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Technical Report 
Methods for derivation of inhalation reference concentrations (RfCs) and application of inhalation dosimetry 
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency :: U.S. EPA 
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office 
Washington, DC 
This document describes the U .S . Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for estimation of inhalation reference concentrations (RfCs) (earlier terminology was inhalation reference dose or RfDi) as benchmark estimates of the quantitative doseresponse assessment of chronic noncancer toxicity for individual inhaled chemicals. Noncancer toxicity refers to adverse health effects other than cancer and gene mutations.

This overview chapter discusses general principles of dose-response assessment for noncancer toxicity, the development of the RfC methodology, and its role within the context of the risk assessment process. Subsequent chapters of the document discuss criteria and information to be considered in selecting key studies for RfC derivation, provide an overview of the respiratory system and its intra- and interspecies variables, and discuss areas of uncertainty and data gaps in relation to the proposed methodology. 
• Ammonia
     Literature Search – March 2012 (private)
     Literature Search Results
     Not Chemical Specific
          Guidance, notices
• Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)
• Biphenyl
     Cited References
          Other studies
               Dose-response assessment
• n-Butanol
     Additional Strategies
     Source – January 2013 (private)
          Additional strategies - 1/2013
          Merged reference set - 1/2013
     Secondary Sources of Health Effects Information
          Regulatory documents
     Cited in Document
• DCM (Dichloromethane) (Final, 2011)
• 1,4-Dioxane - with inhalation update
     Final (2013)
     External Review Draft (2011)
     Cited in Document
     Not in Lit Search
• Libby Amphibole Asbestos (Draft, 2011)
• Methanol (Non-Cancer)
     Cited in Final (2013)
     Cited in External Review Draft (2013)
     Cited in External Review Draft (2011)
• RDX (121-82-4)
     Guidance documents and contextual references
     Cited 2015 (private)
• Tetrachloroethylene (Perc) (Final, 2012)
     All References
• Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) (Final, 2011)
• Trichloroethylene (TCE) (Final, 2011)
     All References
• Trimethylbenzenes (TMB)
     Considered Studies
     Cited Studies
     Cited in Tox Review – Revised TMBs Draft
     Cited in Revised TMBs Draft - All
• Vanadium Pentoxide (Draft, 2011)
     2008 Final
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