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PM Provisional Assessment

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  • 1.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Fine aerosol and PAH carcinogenicity estimation in outdoor environment of Mumbai City, India

    Authors: Abba, EJ; Unnikrishnan, S; Kumar, R; Yeole, B; Chowdhury, Z
    (2012) International Journal of Environmental Health Research 22:134-149.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Exposure to fine particles has been shown to cause severe human health impacts. In the present study, . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Exposure to fine particles has been shown to cause severe human health impacts. In the present study, outdoor fine particles as well as elemental and organic carbon concentrations were measured in four locations within Mumbai city, India, during 2007-2008. The average outdoor PM(2.5) mass concentrations at control, kerb, residential and industrial sites were 69 ± 21, 84 ± 32, 89 ± 34, 95 ± 36 μg/m(3). In addition, fine particle PAHs were measured during the post monsoon season. The sum of PAHs in PM(2.5) at same above four sites were 35.27 ± 2.10, 42.96 ± 2.49, 175.76 ± 8.95 and 90.78 ± 4.74 ng/m(3), respectively. Estimating the carcinogenic potential of PAHs with equivalents of Benzo(a)pyrene (BaPE). The maximum value of BaPE (18.8) was reported in the residential site. A trend of lung cancer cases in Mumbai city is also presented. This was a preliminary study in understanding the health effects of PAHs in Mumbai city.
    Tags: Epidemiological Studies, Non-U.S.
  • 2.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Classification of air quality using fuzzy synthetic multiplication

    Authors: Abdullah, L; Khalid, ND
    (In Press) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Proper identification of environment's air quality based on limited observations is an essential task . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Proper identification of environment's air quality based on limited observations is an essential task to meet the goals of environmental management. Various classification methods have been used to estimate the change of air quality status and health. However, discrepancies frequently arise from the lack of clear distinction between each air quality, the uncertainty in the quality criteria employed and the vagueness or fuzziness embedded in the decision-making output values. Owing to inherent imprecision, difficulties always exist in some conventional methodologies when describing integrated air quality conditions with respect to various pollutants. Therefore, this paper presents two fuzzy multiplication synthetic techniques to establish classification of air quality. The fuzzy multiplication technique empowers the max-min operations in "or" and "and" in executing the fuzzy arithmetic operations. Based on a set of air pollutants data carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter (PM(10)) collected from a network of 51 stations in Klang Valley, East Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak were utilized in this evaluation. The two fuzzy multiplication techniques consistently classified Malaysia's air quality as "good." The findings indicated that the techniques may have successfully harmonized inherent discrepancies and interpret complex conditions. It was demonstrated that fuzzy synthetic multiplication techniques are quite appropriate techniques for air quality management.
    Tags: Experimental Studies, PM Components and Sources
  • 3.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Reviewed
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    Article
    The relationship of short-term air pollution and weather to ED visits for asthma in Japan

    Authors: Abe, T; Tokuda, Y; Ohde, S; Ishimatsu, S; Nakamura, T; Birrer, RB
    (2009) American Journal of Emergency Medicine 27:153-159.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. INTRODUCTION: The incidence of asthma exacerbation has been increasing in many countries. Environmental . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. INTRODUCTION: The incidence of asthma exacerbation has been increasing in many countries. Environmental factors may play an important role in this trend. We aimed to investigate the relationship of weather conditions and air pollution to significant exacerbation of asthma. METHODS: The daily number of emergency department (ED) visits by ambulance for asthma was collected through records of the Tokyo Fire Department from January 1 to December 31, 2005. We also collected daily air pollution levels and meteorological data for Tokyo during the same period. Meteorological data included minimum temperature, maximum barometric pressure, maximum relative humidity, and precipitation. Measured air pollutants included sulfur dioxide, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen oxides, suspended particulate matter, and carbon monoxide. We performed a time series analysis using multivariable-adjusted autoregressive integrated moving average model. The analysis was conducted separately among adults and among children (<15 years old). RESULTS: Of a total of 643,849 patients who were transported to the ED by ambulance, there were 6447 patients with exacerbation of asthma. Among adults, lower minimum temperature was significantly associated with increased transport. Among children, there were no significant associations between exacerbation of asthmas requiring emergency transport and air pollutants or meteorological factors. The highest number of transports was found on October 11, the day after the National Sports Day in Japan. CONCLUSIONS: Cold temperature is related to an increased risk of significant exacerbation of asthma in adults. Air pollution does not seem to play a major role in significant exacerbation of asthma requiring ambulance transports to ED.
    Tags: Epidemiological Studies, Non-U.S., Respiratory, Respiratory (hospital/emergency)
  • 4.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Identification of aerosol particle sources in semi-rural area of Kwabenya, near Accra, Ghana, by EDXRF techniques

    Authors: Aboh, IJK; Henriksson, D; Laursen, J; Lundin, M; Ofosu, FG; Pind, N; Lindgren, ES; Wahnstrom, T
    (2009) .
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The daily average of PM10 was very high, 179 mu g m(-3) and the BC contents were 4 mu g m(-3). The presence . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The daily average of PM10 was very high, 179 mu g m(-3) and the BC contents were 4 mu g m(-3). The presence of crustal elements was large in PM(2.5-10) as well as in PM2.5, and had a more than tenfold increase in PM(2.5-10) during the Harmattan period. Major characteristic elements for different sources were identified from correlation coefficients and regression analysis of the data. Sahara sand aerosol was the major source in both study periods, but influence from biomass burning, sea-spray and metal industries was also observed. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Tags: Experimental Studies, PM Components and Sources

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  • 5.
    Journal Article
    Journal
    Article
    Lichen acids as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation of mouse-liver mitochondria

    Authors: Abo-Khatwa, AN; Al-Robai, AA; Al-Jawhari, DA
    (1996) Natural Toxins 4:96-102.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Three lichen acids-namely, (+)usnic acid, vulpinic acid, and atranorin- were isolated from three lichen . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Three lichen acids-namely, (+)usnic acid, vulpinic acid, and atranorin- were isolated from three lichen species (Usnea articulata, Letharia vulpina, and Parmelia tinctorum, respectively). The effects of these lichen products on mice-liver mitochondrial oxidative functions in various respiratory states and on oxidative phosphorylation were studied polarographically in vitro. The lichen acids exhibited characteristics of the 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a classical uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, they released respiratory control and oligomycin inhibited respiration, hindered ATP synthesis, and enhanced Mg(+2)-ATPase activity. (+)Usnic acid at a concentration of 0.75 microM inhibited ADP/O ratio by 50%, caused maximal stimulation of both state-4 respiration (100%) and ATPase activity (300%). Atranorin was the only lichen acid with no significant effect on ATPase. The uncoupling effect was dose-dependent in all cases. The minimal concentrations required to cause complete uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation were as follows: (+)usnic acid (1 microM), vulpinic acid, atranorin (5 microM) and DNP (50 microM). It was postulated that the three lichen acids induce uncoupling by acting on the inner mitochondrial membrane through their lipophilic properties and protonophoric activities.
    Tags: Cardio (hospital/emergency), Cardiovascular, Epidemiological Studies, Non-U.S., Respiratory (hospital/emergency)
  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    A Case-Crossover Study of Ambient Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular and Respiratory Medical Encounters Among US Military Personnel Deployed to Southwest Asia

    Authors: Abraham, JH; Baird, CP
    (2012) Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 54:733-739.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. OBJECTIVE: : To evaluate the impact of ambient particulate matter (PM) on acute cardiorespiratory . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. OBJECTIVE: : To evaluate the impact of ambient particulate matter (PM) on acute cardiorespiratory morbidity among US military personnel in southwest Asia.

    METHODS: : We linked ambient PM data collected between December 2005 and June 2007 with personnel, medical, and meteorological data. We implemented a case-crossover analysis to estimate base-specific associations and pooled those estimates using meta-analytic methods.

    RESULTS: : The adjusted odds ratios for a 10-μg/m increase in ambient PM2.5 and a qualifying medical encounter were 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77 to 1.11) and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.95 to 1.07) for the current (lag_0) and previous (lag_1) days. The estimates for a 10-μg/m increase in PM10 were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97 to 1.03) at lag_0, and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.97 to 1.02) at lag_1.

    CONCLUSIONS: : No statistically significant associations between PM and cardiorespiratory outcomes were observed in this young, relatively healthy, deployed military population.
    Tags: Cardio (other), Epidemiological Studies, Experimental Studies, Non-U.S.
  • 7.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Environmental determinants of blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and central hemodynamics

    Authors: Adamopoulos, D; Vyssoulis, G; Karpanou, E; Kyvelou, SM; Argacha, JF; Cokkinos, D; Stefanadis, C; van de Borne, P
    (2010) Journal of Hypertension 28:903-909.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness and wave reflection alterations may be implicated in . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness and wave reflection alterations may be implicated in the association between cardiovascular mortality, meteorological variables and ambient particulate matter air pollution. The present study explored the cross-sectional relations between ambient environmental parameters, arterial stiffness, peripheral and central hemodynamics in a large-scale cohort of hypertensive patients and normotensive controls.

    METHODS: The study comprised 1222 consecutive individuals who sought medical consultation in the hypertension outpatient clinics of the Hippokration' and 'Onassis' Hospitals (Athens, Greece) during a 3-year period (2004-2006). All individuals underwent a complete clinical and lipid-profile assessment at drug-free baseline. Carotid radial, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements and aortic pressure waveform analysis were performed noninvasively to all participants. Data from the National Technical University of Athens and the air quality department of the Hellenic Ministry for the Environment were used to estimate daily meteorological conditions and PM10 exposure.

    RESULTS: In the total population, multiple-linear regression analysis revealed no significant associations between environmental variables and arterial stiffness. However, in men, the mean 5 day PM10 air concentration was independently associated with the augmentation pressure [2.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-3.39) per 43.4 microg/m3] and the aortic-pulse pressure [2.78 mmHg (95% CI 3.91-5.12)] denoting a significant effect of particulate matter on the aortic-wave reflection magnitude and central hemodynamics. In addition, globally, the mean-daily temperature was related to the aortic-pulse pressure [-2.38 mmHg (95% CI -4.51 to -0.26) per 23.6 degrees C change] and the subendocardial viability ratio [5.85% (95% CI 1.1-10.6 per 23.6 degrees C)].

    CONCLUSION: The exposure to lower environmental temperatures is related to impaired hemodynamics not only to the periphery but also to the aorta. In men, PM10 air-pollution levels are associated with heightened amplitude of the reflection wave leading to significant alterations in central-pulse pressure.
    Tags: Cardio (other), Epidemiological Studies, Experimental Studies, Mortality, Non-U.S.
  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
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    Article
    Chemical characterization of emissions from modern two-stroke mopeds complying with legislative regulation in Europe (EURO-2)

    Authors: Adam, T; Farfaletti, A; Montero, L; Martini, G; Manfredi, U; Larsen, B; Santi, GD; Krasenbrink, A; Astorga, C
    (2010) Environmental Science and Technology 44:505-512.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. In view of a new amendment to the European legislative regulation on emissions from two-stroke mopeds . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. In view of a new amendment to the European legislative regulation on emissions from two-stroke mopeds a study was carried out to comprehensively characterize exhaust gases of mopeds complying current EURO-2 emission standards. Three mopeds with different engine types (carburetor, direct injection, and electronic carburetion system ECS) where investigated by applying two different driving cycles, the legislative cycle ECE47 and the worldwide motorcycle test cycle WMTC. Thereby, particulate matter (PM), regulated compounds, carbonyls, volatile hydrocarbons (VOC), and particle-associated polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were analyzed and ozone formation potentials (OFP) as well as toxicity equivalents (TEQ) determined. The ECE47 emission factors for almost all species and moped types were much higher in the nonregulated, prior cold phase than in the hot phase, which is considered for legislation. Great differences for the mopeds could be observed for NO(x), VOC, and PM, whereas discrepancies between the driving cycles ECE47 and WMTC were smaller. In addition, a positive influence on exhaust composition caused by technical modifications of the ECS engine was determined. Results indicate that regulation of total hydrocarbons (THC) alone might not be sufficient to regulate PM, especially for direct injection engines. Moreover, recommendations for a revised future test protocol are demonstrated and discussed, whereby the cold phase and the hot phase are taken into account.
    Tags: Experimental Studies, PM Components and Sources
  • 9.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
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    Article
    Air Pollution and the Microvasculature: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of In Vivo Retinal Images in the Population-Based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Authors: Adar, SD; Klein, R; Klein, BEK; Szpiro, AA; Cotch, MF; Wong, TY; O'Neill, MS; Shrager, S; Barr, RG; Siscovick, DS; Daviglus, ML; Sampson, PD; Kaufman, JD
    (2010)
    Tags: Cardio (other), Cited, Epidemiological Studies, U.S.-Canada

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  • 10.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Assessment of health impacts of vehicular pollution on occupationally exposed people in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria

    Authors: Adeleke, MA; Bamgbose, JT; Oguntoke, O; Itua, EO; Bamgbose, O
    (2011) Trace Elements and Electrolytes 28:128-133.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. This study assessed the concentration of Nitrogen Oxide (NO(x)), Sulphur Oxide (SO(x)), Carbonmonoxide . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. This study assessed the concentration of Nitrogen Oxide (NO(x)), Sulphur Oxide (SO(x)), Carbonmonoxide (CO), Benzene, Toluene, MP-Xylene and O-xylene (BTEX,) Total Suspended Particulate, (TSP) and Particulate Matter (PM; PM(10) and PM(2.5)) in the ambient air at selected locations in Lagos, Nigeria. The health impact of these pollutants was investigated among exposed group of people (especially CarbonmonoxyHemoglobin (COHb), and pulmonary function). The health profile of the general populace was also examined for cases of ailments related to air pollution. The mean level of TSP was lowest at Unilag (130.6 +/- 44.5 ug/m(3)) the control, while the highest concentration was measured at Mazamaza (1171.7 +/- 355.1 ug/m(3)) throughout the study period. The CO level measured was in the order of Ikotun (3.40 +/- 1.3 ppm) > Ikeja (1.70 +/- 0.4 ppm) > Unilag (0.10 +/- 0.0 ppm). Mean SO(2) concentration ranged with a highest value at Oshodi (116.3 +/- 27.3 ppb) to a lowest level at Unilag (9.40 +/- 0.9 ppb) while the NO(2) concentration ranged from a highest value of (138.6 +/- 78.4 ppb) for Oshodi to a lowest value of (8.76 +/- 3.0 ppb) for Unilag. The concentration of gaseous pollutants that are linked with cancers; benzene, Toluene, MP-Xylene and O-xylene showed the highest level at Mazamaza. At this location, the concentrations of the pollutants were in the order of 17.58 +/- 8.8, 36.92 +/- 19.6, 21.57 +/- 10.5 and 8.03 +/- 3.9 (ppb), respectively. On the other hand, Unilag had the lowest level of each of these pollutants (3.47 +/- 3.84, 5.3 +/- 6.0; 3.37 +/- 3.4 and 1.27 +/- 1.5 ppb). ANOVA result showed that each pollutant varied significantly among the selected locations (p < 0.05). The broad-profile of diagnosed health problems among residents that visited public hospitals showed high prevalence of upper respiratory tract infection (45.3%) followed by asthma (18.9%), broncho-pneumonia (14.8%) and pneumonia (5.6%). For more than 30% of the occupationally exposed, exposure had lasted 6 - 10 y, accounting for the higher concentration of CO (1.18 +/- 0.43 ppm) in their breath compared to the control (0.63 +/- 0.59 ppm).
    Tags: Epidemiological Studies
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