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Chromium VI




  • 1.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Uptake of 51Cr-chromate by human erythrocytes - a role of glutathione

    Authors: Aaseth, J; Alexander, J; Norseth, T
    (1982) Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 50:310-315.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI), as Na2CrO4 in an aqueous solution, was reduced rapidly ot the trivalent . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI), as Na2CrO4 in an aqueous solution, was reduced rapidly ot the trivalent form (Cr-III) in the presence of glutathione, GSH (0.3-3.0 mM). Such GSH-dependent reduction Cr-VI can take place in the cytosolic space of Cr-VI-exposed cells, since GSH is found in reactive concentrations in this compartment. The reduction makes chromium essentially impermeable through the cell membrane, explaining the observation that Cr-VI, when added to red cell suspensions, is bound quantitatively intracellularly after a few hours. Diethylmaleate conjugation of the SH-group of the intracellular GSH preventing the oxidation to GSSG, lowered the chromium-uptake significantly, showing that reduced GSH plays a role for the chromium binding. In healthy red cells chromium is partially bound to haemoglobin and partially to small molecular weight substances, probably in the trivalent form. This intracellular chromium cannot be removed to the extracellular space by addition of chelating agents as long as the cell membrane is intact.
    Tags: Considered Studies, Electronic Search, PBPK/ADME, Supporting Studies, Supporting Studies
  • 2.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Study the effect of hexavalent chromium on some biochemical, citotoxicological and histopathological aspects of the Orechromis spp. fish

    Authors: Abbas, HH; Ali, FK
    (2007) Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 10:3973-3982.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. In nature chromium occurs in divalent, trivalent and hexavalent forms. Hexavalent chromium predominates . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. In nature chromium occurs in divalent, trivalent and hexavalent forms. Hexavalent chromium predominates over the trivalent form in natural waters. Knowledge of acute toxicity of a xenobiotic often can be very helpful in predicting and preventing acute damage to aquatic life in receiving waters as well as in regulating toxic waste discharges. The 96 h LC50 tests can be used to obtain toxicity data as rapidly and inexpensively as possible. In the present study, results showed a significant decrease in total glycogen, total lipids and total protein of liver, muscles and gills after 24 and 96 h of exposure to 96 h LC50 of hexavalent chromium (43.7 mg L(-1)). Cytotoxicity of metals is important because some metals are potential mutagens able to induce tumors in humans and experimental animals, the treatment of(Cr VI) at 43.7 mg L(-1) was for 24 and 96 h, respectively. DNA was extracted after treatment from brain and liver of the tested fish. Our results showed appearance of polymorphic bands at the long treatment interval (96 h) ofhexavalent chromium. However, these bands were not appeared when the fish were exposed to the (Cr VI) for the short treatment interval (24 h). Histopathological changes were seen in liver, muscle and gills sections of chromium-exposed fishes. The obtained results were discussed in the study research.
    Tags: Considered Studies, Ecology, Electronic Search, Excluded (not pertinent)
  • 3.
    Journal Article
    Journal
    Article
    Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup. (Quarterly) technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    Authors: Abbasian, J; Hill, AH; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M; Ili, M
    (1994)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Progress rept. red by Department of Energy, Washington, DC. jective of this investigation is to evaluate . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Progress rept. red by Department of Energy, Washington, DC. jective of this investigation is to evaluate two novel copper-based sorbents, namely copper-chromium and copper-cerium, for their effectiveness in removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas in the temperature range of 650(degree) to 850(degree)C. Such high temperatures will be required for the new generation of gas turbines (inlet >750(degree)C) in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The effect of pre-reduction on the performance of the sorbents as well as the rate of different reactions occurring in cyclic sulfidation/regeneration, were studied in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Sulfidation was conducted with and without H(sub 2) and H(sub 2)O, and with and without pre-reduction in H(sub 2) or H(sub 2)/H(sub 2)O. The results of these tests indicate that reduction and regeneration of both sorbents occurs rapidly. Sulfidation of CuCr(sub 2)O(sub 4), in H(sub 2)O-free and H(sub 2)-/H(sub 2)O-free gas indicates the possible sulfidation of both copper and chromium. Small quantities of SO(sub 2), were released during sulfidation suggesting the possible oxidation of H(sub 2)S by the sorbent. Regeneration of the CuCr(sub 2)O(sub 4) was complete while regeneration of the CuO-CeO(sub 2) indicated possible limited sulfate formation.
    Tags: Considered Studies, Electronic Search, Excluded (not pertinent), Other Not Pertinent

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  • 4.
    Journal Article
    Journal
    Article
    Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup. (Quarterly) technical report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    Authors: Abbasian, J; Hill, AH; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M; Li, Z
    (1994)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Progress rept. red by Department of Energy, Washington, DC. jective of this investigation is to evaluate . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Progress rept. red by Department of Energy, Washington, DC. jective of this investigation is to evaluate two novel copper-based sorbents, namely copper-chromium and copper-cerium, for their effectiveness in removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas in the temperature range of 650(degree) to 850(degree). Such high temperatures will be required for the new generation of gas turbines (inlet >750(degree)C) in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The effect of pre-reduction with H(sub 2), in the presence of H(sub 2)O on the performance of the sorbents in cyclic sulfidation/regeneration, was studied in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and in a fixed-bed reactor at 750(degree)C. The results of the TGA tests indicate that pre-reduction of the sorbents is very fast in either 10% or 30% H(sub 2). Without sorbent pre-reduction, sulfidation consists of two-stages, a reduction-dominating and a sulfidation-dominating stage. Sulfidation apparently takes place before reduction is complete. During regeneration some copper/cerium sulfates may have formed and Cu(sub 2)O may have formed in addition to CuO. The fixed-bed reactor tests show that at 750(degree)C: (1) prereducing the CuO-Cr(sub 2)O(sub 3) with H(sub 2) does not effect the reactivity of the sorbent towards H(sub 2)S at either the high or low H(sub 2) feed gas concentrations and (2) when 30% H(sub 2) was used during sulfidation of either sorbent, the first H(sub 2)S breakthrough occurs earlier than when 10% H(sub 2) was used.
    Tags: Considered Studies, Electronic Search, Excluded (not pertinent), Other Not Pertinent

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  • 5.
    Journal Article
    Journal
    Article
    Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    Authors: Abbasian, J; Hill, AH; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M; Li, Z
    (1994)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Progress rept. red by Department of Energy, Washington, DC. jective of this investigation is to evaluate . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Progress rept. red by Department of Energy, Washington, DC. jective of this investigation is to evaluate two novel copper-based sorbents, namely copper-chromium and copper-cerium, for their effectiveness in removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas in the temperature range of 650 to 850 C. Such high temperatures will be required for the new generation of gas turbines (inlet > 750 C) in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Results of fixed-bed reactor tests conducted in this quarter, indicate that, at 750 C, pre-reduction with H(sub 2) in the presence of H(sub 2)O does not effect the performance of either sorbent for H(sub 2)S removal. For the pre-reduced CuCr(sub 2)O(sub 4) sorbent, copper utilization before the first H(sub 2)S breakthrough is substantially higher in synthesis feed gas mixture than in feed gas containing 30 Vol% H(sub 2), and slightly lower than in 10 vol% H(sub 2). In sulfidation-regeneration testing of copper- and additive-rich sorbents, chromium-rich CuO-3Cr(sub 2)O(sub 4) sorbent demonstrated very high H(sub 2)S removal efficiency and high copper conversion levels (comparable to that of the 1:1 molar composition sorbent). Similar results were obtained with the cerium-rich CuO-3CeO(sub 2) sorbent, but only for the first cycle. The H(sub 2)S removal performance of both copper-rich sorbents was inferior to that of the respective 1:1 molar compositions. CuO-CeO(sub 2) sorbent testing in a TGA indicates no appreciable decrease in the sulfidation rate over 5 1/2 cycles. However, weight changes during regeneration of the CuO-CeO(sub 2) suggest that some copper or cerium sulfates formed.
    Tags: Considered Studies, Electronic Search, Excluded (not pertinent), Other Not Pertinent

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  • 6.
    Journal Article
    Journal
    Article
    Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    Authors: Abbasian, J; Hill, AH; Wangerow, JR; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M; Bo, L
    (1992) 34.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Progress rept. red by Department of Energy, Washington, DC. jective of this investigation was to evaluate . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Progress rept. red by Department of Energy, Washington, DC. jective of this investigation was to evaluate several novel copper-based binary oxides for their suitability as regenerable sorbents for hot gas cleanup application in the temperature range of 650(degree) to 850(degree)C. To achieve this objective, several novel binary oxides of copper were systematically evaluated and ranked in terms of their high-temperature stability against reduction to metal, sulfidation reactivity, and regenerability. The sorbents studied included oxides of chromium, cerium, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, titanium, iron, and silicon. The results of initial testing indicated that mixed binary oxides of copper with chromium (CuCr(sub 2)O(sub 4)) and cerium (CuO(circle dot)CeO(sub 2)) were the most promising sorbents for such high temperature gas cleanup applications. These two sorbents were further evaluated in cyclic sulfidation/regeneration tests in 10--15 cycles to determine the effect of operating conditions on their performance. The results of this investigation indicate that the two selected sorbents, copper-chromium and copper-cerium, are capable of removing H(sub 2)S from the hot fuel gas to very low levels (<10 ppmv) at temperatures as high as 850(degree)C with good sorbent regenerability in cyclic process. These sorbents should be further studied to achieve optimum sorbent composition for hot gas cleanup application.
    Tags: Considered Studies, Electronic Search, Excluded (not pertinent), Other Not Pertinent

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  • 7.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Teratogenic effects of chromium (vi) in environment as evidenced by the impact on larva of amphibian rana tigrina: Implications in the environmental management of chromium

    Authors: Abbasi, SA; Soni, R
    (1984) International Journal of Environmental Studies 131:131-137.
    Tags: Considered Studies, Electronic Search, Excluded (not pertinent), No Tox Keywords

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  • 8.
    Journal Article
    Journal
    Article
    TOXICITY OF LOWER THAN PERMISSIBLE LEVELS OF CHROMIUM (VI) TO THE FRESH-WATER TELEOST NURIA-DENRICUS

    Authors: Abbasi, SA; Soni, R
    (1984)
    Tags: Considered Studies, Electronic Search, Excluded (not pertinent), Other Not Pertinent

    Details
       
  • 9.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Stress-induced enhancement of reproduction in earthworm Octochaetus pattoni exposed to chromium (VI) and mercury (II): Implications in environmental management

    Authors: Abbasi, SA; Soni, R
    (1983)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. HEEP COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. The impact of heavy metal pollutants on earthworms was studied by observing . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. HEEP COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. The impact of heavy metal pollutants on earthworms was studied by observing mortality and reproduction in O. pattoni exposed to Cr (VI) and Hg (II) at levels varying from 0-25 ppm. While both metals induced significant mortality at all levels of exposure, they also caused an enhancement in reproduction, as revealed by the higher production of juveniles and bits in metal-exposed animals compared to controls. The significance of the results in environmental management was discussed.
    Tags: Considered Studies, Ecology, Electronic Search, Excluded (not pertinent)

    Details
       
  • 10.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Ionic liquid analogues formed from hydrated metal salts

    Authors: Abbott, AP; Capper, G; Davies, DL; Rasheed, RK
    (2004) Chemistry: A European Journal 10:3769-3774.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. A dark green, viscous liquid can be formed by mixing choline chloride with chromium(III) chloride hexahydrate . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. A dark green, viscous liquid can be formed by mixing choline chloride with chromium(III) chloride hexahydrate and the physical properties are characteristic of an ionic liquid. The eutectic composition is found to be 1:2 choline chloride/chromium chloride. The viscosity and conductivity are measured as a function of temperature and composition and explained in terms of the ion size and liquid void volume. The electrochemical response of the ionic liquid is also characterised and it is shown that chromium can be electrodeposited efficiently to yield a crack-free deposit. This approach could circumvent the use of chromic acid for chromium electroplating, which would be a major environmental benefit. This method of using hydrated metal salts to form ionic liquids is shown to be valid for a variety of other salt mixtures with choline chloride.
    Tags: Considered Studies, Electronic Search, Excluded (not pertinent), No Tox Keywords
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