Jump to main content.

Contact Us

Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)

You are here: EPA Home Research NCEA HERO ISA-CO

ISA-CO

January 2010: EPA released the Integrated Science Assessment of Carbon Monoxide. Evidence from recent studies of the health and welfare effects of carbon monoxide was reviewed, evaluated, and integrated with the evidence that was included in previous Carbon Monoxide Air Quality Criteria Documents. Literature searches were conducted to identify studies published since the 2000 AQCD.

This page provides access to references cited in the final ISA.

Although all features of this site will work with javascript and style sheets disabled, you are likely to have a better user experience if you turn them on.
2010 Final (sorted by author)
View as Grid
Results: 807
Page of 81
Sort By:


  Export to EndNote  

  Bibliography Format  
Loading...

  • 1.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    An application and evaluation of the CAL3QHC model for predicting carbon monoxide concentrations from motor vehicles near a roadway intersection in Muscat, Oman
    Abdul-Wahab, SA (2004)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The CAL3QHC model was used to predict carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations from motor vehicles at an . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The CAL3QHC model was used to predict carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations from motor vehicles at an existing urban intersection (Star Cinema in Muscat area, Oman). The CO concentrations predicted from the model were compared with those measured in the field. Predicted average CO concentrations were found to compare favorably with measured values obtained at all eight receptors considered within the modeled intersection. In general, the comparison indicates good agreement with some underprediction for CO. For receptor 6, the model overpredicts the average CO concentration. This overprediction is associated with the presence of trees and green area in the location of receptor 6. In general, the measurements and the model results indicated that the highest CO concentrations were found to occur close to the intersection and, hence, a decrease in the concentration levels was seen as the distance from the road increased. The results indicated that the levels of CO were well below the ambient air quality standard and that probably no health risk was present in areas adjacent to the star cinema intersection. However, the predicted worst-case 1-h CO concentrations assuming inversion atmospheric stability conditions (class F) and wind speed of 1 m/s indicated that the levels of CO were close to or higher than the Oman's National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) value of 35 ppm at all receptors considered. The results of this study are useful in transport development and traffic management planning.
    Tag: 2010 Final
    Details   
  • 2.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Carbon monoxide concentration in donated blood: Relation to cigarette smoking and other sources
    Aberg, AM; Sojka, BN; Winsö, O; Abrahamsson, P; Johansson, G; Larsson, JE (2009)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) is normally present in the human body due to endogenous production . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) is normally present in the human body due to endogenous production of CO. CO can also be inhaled by exposure to external sources such as cigarette smoke, car exhaust, and fire. The purpose of this study was to investigate CO concentrations in blood from 410 blood donors at the blood center in Umeå, Sweden. To further evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on CO concentrations, the elimination time for CO was examined in six volunteer smokers after a smoked cigarette. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood samples from whole blood donors were obtained during the blood center's routine operation. In connection with blood donations, demographic and behavioral data were collected from the donors. The CO concentration was determined using gas chromatography. RESULTS: The majority of blood donors had approximately the same CO concentration (mean, 84.5 µmol/L). In 6 percent of the samples, the concentrations were higher than 130 µmol per L. The highest CO concentration was 561 µmol per L. The main source for these high CO concentrations appeared to be cigarette smoking. In the volunteer smokers, the elimination time after a smoked cigarette varied significantly, with elimination half-lives from 4.7 to 8.4 hours. CONCLUSION: These results show that blood bank red blood cell bags may have CO concentrations above the physiologic level. The time interval between cigarette smoking and blood donation seems to be a particularly important factor for elevated CO concentrations.
    Tag: 2010 Final
  • 3.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    In-vehicle CO ingression: Validation through field measurements and mass balance simulations
    Abi-Esber, L; El-Fadel, M (2008)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. In this study a mass balance modeling approach with measured out-vehicle carbon monoxide (CO) levels . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. In this study a mass balance modeling approach with measured out-vehicle carbon monoxide (CO) levels and trip-specific movement record as boundary conditions were used to simulate in-vehicle CO concentration profiles. The simulation results were coupled with field measurements to demonstrate the occurrence of CO ingression into the vehicle compartment from the engine combustion and/or exhaust return of the test vehicle. Agreement between field and simulation results was obtained for variable amounts of infiltrated CO equivalent to an in-vehicle emission rate of 250 to 1250 mg/h of CO depending on the vehicle ventilation settings.
    Tag: 2010 Final
  • 4.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    The effect of different ventilation modes on in-vehicle carbon monoxide exposure
    Abi-Esber, L; El-Fadel, M; Nuwayhid, I; Saliba, N (2007)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. In-vehicle carbon monoxide (CO) concentration profiles were monitored in a passenger vehicle driven . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. In-vehicle carbon monoxide (CO) concentration profiles were monitored in a passenger vehicle driven along a heavily traveled route of a commercial/residential area of Beirut, Lebanon, under several ventilation modes. Trips were conducted during morning rush hours in spring and summer time. Concomitant monitoring of car-exterior CO level, ambient CO level and wind speed was also undertaken. The highest mean CO exposure was experienced for the ??windows closed, vents closed?? and ??windows closed, AC on recirculation?? ventilation settings, with mean CO levels of 37.4 and 30.8 ppm, respectively, exceeding the 1-h air quality guidelines. The exposure was less significant for other ventilation modes with respective mean values of 10:8219 ppm. Mean car-exterior CO levels were lower than the 1-h air quality guidelines, but exceeded the 8-h CO exposure guidelines. Ambient CO levels were low and non-representative of the personal exposure of individuals neither inside nor in the vicinity of road vehicles. In-vehicle CO levels revealed moderate to good correlations to out-vehicle CO levels for ventilation modes allowing for outdoor air intake, and no correlation to ambient CO levels and wind speed. Infiltration as a result of indoor?outdoor air exchange and intrusion from engine combustion/exhaust infiltration constituted the main sources of observed in-vehicle CO levels.
    Tag: 2010 Final
    Details   
  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Comparison of trip average in-vehicle and exterior CO determinations by continuous and grab sampling using an electrochemical sensing method
    Abi-Esber, L; El-Fadel, M; Shihadeh, A (2007)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. In air quality monitoring studies, continuous sampling is capable of reflecting real time variation . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. In air quality monitoring studies, continuous sampling is capable of reflecting real time variation of gas levels, however, with a margin of uncertainty related to the response time of the sensor and to the speed of concentration fluctuation. In contrast, grab sampling allows the determination of average gas concentration over the whole sampling period eliminating thus the uncertainties associated with the continuous method. As studies of in-vehicle carbon monoxide (CO) exposure often show rapidly fluctuating CO levels and are increasingly using the continuous electrochemical sensing method, the present activity aims at validating the suitability of the latter method for this monitoring task. For this purpose, an electrochemical CO sensing monitor was used to continuously monitor CO level inside and outside of a vehicle moving in an urban area, and to analyze the content of concomitantly taken grab samples. Trip-average CO levels measured using the two testing methods were compared. For CO levels higher than the instrument detection limit (1 ppm), the observed percent difference between continuous and grab sampling results varied within a fairly acceptable range (0.6?15.4%). The regression of continuous sampling data against grab sampling data revealed an average error of 6.9%, indicating the suitability of the continuous electrochemical method for monitoring in-vehicle and exterior average CO concentration under typical urban traffic conditions.
    Tag: 2010 Final
    Details   
  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Quantitative circulatory physiology: An integrative mathematical model of human physiology for medical education
    Abram, SR; Hodnett, BL; Summers, RL; Coleman, TG; Hester, RL (2007)
    Tag: 2010 Final
    Details   
  • 7.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Carbon monoxide induces relaxation of human internal thoracic and radial arterial grafts
    Achouh, PE; Simonet, S; Fabiani, JN; Verbeuren, TJ (2008) Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery 7:959-963.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Carbon monoxide is produced by the degradation of heme by intracellular heme-oxygenase. The aim of our . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Carbon monoxide is produced by the degradation of heme by intracellular heme-oxygenase. The aim of our study was to evaluate, in vitro, the vasodilating effect of carbon monoxide and its mechanisms of action on human internal thoracic and radial artery grafts. Segments of human internal thoracic artery and radial artery, obtained from isolated coronary artery bypass surgery patients, were studied in organ chambers. The arterial rings were precontracted with norepinephrine then submitted to carbon monoxide. Inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase and of soluble guanylate cyclase were added to some arterial rings. Carbon monoxide induced significant relaxation in precontracted human internal thoracic artery and radial artery rings. This relaxation was independent of the presence of functional endothelium in internal thoracic artery. Blocking soluble guanylate cyclase partially inhibited this relaxation, while blocking nitric oxide synthase had no effect. Carbon monoxide has a relaxing effect on human internal thoracic artery and radial artery grafts in vitro, partially via cyclic guanylate monophosphate (cGMP) pathway activation. Inducing carbon monoxide production at the cellular level in vivo in human arterial grafts might help prevent vasospasm.
    Tag: 2010 Final
  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Acute elevation of blood carboxyhemoglobin to 6% impairs exercise performance and aggravates symptoms in patients with ischemic heart disease
    Adams, KF; Koch, G; Chatterjee, B; Goldstein, GM; O'Neil, JJ; Bromberg, PA; Sheps, DS; McAllister, S; Price, CJ; Bissette, J (1988)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Acute exposure to carbon monoxide has the potential to impair exercise capacity in patients with ischemic . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Acute exposure to carbon monoxide has the potential to impair exercise capacity in patients with ischemic heart disease. The effect of sufficient inhalation of this compound to gradually produce a level of 6% carboxyhemoglobin was studied in 30 nonsmoking patients with obstructive coronary artery disease and evidence of exercise-induced ischemia. After an initial training session, subjects were exposed to air or carbon monoxide on successive days in a randomized double-blind crossover fashion. Cardiac function and exercise capacity were assessed during symptom-limited supine radionuclide ventriculography. On the carbon monoxide day, mean postexposure carboxyhemoglobin was 5.9 +/- 0.1% compared with 1.6 +/- 0.1% (p less than 0.01) after air exposure. The mean duration of exercise was significantly longer after air compared with carbon monoxide exposure (626 +/- 50 s for air versus 585 +/- 49 s for carbon monoxide, p less than 0.05). Actuarial methods suggested that subjects were likely to experience angina earlier during exercise on the day of carbon monoxide exposure (p less than 0.05). Both the level (62 +/- 2.4 versus 60 +/- 2.4%, p = 0.05) and change in left ventricular ejection fraction at submaximal exercise (1.6 +/- 1.6 versus -1.2 +/- 1.6%, p = 0.05) were greater on the air exposure day compared with the carbon monoxide day. The peak exercise left ventricular ejection fraction was not different for the two exposures (57 +/- 2.5% for both). These results demonstrate earlier onset of ventricular dysfunction, angina and poorer exercise performance in patients with ischemic heart disease after acute carbon monoxide exposure sufficient to increase blood carboxyhemoglobin to 6%.
    Tag: 2010 Final
    Details   
  • 9.
    Book/Book Chapter
    Book/Book
    Chapter
    At risk in America: The health and health care needs of vulnerable populations in the United States
    Aday, LA (2001)
    Tag: 2010 Final
    Details   
  • 10.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Effects of exposure to low concentrations of carbon monoxide on exercise performance and myocardial perfusion in young healthy men
    Adir, Y; Merdler, A; Haim, SB; Front, A; Harduf, R; Bitterman, H (1999) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 56:535-538.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of exposure to low concentrations of carbon monoxide . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of exposure to low concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), as commonly measured in atmospheric urban air pollution and certain occupational environments, on exercise performance and myocardial perfusion in young healthy men, and the possible need for tighter restrictions on ambient concentrations of CO.

    METHODS: 15 young, healthy non-smoking men, 18-35 years old, were exposed blindly and randomly to air or to a mixture of CO and air, followed by an exercise treadmill test with thallium heart scintigraphy. Blood was drawn for determination of carboxyhaemoglobin before and at the end of the exposure, and for lactic and pyruvic acid at the beginning and the end of the exercise test. The main outcome measures include the duration of the exercise test, the maximal effort expressed in metabolic equivalent units (METs), the mean plasma lactic to pyruvic acid ratio at the end of the ergometry, ECG changes in the exercise test, and perfusion deficits in thallium heart scintigraphy.

    RESULTS: At the end of exposure to CO, the mean (SD) blood carboxyhaemoglobin concentration rose from 0.59% (0.08%) to 5.12% (0.65%) (p < 0.0001). At the end of the exercise period, the mean (SD) plasma lactate/pyruvate ratio, which reflects the level of anaerobic metabolism (69.9 (5.9) after air and 75.9 (7.0) after CO), was not significantly different between the two experimental groups. Exercise induced electrocardiographic changes were noted in only one subject after exposure to CO. No arrhythmias were detected in any of the subjects. Significant differences were found in the mean duration of the exercise test (p = 0.0012) and the METs (p = 0.0001). The mean adjusted difference of exercise duration between exposure to air and CO was 1.52 minutes 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.73 to 2.32 minutes. The mean adjusted difference of METs between exposure to air and CO was 2.04 95% CI 1.33 to 2.76. The models for duration of exercise and METs showed no significant sequence and period effects. Thallium myocardial perfusion imaging disclosed normal perfusion in all regions of the heart, with no significant differences in perfusion between the two exercise tests (after air or CO).

    CONCLUSION: Acute exposure to a low concentration of CO which produces blood carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations of 4%-6% significantly decreases exercise performance in young healthy men. No ischaemic electrocardiographic changes or disturbances in myocardial perfusion were found by graded exercise with thallium scintigraphy. Our findings suggest that pollution of atmospheric air by CO at concentrations which are commonly found in urban and industrial environments may exert an adverse effect on skeletal muscles, manifesting as decreased exercise performance.
    Tag: 2010 Final
Publication Years:
  • Published In
  • Or Between
  • And
Select Criteria:

Please wait while we submit your request.
This may take several minutes...

Jump to main content.

page loading graphic