personal exposure to HBCDs and its degradation products via ingestion of indoor dust

    Authors: Abdallah, MA; Harrad, S
    (2009) Environment International 35:870-876.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Personal exposures via ingestion of indoor dust to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexabromocyclododecanes . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Personal exposures via ingestion of indoor dust to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and the degradation products (pentabromocyclododecenes (PBCDs) and tetrabromocyclododecadienes (TBCDs)) were estimated for 21 UK adults. Under an average dust ingestion scenario, personal exposures ranged from 4.5 to 1851 ng SigmaHBCDs day(-1); while the range under a high dust ingestion scenario was 11 to 4630 ng SigmaHBCDs day(-1). On average, personal exposure to SigmaHBCDs via dust ingestion in this study was 35% alpha-, 11% beta-, and 54% gamma-HBCD. However, while exposure to beta-HBCD (4-18% of SigmaHBCDs) was relatively consistent with the proportion of this diastereomer in the HBCD commercial formulation; exposures to alpha- and gamma-isomers (11-58% and 29-82% of SigmaHBCDs respectively) showed substantial variation from the commercial formulation pattern. Personal exposures to SigmaTBCDs (median=0.2 ng day(-1) under an average dust ingestion scenario) and SigmaPBCDs (1.4 ng day(-1)) were significantly lower (p<0.05) than for SigmaHBCDs (48 ng day(-1)). Despite this, the exposure of one participant to SigmaPBCDs exceeded the exposure to SigmaHBCDs received by 85% of the other participants. On average, house dust provided the major contribution to personal exposure via dust ingestion to all target compounds due to the large time fraction spent in houses. In contrast, although participants spent less time in cars than in offices, car dust makes a higher average contribution (17%) to SigmaHBCDs exposure than office dust (13%).
    Tags: Database Searches, Exposure levels , Merged reference set, Pubmed, Secondary Literature and Sources of Contextual Information, WOS
  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Hexabromocyclododecanes and tetrabromobisphenol-A in indoor air and dust in Birmingham, U.K: implications for human exposure

    Authors: Abdallah, MA; Harrad, S; Covaci, A
    (2008) Environmental Science and Technology 42:6855-6861.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Hexabromocyclododecanes (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-HBCDs) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) were determined . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Hexabromocyclododecanes (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-HBCDs) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) were determined in indoor air from homes (n=33; median concentrations sigma HBCDs = 180 pg m(-3); TBBP-A = 15 pg m(-3)), offices (n=25; 170; 11), public microenvironments (n=4; 900; 27) and outdoor air (n=5; 37; 1). HBCDs and TBBP-A were also determined in dust from homes (n=45; median concentrations sigma HBCDs = 1300 ng g(-1); TBBP-A = 62 ng g(-1)), offices (n=28; 760; 36), cars (n=20; 13,000; 2), and public microenvironments (n=4; 2700; 230). While sigma HBCDs in car dust significantly exceeded (p < 0.05) those in homes and offices, TBBP-A in car dust was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that in homes and offices. No significant differences were observed between sigma HBCDs and TBBP-A in air or dust from homes and offices. Compared to dietary and inhalation exposures, dust ingestion constitutes an important pathway of exposure to HBCDs and TBBP-A for the UK population. Specifically, using average dust ingestion rates and concentrations in dust, dust ingestion constitutes for adults 34% (TBBP-A) and 24% (HBCDs) of overall exposure, and for toddlers 90% (TBBP-A) and 63% (HBCDs). Inhalation appears a minor exposure pathway to both HBCDs and TBBP-A. On average, dust is 33% alpha-, 11% beta-, and 56% gamma-HBCD, while air is 22% alpha-, 11% beta-, and 65% gamma-HBCD.
    Tags: Database Searches, Exposure levels , Merged reference set, Pubmed, Secondary Literature and Sources of Contextual Information, WOS
  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Comparative evaluation of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry versus gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of hexabromocyclododecanes and their degradation products in indoor dust

    Authors: Abdallah, MA; Ibarra, C; Neels, H; Harrad, S; Covaci, A
    (2008)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Domestic and office dust samples (n=37) were analyzed for hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) using gas . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Domestic and office dust samples (n=37) were analyzed for hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) using gas chromatography-electron-capture negative ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI/MS) and liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS). To determine the best method to quantify HBCDs using GC-ECNI/MS, BDE 128 was used as internal standard (I.S.) in all samples, while 13C-labeled alpha-HBCD was used as I.S. in some samples. Total HBCD concentrations (sum of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-HBCD diastereomers) were calculated using response factors (RFs) for alpha- and gamma-HBCD as individual diastereomers and using an average RF for both diastereomers. Statistical comparison showed that concentrations obtained via GC-ECNI/MS were statistically indistinguishable (p>0.05) from those obtained using LC-ESI/MS/MS. The closest match between the two techniques was obtained using [13C]alpha-HBCD as I.S. and the average RF for alpha- and gamma-HBCDs. Excellent linear correlations (Pearson coefficient values r>0.9) were obtained between the GC-ECNI/MS and LC-ESI/MS/MS results, with slopes ranging from 0.76 to 1.36. Pentabromocyclododecenes (four isomers) and tetrabromocyclododecadienes (two isomers) were detected in the studied samples and were identified as degradation products of HBCDs after separation from the parent compound on the basis of both retention time and mass spectrum. This finding suggests that the elimination of HBr is the major degradation pathway for HBCDs in dust.
    Tags: Database Searches, Excluded/Not Pertinent, Measurement methods, Merged reference set, Pubmed
  • 7.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    In vitro assessment of the bioaccessibility of brominated flame retardants in indoor dust using a colon extended model of the human gastrointestinal tract

    Authors: Abdallah, MA; Tilston, E; Harrad, S; Collins, C
    (2012) Journal of Environmental Monitoring 14:3276-3283.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. An in vitro colon extended physiologically based extraction test (CEPBET) which incorporates human gastrointestinal . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. An in vitro colon extended physiologically based extraction test (CEPBET) which incorporates human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) parameters (including pH and chemistry, solid-to-fluid ratio, mixing and emptying rates) was applied for the first time to study the bioaccessibility of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) from the 3 main GIT compartments (stomach, small intestine and colon) following ingestion of indoor dust. Results revealed the bioaccessibility of γ-HBCD (72%) was less than that for α- and β-isomers (92% and 80% respectively) which may be attributed to the lower aqueous solubility of the γ-isomer (2 μg L⁻¹) compared to the α- and β-isomers (45 and 15 μg L⁻¹ respectively). No significant change in the enantiomeric fractions of HBCDs was observed in any of the studied samples. However, this does not completely exclude the possibility of in vivo enantioselective absorption of HBCDs, as the GIT cell lining and bacterial flora--which may act enantioselectively--are not included in the current CE-PBET model. While TBBP-A was almost completely (94%) bioaccessible, BDE-209 was the least (14%) bioaccessible of the studied BFRs. Bioaccessibility of tri-hepta BDEs ranged from 32-58%. No decrease in the bioaccessibility with increasing level of bromination was observed in the studied PBDEs.
    Tags: Database Searches, Merged reference set, Pubmed, Studies with Supporting Data, Toxicokinetics, WOS
  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Enantioselective biotransformation of hexabromocyclododecane by in vitro rat and trout hepatic sub-cellular fractions

    Authors: Abdallah, MA; Uchea, C; Chipman, JK; Harrad, S
    (2014)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. α-, β-, and γ-Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were subjected to in vitro biotransformation experiments . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. α-, β-, and γ-Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were subjected to in vitro biotransformation experiments with rat and trout liver S9 fractions for different incubation times (10, 30, and 60 min) at 2 concentration levels (1 and 10 μM). The metabolic degradation of target HBCDs followed first order kinetics. Whereas β-HBCD undergoes rapid biotransformation (t0.5 = 6.4 and 38.1 min in rat and trout, respectively), α-HBCD appears the most resistant to metabolic degradation (t0.5 = 17.1 and 134.9 min). The biotransformation rate in trout was slower than in rat. Investigation of HBCD degradation profiles revealed the presence of at least 3 pentabromocyclododecene (PBCD) and 2 tetrabromocyclododecadiene (TBCD) isomers indicating reductive debromination as a metabolic pathway for HBCDs. Both mono- and di- hydroxyl metabolites were identified for parent HBCDs, while only mono hydroxyl metabolites were detected for PBCDs and TBCDs. Interestingly, δ-HBCD was detected only in trout S9 fraction assays indicating metabolic interconversion of test HBCD diastereomers during biotransformation in trout. Finally, enantioselective analysis showed significant enrichment of the (-)-α-HBCD enantiomer (EF = 0.321 and 0.419 after 60 min incubation in rat and trout, respectively). The greater enrichment of (-)-α-HBCD in rat than in trout underlines the species-specific differences in HBCD metabolism and the need for caution when extending similar results from animal studies to humans.
    Tags: Database Searches, Merged reference set, Pubmed, Studies with Supporting Data, Toxicokinetics
  • 9.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in UK human milk: Implications for infant exposure and relationship to external exposure

    Authors: Abdallah, MAE; Harrad, S
    (2014)
    Tags: Database Searches, Exposure levels , Merged reference set, Secondary Literature and Sources of Contextual Information, WOS
  • 10.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Modification and Calibration of a Passive Air Sampler for Monitoring Vapor and Particulate Phase Brominated Flame Retardants in Indoor Air: Application to Car Interiors

    Authors: Abdallah, MAE; Harrad, S
    (2010)
    Tags: Database Searches, Excluded/Not Pertinent, Measurement methods, Merged reference set, WOS
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