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RDX (121-82-4)

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  • 1.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Milan Army Ammunition Plant, TN. (First Remedial Action), September 1992

    (1992)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Interim rept. ,436-acre Milan Army Ammunition Plant (MAAP) is located in western Tennessee, 5 miles . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Interim rept. ,436-acre Milan Army Ammunition Plant (MAAP) is located in western Tennessee, 5 miles east of Milan, Tennessee. The facility was constructed in 1941 to produce and store fuses, boosters, and small- and large-caliber ammunition. The ROD addresses an interim remedy for the contaminated ground water beneath and immediately downgradient from the former ponds as OU1. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are VOCs, including carbon disulfide; other organics, including HMX, RDX, 2,4,6-TNT, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, 1,3-DNB, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, and nitrobenzene; and inorganics, including nitrate.
    Tags: Database searches, Exposure levels, Secondary Sources of Health Effects Information, Toxline, Toxline

    Details
       
  • 2.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Solution structure of selenoprotein W and NMR analysis of its interaction with 14-3-3 proteins

    Authors: Aachmann, FL; Fomenko, DE; Soragni, A; Gladyshev, VN; Dikiy, A
    (2007) Journal of Biological Chemistry 282:37036-37044.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Selenium is a trace element with significant biomedical potential. It is essential in mammals due to . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Selenium is a trace element with significant biomedical potential. It is essential in mammals due to its occurrence in several proteins in the form of selenocysteine (Sec). One of the most abundant mammalian Sec-containing proteins is selenoprotein W (SelW). This protein of unknown function has a broad expression pattern and contains a candidate CXXU (where U represents Sec) redox motif. Here, we report the solution structure of the Sec13-->Cys variant of mouse SelW determined through high resolution NMR spectroscopy. The protein has a thioredoxin-like fold with the CXXU motif located in an exposed loop similarly to the redox-active site in thioredoxin. Protein dynamics studies revealed the rigidity of the protein backbone and mobility of two external loops and suggested a role of these loops in interaction with SelW partners. Molecular modeling of structures of other members of the Rdx family based on the SelW structure identified new conserved features in these proteins, including an aromatic cluster and interacting loops. Our previous study suggested an interaction between SelW and 14-3-3 proteins. In the present work, with the aid of NMR spectroscopy, we demonstrated specificity of this interaction and identified mobile loops in SelW as interacting surfaces. This finding suggests that 14-3-3 are redox-regulated proteins.
    Tags: Database searches, Excluded/Not Pertinent, Not chemical specific, Not relevant, Pubmed
  • 3.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Toxicological profile for RDX

    Authors: Abadin, H; Smith, C; Ingerman, L; Llados, FT; Barber, LE; Plewak, D; Diamond, GL
    (2012) Atlanta (GA): Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (US).
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. This public health statement tells you about hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and the effects . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. This public health statement tells you about hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and the effects of exposure to it. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identifies the most serious hazardous waste sites in the nation. These sites are then placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) and are targeted for long-term federal clean-up activities. RDX has been found in at least 31 of the 1,699 current or former NPL sites. Although the total number of NPL sites evaluated for this substance is not known, the possibility exists that the number of sites at which RDX is found may increase in the future as more sites are evaluated. This information is important because these sites may be sources of exposure and exposure to this substance may be harmful. When a substance is released either from a large area, such as an industrial plant, or from a container, such as a drum or bottle, it enters the environment. Such a release does not always lead to exposure. You can be exposed to a substance only when you come in contact with it. You may be exposed by breathing, eating, or drinking the substance, or by skin contact. If you are exposed to RDX, many factors will determine whether you will be harmed. These factors include the dose (how much), the duration (how long), and how you come in contact with it. You must also consider any other chemicals you are exposed to and your age, sex, diet, family traits, lifestyle, and state of health.
    Tags: Database searches, Pubmed, Regulatory documents, Secondary Sources of Health Effects Information
  • 4.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    The Spatial Distribution of Postblast RDX Residue: Forensic Implications

    Authors: Abdul-Karim, N; Morgan, R; Binions, R; Temple, T; Harrison, K
    (2012) Journal of Forensic Sciences.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Locating exactly where trace explosive residue samples should be sought during sample collection at . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Locating exactly where trace explosive residue samples should be sought during sample collection at bomb scenes is not specified in the published literature or guidelines; in this area, it is generally acknowledged that forensic practices are based on tradition rather than evidence. This study investigated patterns in the spatial distribution of postblast 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazocyclohexane residue from a series of unconfined detonations, over a range of sampling sites, and at two different detonation heights. The amount of residue recovered from the sites decreased as a function of distance from the center of the explosion. [Correction added after online publication 27 December 2012: In the preceding sentence, "increased" was corrected to "decreased" to agree with the conclusion of the article.] As the height of the detonations increased, more residues were found from all sampling sites. The findings of this empirical study have a number of important practical implications including determining where residue samples are best sought at crime scenes.
    Tags: Database searches, Exposure levels, Pubmed, Secondary Sources of Health Effects Information
  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Wavefront Velocity Oscillations of Carbon-Nanotube-Guided Thermopower Waves: Nanoscale Alternating Current Sources

    Authors: Abrahamson, JT; Choi, W; Schonenbach, NS; Park, J; Han, JH; Walsh, MP; Kalantar-zadeh, K; Strano, MS
    (2011) ACS Nano 5:367-375.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The nonlinear coupling between exothermic chemical reactions and a nanowire or nanotube with large axial . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The nonlinear coupling between exothermic chemical reactions and a nanowire or nanotube with large axial heat conduction results in a self-propagating thermal wave guided along the nanoconduit. The resulting reaction wave induces a concomitant thermopower wave of high power density (>7 kW/kg), resulting in an electrical current along the same direction. We develop the theory of such waves and analyze them experimentally, showing that for certain values of the chemical reaction kinetics and thermal parameters, oscillating wavefront velocities are possible. We demonstrate such oscillations experimentally using a cyclotrimethylene-trinitramine/multiwalled carbon nanotube system, which produces frequencies in the range of 400 to 5000 Hz. The propagation velocity oscillations and the frequency dispersion are well-described by Fourier's law with an Arrhenius source term accounting for reaction and a linear heat exchange with the nanotube scaffold. The frequencies are in agreement with oscillations in the voltage generated by the reaction. These thermopower oscillations may enable new types of nanoscale power and signal processing sources.
    Tags: Database searches, Excluded/Not Pertinent, Not chemical specific, Not relevant, Pubmed
  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Remediating RDX-contaminated ground water with permanganate: laboratory investigations for the Pantex perched aquifer

    Authors: Adam, ML; Comfort, SD; Morley, MC; Snow, DD
    (2004) Journal of Environmental Quality 33:2165-2173.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Ground water beneath the U.S. Department of Energy Pantex Plant is contaminated with the high explosive . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Ground water beneath the U.S. Department of Energy Pantex Plant is contaminated with the high explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine). The USDOE Innovative Treatment and Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) program identified in situ oxidation by permanganate as a technology fit for further investigation. We evaluated the efficacy of KMnO(4) to transform and mineralize RDX by determining degradation kinetics and carbon mass balances using (14)C-RDX. Aqueous RDX solutions (2-5 mg L(-1)) and RDX-contaminated slurries (50% solids, w/v) were treated with KMnO(4) at 1000, 2000, 4000, and 20000 mg L(-1). Treating an aqueous RDX solution of 2.8 mg L(-1) with 20000 mg KMnO(4) L(-1) decreased RDX to 0.1 mg L(-1) within 11 d while cumulative mineralization proceeded for 14 d until 87% of the labeled carbon was trapped as (14)CO(2). Similar cumulative mineralization was obtained when Pantex aquifer material was included in the solution matrix. Other experiments using 4000 mg KMnO(4) L(-1) showed that initial RDX concentrations (1.3-10.4 mg L(-1)) or initial pH (4-11) had little effect on reaction rates. Attempts to identify RDX degradates and reaction products showed that N(2)O was a product of permanganate oxidation and constituted 20 to 30% of the N balance. Time-course measurements of a (14)C-RDX solution treated with KMnO(4) revealed few (14)C-labeled degradates but through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, we present evidence that 4-nitro-2,4-diaza-butanol is formed. Aquifer microcosm studies confirmed that the transformation products not mineralized by KMnO(4) were much more biodegradable than parent RDX. These results indicate permanganate can effectively transform and mineralize RDX in the presence of aquifer material and support its use as an in situ chemical oxidation treatment for the Pantex perched aquifer.
    Tags: Chemical or physical treatment, Database searches, Excluded/Not Pertinent, Not relevant, Pubmed
  • 7.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Adsorption and Transformation of Explosives in Low-Carbon Aquifer Soils

    (2000)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Disposal operations from the manufacturing processes of the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Disposal operations from the manufacturing processes of the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro- 1,3,5-hexahydrotriazine (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranito- 1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) have resulted in the contamination of soil and groundwater at many active and inactive munitions sites. One option to be investigated for site cleanup is natural attenuation of these contaminants. The potential success of this option depends upon the ability of low-carbon aquifer materials to adsorb and transform explosive contaminants. Therefore, an understanding of the processes that control the mobility and transformation of explosives in low-carbon aquifer soils is needed to improve evaluation of natural attenuation in aquifers. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of environmental conditions such as redox potential, pH, and groundwater quality on sorption and transformation of explosives in low-carbon aquifer soils.
    Tags: Database searches, Exposure levels, Secondary Sources of Health Effects Information, Toxline, Toxline

    Details
       
  • 8.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Adsorption and Transformation of RDX in Low-Carbon Aquifer Soils

    (2001)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Disposal operations from the manufacturing process of the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro- . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Disposal operations from the manufacturing process of the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro- 1,3,5-hexahydrotriazine (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro- 1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) have resulted in the contamination of soil and groundwater at many active and inactive munitions sites. Natural attenuation of these compounds is one option for addressing site cleanup. The potential for this option to be successful in low-carbon aquifer soils is dependant upon the ability of these soils to adsorb and transform explosives. Therefore, an understanding of the processes that control the mobility and transformation of explosives in these types of soils is needed to evaluate the processes of natural attenuation in aquifers. The objective of these studies was to investigate environmental conditions such as redox potential, pH, and groundwater quality on sorption and transformation of explosives in low-carbon aquifer soils. Laboratory investigations addressing the effects of redox potential and pH on RDX transformation in an aquifer soil were conducted by testing at two different redox potentials and three pH levels. An 18:1 (water:soil) suspension spiked with 15 mg RDX was used. Results indicate that RDX added to a low-carbon soil was relatively stable under aerobic conditions. Highly reducing conditions promoted removal of RDX from solution, and increased transformation was seen. Studies addressing various degrees of cation substitution on adsorption of TNT in an aquifer soil and two clay minerals were conducted. Results of batch shake tests showed that groundwater cation composition strongly affected TNT sorption by aquifer soils. TNT sorption was most pronounced at 100-percent saturation with K(+), but results showed that increases in sorption could be attained at saturation levels below 40 percent.
    Tags: Database searches, Exposure levels, Secondary Sources of Health Effects Information, Toxline, Toxline

    Details
       
  • 9.
    Journal Article
    Journal
    Article
    Environmental immunoassays: Practical applications and recent developments

    Author: Aga, DS
    (1997) Analusis 25.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. The applications of immunoassays (IA) in environmental analysis have increased . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. The applications of immunoassays (IA) in environmental analysis have increased significantly in the past ten years. The IA technology, which is based on the high degree of specificity characteristic of antibody-antigen interactions, offers unique advantages over conventional analytical techniques.
    Tags: Database searches, Excluded/Not Pertinent, Not chemical specific, Not relevant, Toxline, Toxline

    Details
       
  • 10.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Toxicological Profile for RDX (Update)

    Author: ATSDR
    (2012) (NTIS/10590213). Research Triangle Park, NC.; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA.
    : U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. [ATSDR Tox Profile]
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Health profile. Supersedes PB95-264255, report for June 1995. Sponsored by Agency for Toxic Substances . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Health profile. Supersedes PB95-264255, report for June 1995. Sponsored by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA. ublic health statement tells you about hexahydro-1,3,5- trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and the effects of exposure to it. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identifies themost serious hazardous waste sites in the nation. These sites are then placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) and are targeted for long-term federal clean-up activities. RDX has been found in at least 31of the 1,699 current or former NPL sites. Although the total number of NPL sites evaluated for this substance is not known, the possibility exists that the number of sites at which RDX is found may increase in the future as more sites are evaluated. This information is important because these sites may be sources of exposure and exposure to this substance may be harmful. When a substance is released either from a large area, such as an industrial plant, or from a container, such as a drum or bottle, it enters the environment. Such a release does not always lead to exposure. You can be exposed to a substance only when youcome in contact with it. You may be exposed by breathing, eating, or drinking the substance, or by skin contact.
    Tags: Database searches, Regulatory documents, Reviews, Secondary Sources of Health Effects Information, Toxline, Toxline

    Details
       
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