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Journal Article 
Effects of solar UV radiation on aquatic ecosystems and interactions with climate change 
Hader, DP; Kumar, HD; Smith, RC; Worrest, RC 
Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences
ISSN: 1474-905X
EISSN: 1474-9092 
Recent results continue to show the general consensus that ozone-related increases in UV-B radiation can negatively influence many aquatic species and aquatic ecosystems (e.g., lakes, rivers, marshes, oceans). Solar UV radiation penetrates to ecological significant depths in aquatic systems and can affect both marine and freshwater systems from major biomass producers (phytoplankton) to consumers (e.g., zooplankton, fish, etc.) higher in the food web. Many factors influence the depth of penetration of radiation into natural waters including dissolved organic compounds whose concentration and chemical composition are likely to be influenced by future climate and UV radiation variability. There is also considerable evidence that aquatic species utilize many mechanisms for photoprotection against excessive radiation. Often, these protective mechanisms pose conflicting selection pressures on species making UV radiation an additional stressor on the organism. It is at the ecosystem level where assessments of anthropogenic climate change and UV-related effects are interrelated and where much recent research has been directed. Several studies suggest that the influence of UV-B at the ecosystem level may be more pronounced on community and trophic level structure, and hence on subsequent biogeochemical cycles, than on biomass levels per se. 
ultraviolet-b radiation; dissolved organic-matter; induced DNA-damage; natural phytoplankton communities; sea-urchin embryos; cyanobacterium microcystis-aeruginosa; wavelength-dependent induction; amphibian population declines; ulva-pertusa chlorophyta; ice algal communities 
Greenhouse Effect 
Marine Biology 
Ultraviolet Rays 
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