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Libby Amphibole Asbestos (Revision 2013)


  • 1.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
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    Article
    Patterns of pulmonary dysfunction in asbestos workers: a cross-sectional study

    Authors: Abejie, BA; Wang, X; Kales, SN; Christiani, DC
    (2010) Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 5.
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  • 2.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Health consultation: the Scotts Company LLC (former O.M. Scott and Sons Company). National Asbestos Exposure Review preliminary report

    Author: ATSDR
    (2005)
  • 3.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Respiratory health in Turkish asbestos cement workers: the role of environmental exposure

    Authors: Akkurt, I; Onal, B; Demir, AU; Tüzün, D; Sabir, H; Ulusoy, L; Karadağ, KO; Ersoy, N; Cöplü, L
    (2006) American Journal of Industrial Medicine 49:609-616.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. AIM: Benign and malignant pleural and lung diseases due to environmental asbestos exposure . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. AIM: Benign and malignant pleural and lung diseases due to environmental asbestos exposure constitute an important health problem in Turkey. The country has widespread natural deposits of asbestos in rural parts of central and eastern regions. Few data exists about the respiratory health effects of occupational asbestos exposure in Turkey. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate respiratory health effects of occupational asbestos exposure and the contribution of environmental asbestos exposure.

    METHODS: Investigations included asbestos dust measurements in the workplace and application of an interviewer-administered questionnaire, a standard posteroanterior chest X-ray and spirometry. Information on birthplace of the workers was obtained in 406 workers and used to identify environmental exposure to asbestos, through a map of geographic locations with known asbestos exposure.

    RESULTS: Asbestos dust concentration in the ambient air of the work sites (fiber/ml) ranged between 0.2 and 0.76 (mean: 0.25, median: 0.22). Environmental exposure to asbestos was determined in 24.4% of the workers. After the adjustment for age, smoking, occupational asbestos exposure, and potential risk factors environmental asbestos exposure was associated with small irregular opacities grade > or = 1/0 (44.2% vs. 26.6%, P < 0.01), FVC% (97.8 vs. 104.5, P < 0.0001), and FEV1% (92.4 vs. 99.9, P < .0001). Occupational exposure to asbestos was associated with small irregular opacities grade > or = 1/0 (OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1, per 1 unit increase in the natural logarithm of fiber/ml) and FEV1/FVC% (beta: 1.1, SEM: 0.54; P < 0.05, per 1 unit increase in the natural logarithm of fiber/ml).

    CONCLUSIONS: Environmental exposure to asbestos could increase the risk of asbestosis and lung function impairment in workers occupationally exposed to asbestos, independent from occupational exposure and smoking.
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  • 4.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Effects of asbestos and smoking on gas diffusion in people exposed to crocidolite

    Authors: Alfonso, HS; Fritschi, L; de Klerk, NH; Olsen, N; Sleith, J; Musk, AW
    (2005) Medical Journal of Australia 183:184-187.
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  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Effects of asbestos and smoking on the levels and rates of change of lung function in a crocidolite exposed cohort in Western Australia

    Authors: Alfonso, HS; Fritschi, L; de Klerk, NH; Olsen, N; Sleith, J; Musk, AW
    (2004) Thorax 59:1052-1056.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Increased rates of death from asbestos related diseases have been reported in former workers and residents . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Increased rates of death from asbestos related diseases have been reported in former workers and residents exposed to crocidolite (blue asbestos) at Wittenoom, Western Australia. Exposure to asbestos is associated with reduced static lung volumes, gas transfer and lung compliance, and a restrictive ventilatory abnormality.

    The effects of crocidolite exposure and smoking history on levels and rates of change of lung function were evaluated using a linear mixed model. Lung function was measured as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC.

    Cumulative doses of asbestos and the presence of radiographic asbestosis were associated with lower levels of FEV1 and FVC and a steeper decline during the period of observation. Subjects exposed to asbestos at a younger age had lower levels of FEV1 and FVC. Current smokers had lower levels and a steeper decline in lung function than never smokers. No significant interactions between crocidolite exposure and smoking on the levels or rates of change of lung function were found.

    The deleterious effects of crocidolite exposure on lung function persist in this population, despite asbestos exposure having ceased more than 30 years ago. No significant interactions were found in this population between asbestos and smoking at the first visit or longitudinally.
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  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Asbestos-related pleural thickening is independently associated with lower levels of lung function and with shortness of breath

    Authors: Algranti, E; Freitas, JBP; Mendonça, EMC; Decapitani, EM; Silva, HC; Bussacos, MA
    (2000) Inhalation Toxicology 12:251-260.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. This study investigated the relative contribution of asbestos-related pleural thickening (PT) to lung . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. This study investigated the relative contribution of asbestos-related pleural thickening (PT) to lung function indices and to respiratory symptoms. A group of 828 former asbestos cement workers enrolled in a cross-sectional and cohort study of respiratory morbidity and submitted to a detailed occupational history, respiratory symptoms questionnaire, spirometry, postero-anterior chest x-ray, and high-resolution computed chest tomography (HRCT). Asbestos exposure was assessed by years of exposure (a semi-quantitative method), cumulative exposure, and latency time from first exposure. Smoking was assessed in pack-years. PT and asbestosis were assessed according to HRCT criteria. Statistical analysis included descriptive analysis, univariate and multivariate analysis of variance for comparisons of factors related to PT, stepwise multiple regression analysis for continuous dependent variables, and logistic regression analysis for dichotomous dependent variables. Mean age was 51.4 (SD 10.5) years, mean years of exposure 12.4 (SD 8.8), mean cumulative exposure 79.9 (SD 68.5), and mean latency time 25.2 yr (SD 10.4). Of the 828, 238 (28.7%) were smokers, 288 (34.8%) former smokers, and 302 (36.2%) nonsmokers. PT was present in 246 (29.7%) and asbestosis in 74 (8.9%); 97 (11.9%) had shortness of breath of Grade III or more. PT subjects had lower height-adjusted forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and lower FEV1/FVC% (p < .00001 for all). Variables significantly related to PT were age (p < .0001), years of exposure (p < .00001), cumulative exposure (p < .00001), latency time (p < .00001), pack-years (p < .00001), and asbestosis (p < .001). In a multiple stepwise regression model, after controlling for confounders, heightadjusted FEV1 and FVC were inversely and significantly associated with PT, mainly when associated with asbestosis. A logistic regression model with shortness of breath as the dependent variable, controlled for confounders, showed that PT was significantly associated with the symptom, even without asbestosis. In conclusion, PT is independently associated with lower values of FEV1 and FVC. PT is also independently associated with an increased risk of shortness of breath report. PT should be considered as a disease for clinical follow-up and for compensation claims.
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  • 7.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Non-malignant asbestos-related diseases in Brazilian asbestos-cement workers

    Authors: Algranti, E; Mendonça, EM; Decapitani, EM; Freitas, JB; Silva, HC; Bussacos, MA
    (2001) American Journal of Industrial Medicine 40:240-254.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. BACKGROUND: Production of asbestos-cement products in Brazil started in the 1940s, . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. BACKGROUND: Production of asbestos-cement products in Brazil started in the 1940s, peaked in the 60-70s and is still an active industry. This study was designed to assess the non-malignant effects of asbestos exposure in the asbestos-cement industry in Brazil.

    METHODS: A group of 828 former asbestos-cement workers enrolled in a cross-sectional and cohort study of respiratory morbidity, submitted to a detailed occupational history, respiratory symptoms questionnaire, spirometry, PA chest x-ray, and high resolution computed chest tomography (HRCT). Asbestos exposure was assessed by years of exposure, cumulative exposure (a semi-quantitative method), and latency time from first exposure. Asbestosis and pleural thickening were assessed according to HRCT criteria.

    RESULTS: Asbestosis was present in 74 (8.9%) and pleural thickening in 246 (29.7%). Using the HRCT as the "best available evidence", it was shown that were more false negatives than false positives in the x-ray readings for parenchymal (21.6% false negatives, 4.2% false positives) and pleural (26.0% false negatives, 14.4% false positives) diseases due to asbestos. Latency time from first exposure was the best predictor for both asbestosis and pleural thickening. Subjects in the higher exposure groups presented lower levels of lung function. Obstructive defects were significantly related to smoking, shortness of breath, body mass index, and age, whereas restrictive defects were related to asbestosis, shortness of breath, and latency time. Chronic bronchitis increased with latency time in the three smoking groups and was significantly related to pleural thickening (OR 1.56 (1.00-2.42)). Shortness of breath was significantly associated with body mass index and pleural thickening (OR 1.30 (1.24-2.09)).

    CONCLUSIONS: Pleural thickening and asbestosis showed a significant association with latency time and exposure. FVC and FEV(1) decreased across increasing profusion with an added effect of pleural thickening. There was a significant and independent effect of exposure on lower levels of FVC and FEV(1). Obstructive defects were mainly related to smoking and restriction to asbestosis. Dust exposure and smoking were synergistic in increasing chronic bronchitis and shortness of breath report. Shortness of breath report was also related to pleural thickening and higher body mass index.
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  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Longitudinal decline in lung function in former asbestos exposed workers

    Authors: Algranti, E; Mendonça, EM; Hnizdo, E; De Capitani, EM; Freitas, JB; Raile, V; Bussacos, MA
    (2013) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 70:15-21.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the effect of asbestos exposure on longitudinal . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the effect of asbestos exposure on longitudinal lung function decline.

    METHODS: A group of 502 former asbestos-cement workers with at least two spirometry tests 4 years apart. Repeated evaluations included respiratory symptoms questionnaire, spirometry and chest imaging. Asbestos exposure was ascertained as years of exposure, an index of cumulative exposure and latency time. The mixed effects model was used to evaluate the effect of exposure on the level and rate of change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC).

    RESULTS: Mean age at entry was 51 (SD 9.9) years, mean latency time 25.6 (SD 10.0) years, mean follow-up time 9.1 (SD 2.8) years and mean number of spirometry tests 3.5. The FEV(1) level was significantly related to pack-years of smoking at entry and during the follow-up, the index of cumulative asbestos exposure at entry, and the presence of asbestosis at follow-up. The FVC level was significantly related to pack-years of smoking during the follow-up, cumulative asbestos exposure at entry, asbestosis and pleural thickening at follow-up, and body mass index at entry. Asbestos exposure was not associated with increasing rates of FEV(1) and FVC decline. However, FEV(1) regression slopes with age, estimated by terciles of cumulative exposure, showed significant differences. Combined effects of smoking and exposure conferred further acceleration in lung function decline.

    CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposure in asbestos-cement industry was a risk factor for increased lung function decline. The effect seems to be mostly concentrated during the working period. Smoking and exposure had synergic effects.
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  • 9.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
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    Article
    Bronchoalveolar lavage and 99mTc-DTPA clearance as prognostic factors in asbestos workers with and without asbestosis

    Authors: Al Jarad, N; Gellert, AR; Rudd, RM
    (1993) Respiratory Medicine 87:365-374.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The aims of this study are to investigate the change-over time of lung function and chest radiographic . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The aims of this study are to investigate the change-over time of lung function and chest radiographic findings in patients with asbestosis (AS) and asbestos workers without asbestosis (AW). Secondly, to correlate these changes with broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) profiles and with lung epithelial permeability, as detected by half-time lung-to-blood (t1/2 LB) clearance of an inhaled aerosol of diethylene triamine pentacetate labelled with technetium 99 (99mTc-DTPA) obtained a mean period of 4.2 yr (range 2.3-5.8) previously. Thirty-three patients with asbestosis and 24 asbestos workers with substantial asbestos exposure were followed-up. Nineteen healthy smokers (HS) with no asbestos exposure who were followed up for a mean period of 3.9 yr were taken as a control group for spirometric changes. Compared with AW, FEV1, FVC and TLCO were lower in AS (P < 0.0001 in each case). Smoker AS and AW had lower numbers (P < 0.03) and percentages (P < 0.004) of BAL lymphocytes and higher numbers (P < 0.04) and percentages (P < 0.02) of BAL neutrophils plus eosinophils than ex- and non-smokers. Annual declines of FEV1 (dFEV1 yr-1) and FVC (dFVC yr-1) in AS and AW were significantly greater than in HS and predicted annual declines (P < 0.002 in each case). Annual declines of TLCO (dTLCO yr-1) and KCO (dKCO yr-1) in AS and AW were significantly greater than predicted annual declines (P < 0.002 in each case). No significant differences were noted between AS and AW in annual declines in any lung function measurement. dTLCO yr-1, dKCO yr-1 were significantly greater in smokers than in ex- and non-smokers, (P < 0.05 and P < 0.04 respectively). Annual decline did not relate to base line values for any lung function measurement. Numbers and proportions of BAL lymphocyte were higher (P < 0.008 and P < 0.02, respectively) and numbers and proportions of BAL neutrophils and eosinophils were lower (P < 0.02 and P < 0.03, respectively) in patients in whom dTLCO yr-1 was less than 0.3 mmol min-1 kPa-1 than in patients in whom dTLCO yr-1 was more than 0.3 mmol min-1 kPa-1. dTLCO yr-1 inversely correlated with t1/2 LB; r = 0.51; (P < 0.008). Patients in whom the radiograph remained unchanged had higher numbers (P < 0.002) and percentages (P < 0.001) of BAL lymphocytes than patients in whom the radiograph deteriorated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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  • 10.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Does asbestos exposure cause airway obstruction, in the absence of confirmed asbestosis?

    Authors: Ameille, J; Letourneux, M; Paris, C; Brochard, P; Stoufflet, A; Schorle, E; Gislard, A; Laurent, F; Conso, F; Pairon, JC
    (2010) American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 182:526-530.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. RATIONALE: Whether occupational exposure to asbestos causes airway obstruction remains . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. RATIONALE: Whether occupational exposure to asbestos causes airway obstruction remains controversial.

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated lung function in relation to cumulative exposure to asbestos in a large cohort of retired or unemployed workers exposed to asbestos.

    METHODS: The study population consisted of 3,660 volunteer subjects. An individual cumulative exposure index to asbestos was calculated for each subject, and information was obtained on smoking status. Pulmonary function tests were performed in all subjects; high-resolution chest computed tomography was also performed in 3,335 subjects.

    MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Values of FEV(1)/FVC and FEF(25-75%) did not differ between five classes (quintiles) of cumulative exposure to asbestos, and no significant correlation was observed between cumulative exposure to asbestos and pulmonary function parameters, after adjustment for sex, tobacco consumption, emphysema, and body mass index. Furthermore, the proportion of abnormal pulmonary function tests did not differ between the five classes of cumulative exposure to asbestos.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results do not support a causal relationship between asbestos exposure alone and airway obstruction. However, the study sample may not be representative of all people occupationally exposed to asbestos, because a fraction of subjects with previously diagnosed asbestosis probably did not participate in this screening program.
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