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Technical Report 
A review of the reference dose and reference concentration processes 
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency :: U.S. EPA 
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Risk Assessment Forum 
Washington, DC 
This report, entitled, "A Review of the Reference Dose and Reference Concentration Processes," summarizes the review and deliberations of the Risk Assessment Forum's RfD/RfC Technical Panel and its recommendations for improvements in the process of deriving reference values, including setting less than lifetime as well as chronic reference values. It discusses revisions to the overall framework for the derivation of reference values that broaden and expand the information considered in setting reference values. The document is a review, not guidance, and it evaluates the current state-of-the-art for hazard characterization with a focus on protection of potentially sensitive subpopulations. The report make a number of recommendations that should be considered in the implementation of changes in the current process and/or development of needed guidance. The Technical Panel views the RfD/RfC process as one that should be continually evolving as new information becomes available and new scientific and risk assessment approaches are developed. This does not mean that current RfDs or RfCs are invalid, but these new scientific issues should be included in the process of re-evaluating current reference values. As a follow-up to the recommendation for deriving less than lifetime reference values, the report includes a review of current testing guideline protocols to determine what data are collected that can be used in setting these reference values. The Technical Panel has provided specific recommendations for deriving reference values and the development of guidance in some cases and more general conclusions and recommendations in others. Case studies are included to illustrate the recommendations of the Technical Panel.

The Review document reflects input received during two Agency and interagency colloquia, a public comment period, an external peer review, and a Science Policy Council review. 
• Ammonia
     Considered References
          Other Studies
     Cited References
          Guidance, Notices
• Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)
• Biphenyl
     Cited References
          Other studies
               Dose-response assessment
• n-Butanol
     Additional Strategies
     Source – January 2013 (private)
          Additional strategies - 1/2013
          Merged reference set - 1/2013
     Secondary Sources of Health Effects Information
          Regulatory documents
     Cited in Document
• DCM (Dichloromethane) (Final, 2011)
• 1,4-Dioxane - with inhalation update
     Final (2013)
     External Review Draft (2011)
     Cited in Document
     Not in Lit Search
• Libby Amphibole Asbestos (Draft, 2011)
• Methanol (Non-Cancer)
     Cited in Final (2013)
     Cited in External Review Draft (2013)
     Cited in External Review Draft (2011)
• RDX (121-82-4)
     Guidance documents and contextual references
     Cited 2015
• Tetrachloroethylene (Perc) (Final, 2012)
     All References
• Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) (Final, 2011)
• Trichloroethylene (TCE) (Final, 2011)
     All References
• Trimethylbenzenes (TMB)
     Considered Studies
     Cited Studies
     Cited in Tox Review – Revised TMBs Draft
     Cited in Supplemental Information – Revised TMBs Draft
     Cited in Revised TMBs Draft - All
• Vanadium Pentoxide (Draft, 2011)
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