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Journal Article 
Mercury, lead, and zinc in baby teeth of children with autism versus controls 
Adams, JB; Romdalvik, J; Ramanujam, VM; Legator, MS 
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues
ISSN: 1528-7394
EISSN: 1087-2620 
This study determined the level of mercury, lead, and zinc in baby teeth of children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 15, age 6.1 +/- 2.2 yr) and typically developing children (n = 11, age = 7 +/- 1.7 yr). Children with autism had significantly (2.1-fold) higher levels of mercury but similar levels of lead and similar levels of zinc. Children with autism also had significantly higher usage of oral antibiotics during their first 12 mo of life, and possibly higher usage of oral antibiotics during their first 36 mo of life. Baby teeth are a good measure of cumulative exposure to toxic metals during fetal development and early infancy, so this study suggests that children with autism had a higher body burden of mercury during fetal/infant development. Antibiotic use is known to almost completely inhibit excretion of mercury in rats due to alteration of gut flora. Thus, higher use of oral antibiotics in the children with autism may have reduced their ability to excrete mercury, and hence may partially explain the higher level in baby teeth. Higher usage of oral antibiotics in infancy may also partially explain the high incidence of chronic gastrointestinal problems in individuals with autism. 
Administration, Oral; Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage/therapeutic use; Autistic Disorder; Body Burden; Case-Control Studies; Child; Child, Preschool; Humans; Lead/ analysis/pharmacokinetics; Mercury/ analysis/pharmacokinetics; Tooth, Deciduous/ chemistry; Zinc/ analysis/pharmacokinetics 
• ISA-Lead
Administration, Oral 
Anti-Bacterial Agents 
Autistic Disorder 
Body Burden 
Case-Control Studies 
Child, Preschool 
Tooth, Deciduous