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Journal Article 
Application of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for isopropanol in the derivation of a reference dose and reference concentration 
Gentry, PR; Covington, TR; Andersen, ME; Clewell, HJ III 
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
ISSN: 0273-2300
EISSN: 1096-0295 
An interspecies physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model describing isopropanol (IPA) and its major metabolite, acetone, was applied to perform route-to-route and cross-species dosimetry to derive reference dose (RfD) and reference concentration (RfC) values for IPA. Adult PBPK models for rats and humans were extended to simulate exposure to IPA during pregnancy and used to estimate internal dose metrics in the mother and fetus during development. Endpoints from chronic, developmental, and reproductive toxicity studies were considered for the derivation of RfDs and RfCs. Due to uncertainties in the mode of action of toxicity for IPA and acetone, the dose metric used for most responses was the total area under the blood concentration curve (AUC) for the combination of IPA and acetone. This combined dose metric provided a more conservative estimate than those based on AUCs for IPA or acetone. Peak blood concentration of IPA was the dose metric for neurobehavioral effects. The recommended RfD and RfC for IPA are 10 mg/kg/day and 40 ppm, respectively, based on decreased fetal body weights. All of the PBPK-derived RfD or RfC values for various endpoints were similar (within a factor of 3), regardless of route of exposure in the animal study. 
2-Propanol/administration & dosage/*pharmacokinetics/*toxicity; Acetone/administration & dosage/pharmacokinetics/toxicity; Adult; Algorithms; Animals; Area Under Curve; Decision Trees; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Drug Administration Routes; Embryonic and Fetal Development/drug effects; Female; Fetus/drug effects; Humans; *Models, Biological 
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