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Journal Article 
Comparison of Daytime and Nighttime Concentration Profiles and Size Distributions of Ultrafine Particles near a Major Highway 
Zhu, Y; Kuhn, T; Mayo, P; Hinds, WC 
Environmental Science and Technology
ISSN: 0013-936X
EISSN: 1520-5851 
Previously we have conducted systematic measurements of the concentration and size distribution of ultrafine particles in the vicinity of major highways during daytime in Los Angeles. The present study compares these with similar measurements made at night. Particle number concentration was measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and size distributions in the size range from 7 to 300 nm were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Measurements were taken at 30, 60, 90, 150, and 300 m upwind and downwind from the center of the 1-405 freeway. Average traffic flow at night was about 25% of that observed during the day. Particle number concentration measured at 30 m downwind from the freeway was 80% of previous daytime measurements. This discrepancy between changes in traffic counts and particle number concentrations is apparently due to the decreased temperature, increased relative humidity, and lower wind speed at night. Particle size distributions do not change as dramatically as they did during the daytime. Particle number concentration decays exponentially downwind from the freeway similarly to what was observed during the day, but at a slower rate. No particle number concentration gradient has been observed for the upwind side of the freeway. No PM25 and very weak PM10 concentration gradients were observed downwind of the freeway at night. Ultrafine particle number concentration measured at 300 m downwind from the freeway was still distinguishably higher than upwind background concentration at night. These data may be used to help estimate exposure to ultrafine particles in the vicinity of major highways for epidemiology studies. 
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