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MSA-Multipollutant Exposure Metric Review




  • 1.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
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    Article
    Atomic Layer Deposition of Li 2 O–Al 2 O 3 Thin Films

    Authors: Aaltonen, T; Nilsen, O; Magrasó, A; Fjellvåg, H
    (2011) Chemistry of Materials 23:4669-4675.
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  • 2.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
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    Article
    Analysis and evaluation of selected PM10 pollution episodes in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area in 2002

    Authors: Aarnio, P; Martikainen, J; Hussein, T; Valkama, I; Vehkamaki, H; Sogacheva, L; Harkonen, J; Karppinen, Ari; Koskentalo, T; Kukkonen, J; Kulmala, M
    (2008) Atmospheric Environment 42:3992-4005.
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  • 3.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Applications of a method for setting air quality standards based on epidemiological data

    Authors: Abbey, DE; Euler, GL; Moore, JK; Petersen, F; Hodgkin, JE; Magie, AR
    (1989) Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 39:437-445.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. A method for setting air quality standards for long-term cumulative exposures of a population based . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. A method for setting air quality standards for long-term cumulative exposures of a population based on epidemiological studies has been developed. It uses exposure estimates interpolated from monitoring stations to zip code centroids, each month applied to zip code by month residence histories of the population. Two alternative cumulative exposure indices are used--hours in excess of a threshold, and the sum of concentrations above a threshold. The indices are then used with multiple logistic regression models for the health outcome data to form dose response curves for relative risk, adjusting for covariates. These curves are useful for determination of at what exposure amounts and threshold levels, effects which have both statistical and public health significance begin to occur. The method is applied to a ten year follow-up of a sub cohort of 7,343 members of the National Cancer Institute-funded Adventist Health Study. Up to 20 years of residence history was available. Analysis for prevalence of symptoms was conducted for four air pollutants--total oxidants, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and total suspended particulates. For each pollutant, cumulated exposures were calculated above each of five different thresholds. Statistically significant effects were noted for total suspended particulates, total oxidants, sulfur dioxide, past and passive smoking.
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  • 4.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
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    Article
    Long-term ambient concentrations of particulates and oxidants and development of chronic disease in a cohort of nonsmoking California residents

    Authors: Abbey, DE; Lebowitz, MD; Mills, PK; Petersen, FF; Beeson, WL; Burchette, RJ
    (1995) Inhalation Toxicology 7:19-34.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. California Air Resources Board. A cohort of 6340 nonsmoking California Seventh-Day Adventists (SDAs) . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. California Air Resources Board. A cohort of 6340 nonsmoking California Seventh-Day Adventists (SDAs) who had resided within 5 miles of their present residence for the past 10 yr has been followed since 1977 for incidence of cancer and myocardial infarction (MI) through 1982; development of definite symptoms of, and increasing severity of, airway obstructive disease (AOD), chronic bronchitis, and asthma through 1987; and all natural cause mortality through 1987. Cumulative ambient concentrations of specific pollutants have been estimated for study participants from 1967 to 1987 by interpolating monthly statistics from statewide air monitoring stations to ZIP codes of residence and work location. Statistics include excess concentrations and exceedance frequencies above a number of cutoffs as well as mean ambient concentration and mean ambient concentration adjusted for time spent indoors. Indoor sources or nitrogen (NO2), and of particulate pollution such as environmental tobacco smoke, both at home and at work, as well as occupational dusts and fumes, have been adjusted for in multivariate statistical models. Particulates included total suspended particulates (TSP), monitored from 1973 to 1987; inhalable particulates less than 10"mu"m in diameter (PM-10), estimated from site/seasonal-specific regressions on TSP for 1973-1987; fine particulates less than 2.5 "mu"m in diameter estimated from airport visibility data for 1967-1987; and suspended sulfates (SO4), monitored from 1977 to 1987. A direct measure of visibility, and gaseous pollutants-ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and (NO2)-monitored from 1973 to 1987 were also included in analyses. No statistically significant associations between any of the disease outcomes studied and NO2 or SO2 were found in this cohort. None of the pollutants studied showed statistically significant associations with all natural cause mortality or incidence of all malignant neoplasms in males. Statistically significant associations were observed between elevated ambient concentrations of one or more particulate pollutants and each of the other disease outcomes. In addition, ozone was significantly associated with increasing severity of asthma, and with the development of asthma in males. Multi pollutant analyses indicated that none of the associations between particulate pollutants and disease outcomes were due to correlations with gaseous pollutants studied except possibly for PM2.5 and increasing severity of asthma, which could be due to a correlation with ozone. Observed associations between disease outcomes and PM2.5 or PM-10 could be biased toward the null because of increased measurement error due to their indirect methods of estimation.
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  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Chronic respiratory disease associated with long-term ambient concentrations of sulfates and other air pollutants

    Authors: Abbey, DE; Petersen, FF; Mills, PK; Kittle, L
    (1993) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 1:99-115.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) non-smokers who had resided since 1966 within five miles of their 1977 residence . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) non-smokers who had resided since 1966 within five miles of their 1977 residence (n = 3914) completed a standardized respiratory symptoms questionnaire in 1977 and again in 1987. For each participant, cumulative ambient concentrations from 1977 to 1987 of suspended sulfates (SO4) in excess of several cutoffs as well as mean concentrations were estimated by interpolating monthly ambient concentration statistics from state air monitoring stations to the individual's residential and workplace zip codes. There were significant associations between ambient concentrations of suspended sulfates and development of new cases of asthma, but not new cases of overall airway obstructive disease (AOD) or chronic bronchitis. Comparison of previous analyses, in this population, of respiratory disease symptoms and total suspended particulates (TSP), ozone, and sulfur dioxide (SO2), and multipollutant analyses of these pollutants with SO4, indicated these results were not due to a surrogate relationship with other air pollutants. Development of definite symptoms of AOD and chronic bronchitis was most strongly related to TSP.
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  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Guideline for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease--2011 update

    Authors: Abdool-Gaffar, MS; Ambaram, A; Ainslie, GM; Bolliger, CT; Feldman, C; Geffen, L; Irusen, EM; Joubert, J; Lalloo, UG; Mabaso, TT; Nyamande, K; O'Brien, J; Otto, W; Raine, R; Richards, G; Smith, C; Stickells, D; Venter, A; Visser, S; Wong, M; COPD Working Group
    (2011)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. OBJECTIVE: To revise the South African Guideline for the Management of Chronic Obstructive . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. OBJECTIVE: To revise the South African Guideline for the Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) based on emerging research that has informed updated recommendations.

    KEY POINTS: (1) Smoking is the major cause of COPD, but exposure to biomass fuels and tuberculosis are important additional factors. (2) Spirometry is essential for the diagnosis and staging of COPD. (3) COPD is either undiagnosed or diagnosed too late, so limiting the benefit of therapeutic interventions; performing spirometry in at-risk individuals will help to establish an early diagnosis. (4) Oral corticosteroids are no longer recommended for maintenance treatment of COPD. (5) A therapeutic trial of oral corticosteroids to distinguish corticosteroid responders from non-responders is no longer recommended. (6) Primary and secondary prevention are the most cost-effective strategies in COPD. Smoking cessation as well as avoidance of other forms of pollution can prevent disease in susceptible individuals and ameliorate progression. Bronchodilators are the mainstay of pharmacotherapy, relieving dyspnoea and improving quality of life. (7) Inhaled corticosteroids are recommended in patients with frequent exacerbations and have a synergistic effect with bronchodilators in improving lung function, quality of life and exacerbation frequency. (8) Acute exacerbations of COPD significantly affect morbidity, health care units and mortality. (9) Antibiotics are only indicated for purulent exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. (10) COPD patients should be encouraged to engage in an active lifestyle and participate in rehabilitation programmes.

    OPTIONS: Treatment recommendations are based on the following: annual updates of the Global Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), initiative, that provide an evidence-based comprehensive review of management; independent evaluation of the level of evidence in support of some of the new treatment trends; and consideration of factors that influence COPD management in South Africa, including lung co-morbidity and drug availability and cost.

    OUTCOME: Holistic management utilising pharmacological and nonpharmacological options are put in perspective.

    EVIDENCE: Working groups of clinicians and clinical researchers following detailed literature review, particularly of studies performed in South Africa, and the GOLD guidelines. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS. The guideline pays particular attention to cost-effectiveness in South Africa, and promotes the initial use of less costly options. It promotes smoking cessation and selection of treatment based on objective evidence of benefit. It also rejects a nihilistic or punitive approach, even in those who are unable to break the smoking addiction.

    RECOMMENDATIONS: These include primary and secondary prevention; early diagnosis, staging of severity, use of bronchodilators and other forms of treatment, rehabilitation, and treatment of complications. Advice is provided on the management of acute exacerbations and the approach to air travel, prescribing long-term oxygen and lung surgery including lung volume reduction surgery.

    VALIDATION: The COPD Working Group comprised experienced pulmonologists representing all university departments in South Africa and some from private practice, and general practitioners. Most contributed to the development of the previous version of the South African guideline. GUIDELINE SPONSOR: The meeting of the Working Group of the South African Thoracic Society was sponsored by an unrestricted educational grant from Boehringer Ingelheim and Glaxo-Smith-Kline.
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  • 7.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Emissions and indoor concentrations of particulate matter and its specific chemical components from cooking: A review

    Authors: Abdullahi, KL; Delgado-Saborit, JM; Harrison, R
    (2013) Atmospheric Environment 71:260-294.
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  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Classification of air quality using fuzzy synthetic multiplication

    Authors: Abdullah, L; Khalid, ND
    (In Press) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Proper identification of environment's air quality based on limited observations is an essential task . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Proper identification of environment's air quality based on limited observations is an essential task to meet the goals of environmental management. Various classification methods have been used to estimate the change of air quality status and health. However, discrepancies frequently arise from the lack of clear distinction between each air quality, the uncertainty in the quality criteria employed and the vagueness or fuzziness embedded in the decision-making output values. Owing to inherent imprecision, difficulties always exist in some conventional methodologies when describing integrated air quality conditions with respect to various pollutants. Therefore, this paper presents two fuzzy multiplication synthetic techniques to establish classification of air quality. The fuzzy multiplication technique empowers the max-min operations in "or" and "and" in executing the fuzzy arithmetic operations. Based on a set of air pollutants data carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter (PM(10)) collected from a network of 51 stations in Klang Valley, East Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak were utilized in this evaluation. The two fuzzy multiplication techniques consistently classified Malaysia's air quality as "good." The findings indicated that the techniques may have successfully harmonized inherent discrepancies and interpret complex conditions. It was demonstrated that fuzzy synthetic multiplication techniques are quite appropriate techniques for air quality management.
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  • 9.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Health effects of outdoor air pollution Approach to counseling patients using the Air Quality Health Index

    Authors: Abelsohn, A; Stieb, DM
    (2011) Canadian Family Physician 57:881-887.
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  • 10.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Genotoxicity of organic extracts of urban airborne particulate matter: an assessment within a personal exposure study

    Authors: Abou Chakra, OR; Joyeux, M; Nerriere, E; Strub, MP; Zmirou-Navier, D
    (2007) Chemosphere 66:1375-81.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Airborne particulate matter, PM(10) and PM(2.5), are associated with a range of health effects including . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Airborne particulate matter, PM(10) and PM(2.5), are associated with a range of health effects including lung cancer. Their complex organic fraction contains genotoxic and carcinogenic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives. This study evaluates the genotoxicity of the PM(10) and PM(2.5) organic extracts that were sampled in the framework of a personal exposure study in three French metropolitan areas (Paris, Rouen and Strasbourg), using the comet assay, performed on HeLa S3 cells. In each city, 60-90 non-smoking volunteers composed of two groups of equal size (adults and children) carried the personal Harvard Chempass multi-pollutant sampler during 48h along two different seasons ('hot' and 'cold'). Volunteers were selected so as to live (home and work/school) in 3 different urban sectors contrasted in terms of air pollution within each city (one highly exposed to traffic emissions, one influenced by local industrial sources, and a background urban environment). Genotoxic effects are stronger for PM(2.5) extracts than for PM(10), and greater in winter than in summer. Fine particles collected by subjects living within the traffic proximity sector present the strongest genotoxic responses, especially in the Paris metropolitan area. This work confirms the genotoxic potency of particulate matter (PM(10) and PM(2.5)) organic extracts to which urban populations are exposed.
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