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ISA-Lead

June 2013: EPA released the Integrated Science Assessment for Lead. Evidence from recent studies of the ecological effects, health effects, atmospheric science (source, concentration, and fate and transport), exposure, and toxicokinetics of lead was reviewed, evaluated, and integrated with the evidence that was included in previous Lead Air Quality Criteria Documents. Literature searches were conducted to identify studies published since the 2006 review.

This page provides access to references cited in the first, second, and third external review draft and final ISAs, as well as those considered. You may refine by ecological effects, health effects, atmospheric and exposure science, and toxicokinetics.

Some references "considered for inclusion" but not cited in the ISA may not have been added to HERO. EPA is working toward a more systematic method for future ISAs.

 

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  • 1.
    Legal Material
    Legal
    Material
    Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere
    U.S. EPA (2010)
    Tag: 1st Draft, Atmospheric and Exposure Sciencies, Cited, Considered
  • 2.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of One New Equivalent Method (EPA Office of Research and Development)
    (2010)
    Tag: 1st Draft, Atmospheric and Exposure Sciencies, Considered, Considered
  • 3.
    Book/Book Chapter
    Book/Book
    Chapter
    Assessing the hazard of metals and inorganic metal substances in aquatic and terrestrial systems: Proceedings for the Workshop on Hazard Identification Approach for Metals and Inorganic Metal Substances, 3-8 May 2003, Pensacola Beach, Florida, USA
    (2007)
    Tag: 1st Draft, Cited, Considered
    Details   
  • 4.
    Book/Book Chapter
    Book/Book
    Chapter
    The Navajo people and uranium mining
    (2006)
    Tag: Considered, Health Effects
    Details   
  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Brain cancer linked to lead exposure
    (2006)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Occupational lead exposure is associated with brain cancer, according to a new study. Edwin van Wijngaarden, . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Occupational lead exposure is associated with brain cancer, according to a new study. Edwin van Wijngaarden, Ph.D., of the University of Rochester in New York, and colleagues assessed the association between lead exposure and brain cancer in 317,968 people who had been surveyed about their occupations between 1979 and 1981. Their jobs were classifi ed based on the amount of lead workers were probably exposed to. The authors found that people with jobs that exposed them to lead had a 50% higher chance of developing brain cancer than those who did not. They suggest that lead exposure is associated with brain cancer. The study was published in the September 1 issue of the International Journal of Cancer .
    Tag: Considered
  • 6.
    Book/Book Chapter
    Book/Book
    Chapter
    Ecotoxicology of wild mammals
    (2001)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. This landmark book, which contains contributions from the world's foremost mammalian ecotoxicologists, . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. This landmark book, which contains contributions from the world's foremost mammalian ecotoxicologists, is a truly impressive summary of research undertaken in this field in recent years. It is also the first book to draw such information together in a seamless and unified approach.
    Tag: 1st Draft, 2nd Draft, 3rd Draft, Cited, Considered, Eco/Welfare, Final, Terrestrial Effects
    Details   
  • 7.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Part 58 - Ambient air quality surveillance: Appendix A - quality assurance requirements for state and local air monitoring stations (SLAMS), SPMs, and PSD Air Monitoring
    (1986)
    Tag: 1st Draft, Atmospheric and Exposure Sciencies, Considered, Considered
  • 8.
    Book/Book Chapter
    Book/Book
    Chapter
    Handbook of geochemistry
    (1978) New York, NY: Springer.
    Tag: 1st Draft, 2nd Draft, 3rd Draft, Atmospheric and Exposure Sciencies, Cited, Considered, Final
    Details   
  • 9.
    Legal Material
    Legal
    Material
    Ambient air monitoring reference and equivalent methods
    U.S. EPA (1976)
    Tag: 1st Draft, Atmospheric and Exposure Sciencies, Considered, Considered
    Details   
  • 10.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Lead poisoning as possible cause of deaths at the Swedish House at Kapp Thordsen, Spitsbergen, winter 1872-3
    Aasebo, U; Kjaer, KG (2009) British Medical Journal 339:b5038.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. OBJECTIVE: To investigate cause of death in 17 sealers who died in the Swedish house in Kapp Thordsen, . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. OBJECTIVE: To investigate cause of death in 17 sealers who died in the Swedish house in Kapp Thordsen, Spitsbergen, during the winter of 1872-3. DESIGN: Analysis of skeletal samples from one sealer's grave. SETTING: Field trip to Spitsbergen to exhume skeletal remains. SUBJECTS: One of 17 sailors who died in 1872-3. RESULTS: No objective signs of scurvy were found. The concentration of lead in the bone samples was 102.05 microg/g. CONCLUSIONS: The high concentrations of lead indicate that this man died from lead poisoning, probably from food tins. The absence of macroscopic signs of scurvy supports this theory.
    Tag: Considered
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