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Journal Article 
The potential repercussions of maternal, fetal, and neonatal hypothyroxinemia on the progeny 
Glinoer, D; Delange, F 
ISSN: 1050-7256
EISSN: 1557-9077 
The adequate functioning of both the maternal and fetal thyroid glands play an important role to ensure that the fetal neuropsycho-intellectual development progresses normally. Three sets of clinical disorders are considered, that may eventually lead to impaired brain development. Firstly, in infants with a defect of glandular ontogenesis (congenital hypothyroidism), the participation of maternal thyroid hormones to the fetal circulating thyroxine environment is normal and, therefore, risk of brain damage results exclusively from the insufficient hormone production by the abnormal fetal thyroid gland. Secondly, when it is only the maternal thyroid gland that is functionally deficient (autoimmune hypothyroidism), the severity and temporal occurrence of maternal underfunction will both drive the resulting consequences for impaired fetal neuronal development. Clinical situations of this type may obviously take place already during early gestation (in women with known but untreated hypothyroidism) or appear only during later gestational stages (in women who have AITD and remain euthyroid during the first half of gestation). Lastly, in conditions with iodine deficiency, both maternal and fetal thyroid functions are affected and, therefore, it is primarily the degree and precocity of the maternal hypothyroxinemia due to iodine deficiency during pregnancy that will drive the potential repercussions for fetal neurological development. In the present review, we summarize available data and develop our present concepts concerning the complex feto-maternal thyroid relationships and the potential impacts of thyroid function abnormalities on the ideal development of the offspring. 
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