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ETBE

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All References for ETBE (sorted by author)
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  • 1.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Method for determination of methyl tert-butyl ether in gasoline by gas chromatography
    Achten, C; Püttmann, W (2001) Journal of Chromatography A 910:377-383.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. A simple method for the determination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline has been developed. . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. A simple method for the determination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline has been developed. The separation of MTBE from other analytes was controlled by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the full scan mode using the characteristic primary, secondary and tertiary ions m/z 73, 57 and 43. The sample mass spectrum did not show any superimposition of other analytes. The separation from the common gasoline component 2-methylpentane was sufficient for reliable quantitation. An application of the developed conditions using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection was performed by the analysis of regular, euro super, super premium unleaded and 'Optimax' gasoline from petrol stations in the area of Frankfurt/Main, Germany. Regular unleaded gasoline shows an average MTBE content of 0.4% (w/w), whereas the MTBE content in euro super gasoline varies between 0.4 and 4.2% (w/w). The blending of MTBE to super premium has increased from 8.2% (w/w) in 1998 to 9.8% (w/w) on average in 1999. The recently introduced gasoline 'Optimax' shows an average MTBE content of 11.9% (w/w). The presented method might also be used for the analysis of other ethers, such as ethyl tert-butyl ether, which requires the use of another internal standard.
    Tag: Combined Dataset (After duplicates removed electronically), Database Searches, Excluded (not pertinent), Other chemical/non ETBE studies
  • 2.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    The effect of formaldehyde exposure upon the mononuclear phagocyte system of mice
    Adams, DO; Hamilton, TA; Lauer, LD; Dean, JH (1987) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 88:165-174.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The effects of exposure to formaldehyde (50000) vapors on macrophage development were studied in mice. . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The effects of exposure to formaldehyde (50000) vapors on macrophage development were studied in mice. Female specific pathogen free B6C3F1-mice were exposed to formaldehyde vapors (approximately 15 parts per million) 6 hours daily, 5 days per week for 3 weeks. Peritoneal leukocytes were collected by lavage from exposed and control mice 2 to 3 days after final exposure. Peritoneal macrophages elicited by pyran-copolymer (MVE-2) were obtained 6 days after intraperitoneal injection of 200 micrograms MVE-2 in groups of both exposed and control mice. Cells from several animals were pooled and cultured, and nonadherent cells were discarded. Cultures were adjusted to contain equal numbers of adherent macrophages and macrophage phagocytosis and enzymes were evaluated. Results showed that exposure to formaldehyde did not significantly alter the number of resident macrophages in the peritoneal cavity or induce their maturation. The weights of lymphoid organs were not affected by formaldehyde exposure. Results were similar for mice treated with MVE-2. Formaldehyde exposure was associated with an increased ability of macrophages to release reactive intermediates. The authors conclude that formaldehyde exposure does not perturb systemic development of the mononuclear phagocyte system. They also conclude that exposure does enhance ability to release reactive oxygen intermediates. This may have the beneficial effect of enhancing destruction of certain pathogens and the deleterious effect of inducing significant genotoxic damage.
    Tag:
  • 3.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative damage of DNA and 2'-deoxyguanosine by model compounds of lipid hydroperoxides: involvement of peroxyl radicals
    Adam, W; Kurz, A; Saha-Möller, CR (2000) Chemical Research in Toxicology 13:1199-1207.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The peroxidase-catalyzed decomposition of 3-hydroperoxy-1-butene (1), 2,3-dimethyl-3-hydroperoxy-1-butene . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The peroxidase-catalyzed decomposition of 3-hydroperoxy-1-butene (1), 2,3-dimethyl-3-hydroperoxy-1-butene (2), tert-butyl hydroperoxide (3), ethyl oleate hydroperoxide 4, and linoleic acid hydroperoxide 5 was applied as a chemical model system to assess whether lipid hydroperoxides may cause DNA damage under peroxidase catalysis. For this purpose, the Coprinus peroxidase (CIP), horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and the physiologically important lactoperoxidase (LP) were tested. Indeed, hydroperoxides 1-5 induce strand breaks in pBR 322 DNA upon peroxidase catalysis. For the nucleoside dG, the enzymatic decomposition of hydroperoxides 1-4 led to significant amounts of 4, 8-dihydro-4-hydroxy-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (4-HO-8-oxo-dG) and guanidine-releasing products (GRP), whereas 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) was not obtained. In isolated calf thymus DNA, the efficient conversion of the guanine base (Gua) was observed. Peroxyl radicals, which are generated in situ from the hydroperoxides by one-electron oxidation with the peroxidases, are proposed as the active oxidants on the basis of the following experimental facts. (i) Radical scavengers strongly inhibit the guanine oxidation in dG and DNA and strand-break formation in the latter. (ii) EPR spectral studies with 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) as a spin trap confirmed the formation of peroxyl radicals. (iii) The release of molecular oxygen was demonstrated, produced through the disproportionation of peroxyl radicals. The biological relevance of these findings should be seen in the potential role of the combined action of lipid hydroperoxides and peroxidases in damaging cellular DNA through peroxyl radicals.
    Tag: Combined Dataset (After duplicates removed electronically), Database Searches, Excluded (not pertinent), Other chemical/non ETBE studies
  • 4.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Toxicology and human health effects following exposure to oxygenated or reformulated gasoline
    Ahmed, FE (2001) Toxicology Letters 123:89-113. [Review]
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. In order to replace antiknock leaded derivatives in gasoline, legislations were enacted in the United . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. In order to replace antiknock leaded derivatives in gasoline, legislations were enacted in the United States and other countries to find safer additives and to reduce CO, O3, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in non-attainment areas. Oxygenates commonly used include various alcohols and aliphatic ethers. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is the most widely used and studied ether oxygenate and is added to gasoline at concentrations up to 15% by volume. Inhalation of fumes while fueling automobiles is the main source of human exposure to MTBE. Humans are also exposed when drinking water contaminated with MTBE. Epidemiological, clinical, animal, metabolic and kinetic studies have been carried out to address human health risks resulting from exposure to MTBE. MTBE is an animal carcinogen, but its human carcinogenic potential remains unclear. Because MTBE functions as a non-traditional genotoxicant, several mechanisms were suggested to explain its mode of action, such as, functioning as a cytotoxic as opposed to a mitogenic agent; involvement of hormonal mechanisms; or operating as a promoter instead of being a complete carcinogen. Some studies suggested that carcinogenicity of MTBE might be due to its two main metabolites, formaldehyde or tributanol. A role for DNA repair in MTBE carcinogenesis was recently unveiled, which explains some, but not all effects. The totality of the evidence shows that, for the majority of the non-occupationally exposed human population, MTBE is unlikely to produce lasting adverse health effects, and may in some cases improve health by reducing the composition of emitted harmful VOCs and other substances. A small segment of the population (e.g. asthmatic children, the elderly, and those with immunodeficiency) may be at increased risk for toxicity. However, no studies have been conducted to investigate this hypothesis. Concern over ground and surface water contamination caused by persistent MTBE has lead the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to proposed reducing or eliminating its use as a gasoline additive. The major potential alternatives to MTBE are other forms of ethers such as ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) or tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), and alcohols such as ethanol. More definitive studies are needed to understand the mechanism(s) by which aliphatic ethers may pose health and environmental impacts. The switch from MTBE to ethanol is not without problems. Ethanol costs more to produce, poses challenges to the gasoline distribution system, extends the spread of hydrocarbons through ground water in gasoline plumes, and in the short-term is unlikely to be available in sufficient quantity. Moreover, its metabolite acetaldehyde is a possible carcinogen that undergoes a photochemical reaction in the atmosphere to produce the respiratory irritant peroxylacetate nitrate (PAN). Congress is addressing whether the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAA) provisions concerning reformulated gasoline (RFG) should be modified to allow refineries to discontinue or lessen the use of oxygenates.
    Tag: Combined Dataset (After duplicates removed electronically), Database Searches, Reviews, Reviews, Reviews, Secondary Sources of Health Effects Information
  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Computational prediction of selectivities in nonreversible and reversible hydroformylation reactions catalyzed by unmodified rhodium-carbonyls
    Alagona, G; Lazzaroni, R; Ghio, C (2011) Journal of Molecular Modeling 17:2275-2284.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The regio- and stereoselectivities of the hydroformylation reaction catalyzed by an unmodified Rh catalyst . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The regio- and stereoselectivities of the hydroformylation reaction catalyzed by an unmodified Rh catalyst have been investigated at the B3P86/6-31G* level with Rh described by effective core potentials in the LANL2DZ valence basis set for a number of either mono- or (1,1-, 1,2-, 1,3-) di-substituted substrates and compared with a variety of earlier results of ours, supplemented with free energy results when not already available. The computational prediction of regio- and stereoselectivities in nonreversible hydroformylations performed under mild reaction conditions is seemingly possible provided a careful conformational search for TS structures is carried out and all the low energy conformers are taken into account. The internal energy can be used to compute both the regio- and stereoselectivities in the hydroformylation of 1,1- and 1,3-substituted substrates with satisfactory results, whereas for 1,2-substituted substrates the regioselectivity determined from the internal energy is in good agreement with the experiment in the case of aliphatic olefins just for the lowest terms in the series (i.e., methyl and ethyl substituents), while the ratios are only qualitatively correct for the slightly bulkier iso-propyl and tert-butyl moieties. The theory/experiment agreement becomes decidedly better using the free energy differences instead.
    Tag: Chemical analysis/fuel chemistry, Combined Dataset (After duplicates removed electronically), Database Searches, Excluded (not pertinent)
  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
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    Article
    Plantwide control for TAME production using reactive distillation
    Al-Arfaj, MA; Luyben, WL (2004) AIChE Journal 50:1462-1473.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The synthesis and control of a plantwide flowsheet to produce tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) is reported. . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The synthesis and control of a plantwide flowsheet to produce tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) is reported. The flowsheet consists of a plug-flow reactor, one reactive distillation column, and two conventional distillation columns. The two conventional columns are needed for the recovery of excess methanol and the inert C5s. The columns are operated at different pressures to overcome separation limitations resulting from the presence of azeotropes. The reactive distillation is run with an excess of methanol because it is needed for both the reaction and the azeotropic vapor liquid equilibrium (VLE) requirements in the column. The reactive distillation column is the critical unit in this flowsheet that needs to be carefully controlled. An effective control structure is one in which a temperature in the stripping section and a methanol composition in the reactive zone are controlled. This control scheme is similar to that applied to other reactive distillation systems of the same type (that is, ETBE, MTBE). Because there is no reaction in the other two columns, they are effectively controlled by simple temperature controllers. The fresh feed of methanol must be manipulated to maintain the overall balance of methanol in the flowsheet. The proposed control structure is able to handle disturbances in feed rate and composition up to +/- 20%. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
    Tag: Chemical analysis/fuel chemistry, Combined Dataset (After duplicates removed electronically), Database Searches, Excluded (not pertinent)
  • 7.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
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    Article
    Control study of ethyl tert-butyl ether reactive distillation
    Al-Arfaj, MA; Luyben, WL (2002) Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 41:3784-3796.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Control structures for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) reactive distillation columns are studied. Two . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Control structures for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) reactive distillation columns are studied. Two process configurations are explored: a design with two fresh reactant feed streams and a design with a single mixed reactant feed. An optimum design for the double-feed case is presented, A design given in the literature is used for the single-feed case. Several control structures are investigated, and their effectiveness in the ETBE case is compared with that in previously studied chemical systems. Results show that the double-feed system requires internal composition control to balance the stoichiometry, along with temperature control to maintain product purity. The single-feed case, which operates with an excess of ethanol, is effectively controlled with only a temperature controller provided disturbances are not too large.
    Tag: Chemical analysis/fuel chemistry, Combined Dataset (After duplicates removed electronically), Database Searches, Excluded (not pertinent)
  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Effect of number of fractionating trays on reactive distillation performance
    Al-Arfaj, MA; Luyben, WL (2000) AIChE Journal 46:2417-2425.
    Tag: Chemical analysis/fuel chemistry, Combined Dataset (After duplicates removed electronically), Database Searches, Excluded (not pertinent)
  • 9.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Reviewed
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    Article
    Gas-phase synthesis of ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) on H-ZSM-5 catalyst in continuous fixed-bed and fluidized-bed reactors
    Alcantara, R; Alcantara, E; Canoira, L; Franco, MJ; Martin, I; Navarro, A (2000) 69:239-246.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The gas-phase synthesis of ETBE from ethanol and isobutene has been carried out over a H-ZSM-5 catalyst . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The gas-phase synthesis of ETBE from ethanol and isobutene has been carried out over a H-ZSM-5 catalyst in two types of continuous-flow catalytic reactors, fixed-bed and fluidized-bed. We have studied the influence of temperature, molar ratio ethanol/isobutene and weight hourly space velocity on the yield of ETBE.
    Tag: Chemical analysis/fuel chemistry, Combined Dataset (After duplicates removed electronically), Database Searches, Excluded (not pertinent)
  • 10.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Effect of silanol groups on the acidic and catalytic properties of alkylsulphoacidic silicas and SiO2/narion nanocomposites
    Alekseev, SA; Zaitsev, VN; Alekseev, AN; Kochkin, YN; Evans, J (2004) Adsorption Science and Technology 22:615-625.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Sets of silicas covalently modified with alkylsulphoacidic groups (SiO2–SO3H) and nanocomposites of . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Sets of silicas covalently modified with alkylsulphoacidic groups (SiO2–SO3H) and nanocomposites of silica with superacidic Nafion® polymer (SiO2/Nafion) were synthesised. End-capping the silanol groups with trimethylsilyl groups was used to obtain surface hydrophobisation. The materials obtained were characterised by nitrogen and water adsorption measurements, MAS NMR spectroscopy and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS). The acidity of the materials was tested by 31P MAS NMR spectroscopic examination of samples with adsorbed triethylphosphine oxide (TEPO). It was demonstrated that end-capping excluded part of the surface silanol groups from interaction with acidic groups, thereby causing the sulphonic groups to exhibit an increased acidity. With SiO2–SO3H, end-capping also increased their catalytic activity in the synthesis of ethyl t-butyl ether (ETBE). However, end-capping had a negligible effect on the catalytic properties of SiO2/Nafion, probably because the catalytic reaction occurred inside the Nafion polymer nanoparticles.
    Tag: Chemical analysis/fuel chemistry, Combined Dataset (After duplicates removed electronically), Database Searches, Excluded (not pertinent)
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