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ISA-PM

December 2009: EPA released the Integrated Science Assessment of Particulate Matter. Evidence from recent studies of the health and welfare effects of particulate matter was reviewed, evaluated, and integrated with the evidence that was included in previous Particulate Matter Air Quality Criteria Documents. Literature searches were conducted to identify studies published since the 2004 AQCD.

This page provides access to references cited in the final ISA.

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  • 1.
    Book/Book Chapter
    Book/Book
    Chapter
    Pulmonary diseases and disorders
    (1980)
    Tag: 2009 Final
    Details   
  • 2.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    ROS scavenging effects of organic extract of diesel exhaust particles on human neutrophil granulocytes and rat alveolar macrophages
    Aam, BB; Fonnum, F (2007) Toxicology 230:207-18.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Diesel exhaust particles are major constituents of ambient air pollution, and are associated with respiratory . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Diesel exhaust particles are major constituents of ambient air pollution, and are associated with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. The organic part of the particles is heterogenic and complex, and seems to be responsible for many of the adverse effects. Increased formation of ROS is often connected to the adverse effects. We have therefore investigated the effect of an organic extract of diesel exhaust particles on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) status in human neutrophil granulocytes and rat alveolar macrophages in vitro. ROS formation were studied by three different assays namely the use of DCFH-DA, lucigenin and luminol. The organic extract increased ROS assayed with DCFH-DA, but it decreased the amount of ROS in cells stimulated by PMA in all three assays. The identities of the ROS affected were further studied in cell free systems. The cell free studies confirmed that the extract had scavenging effects against superoxide, hypochlorite and to a smaller extent against peroxynitrite, but not against the hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide. ROS take part in the intracellular signalling pathways as well as in the defence against invading microorganisms, and the possible effects of interference of the redox status in the cells are discussed.
    Tag: 2009 Final
  • 3.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Long-term ambient concentrations of particulates and oxidants and development of chronic disease in a cohort of nonsmoking California residents
    Abbey, DE; Lebowitz, MD; Mills, PK; Petersen, FF; Beeson, WL; Burchette, RJ (1995) Inhalation Toxicology 7:19-34.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. California Air Resources Board. A cohort of 6340 nonsmoking California Seventh-Day Adventists (SDAs) . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. California Air Resources Board. A cohort of 6340 nonsmoking California Seventh-Day Adventists (SDAs) who had resided within 5 miles of their present residence for the past 10 yr has been followed since 1977 for incidence of cancer and myocardial infarction (MI) through 1982; development of definite symptoms of, and increasing severity of, airway obstructive disease (AOD), chronic bronchitis, and asthma through 1987; and all natural cause mortality through 1987. Cumulative ambient concentrations of specific pollutants have been estimated for study participants from 1967 to 1987 by interpolating monthly statistics from statewide air monitoring stations to ZIP codes of residence and work location. Statistics include excess concentrations and exceedance frequencies above a number of cutoffs as well as mean ambient concentration and mean ambient concentration adjusted for time spent indoors. Indoor sources or nitrogen (NO2), and of particulate pollution such as environmental tobacco smoke, both at home and at work, as well as occupational dusts and fumes, have been adjusted for in multivariate statistical models. Particulates included total suspended particulates (TSP), monitored from 1973 to 1987; inhalable particulates less than 10"mu"m in diameter (PM-10), estimated from site/seasonal-specific regressions on TSP for 1973-1987; fine particulates less than 2.5 "mu"m in diameter estimated from airport visibility data for 1967-1987; and suspended sulfates (SO4), monitored from 1977 to 1987. A direct measure of visibility, and gaseous pollutants-ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and (NO2)-monitored from 1973 to 1987 were also included in analyses. No statistically significant associations between any of the disease outcomes studied and NO2 or SO2 were found in this cohort. None of the pollutants studied showed statistically significant associations with all natural cause mortality or incidence of all malignant neoplasms in males. Statistically significant associations were observed between elevated ambient concentrations of one or more particulate pollutants and each of the other disease outcomes. In addition, ozone was significantly associated with increasing severity of asthma, and with the development of asthma in males. Multi pollutant analyses indicated that none of the associations between particulate pollutants and disease outcomes were due to correlations with gaseous pollutants studied except possibly for PM2.5 and increasing severity of asthma, which could be due to a correlation with ozone. Observed associations between disease outcomes and PM2.5 or PM-10 could be biased toward the null because of increased measurement error due to their indirect methods of estimation.
    Tag: 2009 Final
    Details   
  • 4.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Long-term ambient concentrations of total suspended particulates and oxidants as related to incidence of chronic disease in California Seventh-Day Adventists
    Abbey, DE; Mills, PK; Petersen, FF; Beeson, WL (1991) Environmental Health Perspectives 94:43-50.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Cancer incidence and mortality in a cohort of 6000 nonsmoking California Seventh-Day Adventists were . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Cancer incidence and mortality in a cohort of 6000 nonsmoking California Seventh-Day Adventists were monitored for a 6-year period, and relationshipswith long-term cumulative ambient air pollution were observed. Total suspended particulates (TSP) and ozone were measured in terms of numbers of hours in excess of several threshold levels corresponding to national standardsas well as mean concentration. For all malignant neoplasms among females, risk increased with increasing exceedance frequencies of all thresholds of TSP except the lowest one, and those increased risks were highly statistically significant. For respiratory cancers, increased risk was associated with only one threshold of ozone, and this result was of borderline significance. Respiratory disease symptoms were assessed in 1977 and again in 1987 using the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute respiratory symptoms questionnaire on a subcohort of 3914 individuals. Multivariate analyses which adjusted for past and passive smoking and occupational exposures indicated statistically significantly (p < 0.05) elevated relative risks ranging up to 1.7 for incidence of asthma, definite symptoms of airway obstructive disease, and chronic bronchitis with TSP in excess of all thresholds except the lowest one but not for any thresholds of ozone. A trend association (p = 0.056) was noted between the threshold of 10 pphm ozone and incidence of asthma. These results are presented within the context of standards setting for these constituents of air pollution.
    Tag: 2009 Final
  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Long-term inhalable particles and other air pollutants related to mortality in nonsmokers
    Abbey, DE; Nishino, N; Mcdonnell, WF; Burchette, RJ; Knutsen, SF; Beeson, WL; Yang, JX (1999) American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 159:373-382.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Long-term ambient concentrations of inhalable particles less than 10 mum in diameter (PM10) (1973-1992) . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Long-term ambient concentrations of inhalable particles less than 10 mum in diameter (PM10) (1973-1992) and other air pollutants-total suspended sulfates, sulfur dioxide, ozone (O3), and nitrogen dioxide-were related to 1977-1992 mortality in a cohort of 6,338 nonsmoking California Seventh-day Adventists. In both sexes, PM10 showed a strong association with mortality for any mention of nonmalignant respiratory disease on the death certificate, adjusting for a wide range of potentially confounding factors, including occupational and indoor sources of air pollutants. The adjusted relative risk (RR) for this cause of death as associated with an interquartile range (IQR) difference of 43 d/yr when PM10 exceeded 100 mug/m3 was 1.18 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.36). In males, PM10 showed a strong association with lung cancer deaths-RR for an IQR was 2.38 (95% CI: 1.42, 3.97). Ozone showed an even stronger association with lung cancer mortality for males with an RR of 4.19 (95% CI: 1.81, 9.69) for the IQR difference of 551 h/yr when O3 exceeded 100 parts per billion. Sulfur dioxide showed strong associations with lung cancer mortality for both sexes. Other pollutants showed weak or no association with mortality.
    Tag: 2009 Final
  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Comparison of coincident Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aerosol optical depths over land and ocean scenes containing Aerosol Robotic Network sites
    Abdou, W; Diner, D; Martonchik, J; Bruegge, C; Kahn, R; Gaitley, B; Crean, K; Remer, L; Holben, B (2005) Journal of Geophysical Research 110:D10S07.
    Tag: 2009 Final
  • 7.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Oak leaves and pine needles as biomonitors of airborne trace elements pollution
    Aboal, JR; Fernández, JA; Carballeira, A (2004)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. With the aim of investigating their usefulness for biomonitoring atmospheric contamination, oak (Quercus . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. With the aim of investigating their usefulness for biomonitoring atmospheric contamination, oak (Quercus robur) leaves and pine (Pinus pinaster) needles, were collected from 55 sampling points in rural areas throughout Galicia (NW Spain). Samples of terrestrial mosses, known to be good indicators of atmospheric deposition, were collected from the same sites, to allow comparisons to be made. The concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the samples were determined. The present study provides the first data on bioaccumulation in these tree species in rural areas, on a regional scale. The metal levels in the pairs of species, i.e. pine-moss and oak-moss, were compared; the corresponding correlations indicate that these tree species have a low capacity for monitoring air quality and also a limited efficiency as bioaccumulators of the metals studied. Despite the inefficiency of the tree species in reflecting atmospheric contamination in clean areas, the corresponding background levels of metals, essential for evaluating degrees of contamination, were calculated. Finally, some of the difficulties encountered in the use of the leaves and needles of these species in biomonitoring studies are reported.
    Tag: 2009 Final
    Details   
  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Genotoxicity of organic extracts of urban airborne particulate matter: an assessment within a personal exposure study
    Abou Chakra, OR; Joyeux, M; Nerriere, E; Strub, MP; Zmirou-Navier, D (2007) Chemosphere 66:1375-81.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Airborne particulate matter, PM(10) and PM(2.5), are associated with a range of health effects including . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Airborne particulate matter, PM(10) and PM(2.5), are associated with a range of health effects including lung cancer. Their complex organic fraction contains genotoxic and carcinogenic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives. This study evaluates the genotoxicity of the PM(10) and PM(2.5) organic extracts that were sampled in the framework of a personal exposure study in three French metropolitan areas (Paris, Rouen and Strasbourg), using the comet assay, performed on HeLa S3 cells. In each city, 60-90 non-smoking volunteers composed of two groups of equal size (adults and children) carried the personal Harvard Chempass multi-pollutant sampler during 48h along two different seasons ('hot' and 'cold'). Volunteers were selected so as to live (home and work/school) in 3 different urban sectors contrasted in terms of air pollution within each city (one highly exposed to traffic emissions, one influenced by local industrial sources, and a background urban environment). Genotoxic effects are stronger for PM(2.5) extracts than for PM(10), and greater in winter than in summer. Fine particles collected by subjects living within the traffic proximity sector present the strongest genotoxic responses, especially in the Paris metropolitan area. This work confirms the genotoxic potency of particulate matter (PM(10) and PM(2.5)) organic extracts to which urban populations are exposed.
    Tag: 2009 Final
  • 9.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Flexible modeling of exposure-response relationship between long-term average levels of particulate air pollution and mortality in the American Cancer Society study
    Abrahamowicz, M; Schopflocher, T; Leffondre, K; Du Berger, R; Krewski, D (2003) Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 66:1625-1654.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Accurate estimation of the exposure-response relationship between environmental particulate air pollution . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Accurate estimation of the exposure-response relationship between environmental particulate air pollution and mortality is important from both an etiologic and regulatory perspective. However, little is known about the actual shapes of these exposure-response curves. The objective of this study was to estimate the exposure-response relationships between mortality and long-term average city-specific levels of sulfates and fine particulate matter (PM (2.5)). We reanalyzed the data derived from the American Cancer Society (ACS) Cancer Prevention Study II, a large prospective study conducted in the United States between 1982 and 1989. Exposure to particulate air pollution was assessed prior to entry into the cohort. Mean sulfate concentrations for 1980 were available in 151 cities, and median PM (2.5) levels between 1979 and 1983 were available in 50 cities. Two sampling strategies were employed to reduce the computational burden. The modified case-cohort approach combined a random subcohort of 1200 individuals with an additional 1300 cases (i.e., deaths). The second strategy involved pooling the results of separate analyses of 10 disjoint random subsets, each with about 2200 participants. To assess the independent effect of the particulate levels on all-causes mortality, we relied on flexible, nonparametric survival analytical methods. To eliminate potentially restrictive assumptions underlying the conventional models, we employed a flexible regression spline generalization of the Cox proportional-hazards (PH) model. The regression spline method allowed us to model simultaneously the time-dependent changes in the effect of particulate matter on the hazard and a possibly nonlinear exposure-response relationship. The PH and linearity hypotheses were tested using likelihood ratio tests. In all analyses, we stratified by age and 5-yr age groups and adjusted for the subject's age, lifetime smoking exposure, obesity, and education. For both fine particles (PM (2.5)) and sulfates, there was a statistically significant (at.05 level) departure from the conventional linearity assumption. The adjusted effect of fine particles on mortality indicated a stronger relationship in the lower (up to about 16 microg/m(3)) than in the higher range of their values. Increasing levels of sulfates in the lower range (up to about 12 microg/m(3)) had little impact on mortality, suggesting a possible "no-effect threshold." For body mass index (BMI), the risks were lowest in the middle range and increased for both very obese and very lean individuals. It was concluded that flexible modeling yields new insights about the effect of long-term air pollution on mortality.
    Tag: 2009 Final
  • 10.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Sense of Place and Stewardship: Final Focus Group Report
    Abt (2002)
    Tag: 2009 Final
    Details   
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