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Hexachloroethane (HCE) (Final, 2011)

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  • 1.
    Book/Book Chapter
    Book/Book
    Chapter
    Handbook of environmental fate and exposure data for organic chemicals. Vol. I. Large production and priority pollutants
    (1989)
    Details   
  • 2.
    Book/Book Chapter
    Book/Book
    Chapter
    CRC handbook of chemistry and physics: A ready-reference book of chemical and physical data
    (1986)
    Details   
  • 3.
    Book/Book Chapter
    Book/Book
    Chapter
    Laboratory animal medicine
    (1984)
    Details   
  • 4.
    Book/Book Chapter
    Book/Book
    Chapter
    Hexachloroethane
    ACGIH (1991)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. TLV Recommendation Results ofWeeks'(2) inhalation study with HCE suggest a steep dose-response curve. . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. TLV Recommendation Results ofWeeks'(2) inhalation study with HCE suggest a steep dose-response curve. Repeated exposures at 260 ppm produced obvious signs of toxicity, including some mortality in rats, dogs, and guinea pigs, while concentrations of 48 ppm produced respiratory irritation but no other signs of toxicity to any of the three species exposed. Dietary administration of HCE to rats for 16 weeks resulted in kidney and liver injury.(7) The lowest effect level by the dietary route (15 mg/kg/day), which caused microscopic kidney changes in male rats, can be calculated to be approximately equivalent to 105 mg/m3 or 10.5 ppm if inhaled by workers for a normal workday. The NOELof 1 mg/kg/day approximates an inhaled concentration of7 mg/m3 (0.7 ppm). Results from thedietary studies prompted the TLVCommittee in 1989 to recommend the current TLV-TWA of 1 ppm (9.7 mg/m3) to protect against liverand kidney injury, in lightof the latest NTP study(10) anditsreported evidence ofHCE's carcinogenic activity in male rats, the TLV Committee in 1990 recommended the addition of an A2 designation (suspected human carcinogen) based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals; the substance was listed on the Notice of Intended Changes for 1990-1991 .
    Details   
  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    'Smoke-bomb' pneumonitis
    Allen, M; Crisp, A; Snook, N; Page, R (1992) Respiratory Medicine 86:165-166.
  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Chemical structure, Salmonella mutagenicity and extent of carcinogenicity as indicators of genotoxic carcinogenesis among 222 chemicals tested in rodents by the U.S. NCI/NTP
    Ashby, J; Tennant, RW (1988) Mutation Research 204:17-115. [Review]
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. A survey has been conducted of 222 chemicals evaluated for carcinogenicity in mice and rats by the United . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. A survey has been conducted of 222 chemicals evaluated for carcinogenicity in mice and rats by the United States NCI/NTP. The structure of each chemical has been assessed for potential electrophilic (DNA-reactive) sites, its mutagenicity to Salmonella recorded, and the level of its carcinogenicity to rodents tabulated. Correlations among these 3 parameters were then sought. A strong association exists among chemical structure (S/A), mutagenicity to Salmonella (Salm.) and the extent and sites of rodent tumorigenicity among the 222 compounds. Thus, a approximately 90% correlation exists between S/A and Salm. across the 115 carcinogens, the 24 equivocal carcinogens and the 83 non-carcinogens. This indicates the Salmonella assay to be a sensitive method of detecting intrinsic genotoxicity in a chemical. Concordance between S/A and Salm. have therefore been employed as an index of genotoxicity, and use of this index reveals two groups of carcinogens within the database, genotoxic and putatively non-genotoxic. These two broad groups are characterized by different overall carcinogenicity profiles. Thus, 16 tissues were subject to carcinogenesis only by genotoxins, chief among which were the stomach, Zymbal's glands, lung, subcutaneous tissue and circulatory system. Conclusions of carcinogenicity in these 16 tissues comprised 31% of the individual chemical/tissue reports of carcinogenicity. In contrast, both genotoxins and non-genotoxins were active in the remaining 13 tissues, chief among which was the mouse liver which accounted for 24% of all chemical/tissue reports of carcinogenicity. Further, the group of 70 carcinogens reported to be active in both species and/or in 2 or more tissues contained a higher proportion of Salmonella mutagens (70%) than observed for the group of 45 single-species/single-tissue carcinogens (39%). 30% of the 83 non-carcinogens were mutagenic to Salmonella. This confirms earlier observations that a significant proportion of in vitro genotoxins are non-carcinogenic, probably due to their non-absorption or preferential detoxification in vivo. Also, only 30% of the mouse liver-specific carcinogens were mutagenic to Salmonella. This is consistent with tumors being induced in this tissue (and to a lesser extent in other tissues of the mouse and rat) by mechanisms not dependent upon direct interaction of the test chemical with DNA. Detection of 103 of the 115 carcinogens could be achieved by use of only male rats and female mice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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  • 7.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Toxicological profile for 1,1,2,2 tetrachloroethane
    ATSDR (2008)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects information for the hazardous substance described here. Each peer-reviewed profile identifies and reviews the key literature that describes a hazardous substance's toxicologic properties. Other pertinent literature is also presented, but is described in less detail than the key studies.
    Tag:
  • 8.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Toxicological profile for hexachloroethane
    ATSDR (1997)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects information for the hazardous substance described here. Each peer-reviewed profile identifies and reviews the key literature that describes a hazardous substance's toxicologic properties. Other pertinent literature is also presented, but is described in less detail than the key studies.
  • 9.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Toxicological profile for tetrachloroethylene
    ATSDR (1997)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects information for the hazardous substance described here. Each peer-reviewed profile identifies and reviews the key literature that describes a hazardous substance's toxicologic properties. Other pertinent literature is also presented, but is described in less detail than the key studies.
    Tag:
  • 10.
    Technical Report
    Technical
    Report
    Toxicological profile for trichloroethylene (update)
    ATSDR (1997)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects information for the hazardous substance described here. Each peer-reviewed profile identifies and reviews the key literature that describes a hazardous substance's toxicologic properties. Other pertinent literature is also presented, but is described in less detail than the key studies.
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