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Arsenic Hazard ID

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of arsenic on modification of promyelocytic leukemia (PML): PML responds to low levels of arsenite

Authors: Hirano, S; Watanabe, T; Kobayashi, Y (In Press) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. HERO ID: 2088511

[Less] Inorganic arsenite (iAs(3+)) is a two-edged sword. iAs(3+) is a well-known human carcinogen; nevertheless, . . . [More] Inorganic arsenite (iAs(3+)) is a two-edged sword. iAs(3+) is a well-known human carcinogen; nevertheless, it has been used as a therapeutic drug for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), which is caused by a fusion protein comprising retinoic acid receptor-α and promyelocytic leukemia (PML). PML, a nuclear transcription factor, has a RING finger domain with densely positioned cysteine residues. To examine PML-modulated cellular responses to iAs(3+), CHO-K1 and HEK293 cells were each used to establish cell lines that expressed ectopic human PML. Overexpression of PML increased susceptibility to iAs(3+) in CHO-K1 cells, but not in HEK293 cells. Exposure of PML-transfected cells to iAs(3+) caused PML to change from a soluble form to less soluble forms, and this modification of PML was observable even with just 0.1μM iAs(3+) (7.5ppb). Western blot and immunofluorescent microscopic analyses revealed that the biochemical changes of PML were caused at least in part by conjugation with small ubiquitin-like modifier proteins (SUMOylation). A luciferase reporter gene was used to investigate whether modification of PML was caused by oxidative stress or activation of antioxidant response element (ARE) in CHO-K1 cells. Modification of PML protein occurred faster than activation of the ARE in response to iAs(3+), suggesting that PML was not modified as a consequence of oxidative stress-induced ARE activation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine whether steroids reduce the incidence and severity of nephropathy in Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP)

Authors: Dudley, J; Smith, G; Llewelyn-Edwards, A; Bayliss, K; Pike, K; Tizard, J (In Press) Archives of Disease in Childhood. HERO ID: 1797837

[Less] BACKGROUND: The long-term prognosis of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) is predominantly determined by . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The long-term prognosis of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) is predominantly determined by the extent of renal involvement. There is no consensus as to whether treatment with prednisolone at presentation can prevent or ameliorate the progression of nephropathy in HSP.

METHODS: Children under 18 years of age with new-onset HSP were randomly assigned to receive prednisolone or placebo for 14 days. The primary outcomes were (a) the presence of proteinuria at 12 months (defined as urine protein : creatinine ratio (UP : UC) >20 mg/mmol) and (b) the need for additional treatment (defined as the presence of hypertension requiring treatment or renal biopsy anomalies or the need for treatment of renal disease) during the 12 month study period.

RESULTS: 352 children were randomised. Of those patients with laboratory UP : UC results available at 12 months, 18/123 (15%) patients on prednisolone and 13/124 (10%) patients on placebo had UP : UC >20 mg/mmol. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with UP : UC >20 mg/mmol at 12 months between the treatment groups (OR (prednisolone/placebo)=1.46, 95% CI 0.68 to 3.14, n=247), even after adjusting for baseline proteinuria and medications known to affect proteinuria (adjusted OR=1.29, 95% CI 0.58 to 2.82, n=247). Similarly, there was no significant difference in the time needed for additional treatment between the two groups (hazard ratio (HR) (prednisolone/placebo)=0.53, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.59, n=323).

CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest trial of the role of steroids in children with HSP. We found no evidence to suggest that early treatment with prednisolone reduces the prevalence of proteinuria 12 months after disease onset in children with HSP.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN71445600.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Natural decrease of dissolved arsenic in a small stream receiving drainages of abandoned silver mines in Guanajuato, Mexico

Authors: Ramos Arroyo, YR; Serafín Muñoz, AH; Yanez Barrientos, E; Rodriguez Huerta, I; Wrobel, K; Wrobel, K (In Press) Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. HERO ID: 1936024

[Less] Arsenic release from the abandoned mines and its fate in a local stream were studied. Physicochemical . . . [More] Arsenic release from the abandoned mines and its fate in a local stream were studied. Physicochemical parameters, metals/metalloids and arsenic species were determined. One of the mine drainages was found as a point source of contamination with 309 μg L(-1) of dissolved arsenic; this concentration declined rapidly to 10.5 μg L(-1) about 2 km downstream. Data analysis confirmed that oxidation of As(III) released from the primary sulfide minerals was favored by the increase of pH and oxidation reduction potential; the results obtained in multivariate approach indicated that self-purification of water was due to association of As(V) with secondary solid phase containing Fe, Mn, Ca.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenite removal from aqueous solution by a microbial fuel cell-zerovalent iron hybrid process

Authors: Xue, A; Shen, Z-Z; Zhao, B; Zhao, H-Z (In Press) Journal of Hazardous Materials. HERO ID: 1936025

[Less] Conventional zerovalent iron (ZVI) technology has low arsenic removal efficiency because of the slow . . . [More] Conventional zerovalent iron (ZVI) technology has low arsenic removal efficiency because of the slow ZVI corrosion rate. In this study, microbial fuel cell (MFC)-zerovalent iron (MFC-ZVI) hybrid process has been constructed and used to remove arsenite (As(III)) from aqueous solutions. Our results indicate that the ZVI corrosion directly utilizes the low-voltage electricity generated by MFC in the hybrid process and both the ZVI corrosion rate and arsenic removal efficiency are therefore substantially increased. The resultant water qualities are compliant with the recommended standards of EPA and WHO. Compared to the ZVI process alone, the H2O2 generation rate and output are dramatically improved in MFC-ZVI hybrid process. Strong oxidants derived from H2O2 can rapidly oxidize As(III) into arsenate (As(V)), which helps to improve the As(III) removal efficiency. The distribution analysis of As and Fe indicates that the As/Fe molar ratio of the flocs in solution is much higher in the MFC-ZVI hybrid process. This phenomenon results from the different arsenic species and hydrous ferric oxides species in these two processes. In addition, the electrosorption effect in the MFC-ZVI hybrid process also contributed to the arsenic removal by concentrating As(V) in the vicinity of the iron electrode.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Modelling of arsenic retention in constructed wetlands

Authors: Llorens, E; Obradors, J; Alarcón-Herrera, MT; Poch, M (In Press) Bioresource Technology. HERO ID: 1936026

[Less] A new model was developed in order to simulate the most significant arsenic retention processes that . . . [More] A new model was developed in order to simulate the most significant arsenic retention processes that take place in constructed wetlands (CWs) treating high arsenic waters. The present contribution presents the implementation phases related to plants (arsenic uptake and accumulation, root arsenic adsorption, and root oxygen release), showing the first simulation results of the complete model. Different approaches with diverse influent configurations were simulated. In terms of total arsenic concentrations in effluent, the simulated data closely matched the data measured in all evaluated cases. The iron and arsenic species relationships, and the arsenic retention percentages obtained from simulations, were in agreement with the experimental data and literature. The arsenic retention efficiency increased whenever a new phase was implemented, reaching a maximum efficiency range of 85-95%. According to the quality of the obtained results, it can be considered that the implementation of all steps of RCB-ARSENIC provided reasonably good response values.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic immobilization as alunite-type phases: The arsenate substitution in alunite and hydronium alunite

Authors: Sunyer, A; Currubí, M; Viñals, J (In Press) Journal of Hazardous Materials. HERO ID: 1936027

[Less] AsO4-for-SO4 substitution in alunite (KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6) and hydronium alunite ((H3O)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6) has . . . [More] AsO4-for-SO4 substitution in alunite (KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6) and hydronium alunite ((H3O)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6) has been investigated by hydrothermal precipitation at 200°C. Arsenical alunite presented a good precipitation yield and a significant AsO4 substitution (up to 15% molar). The degree of arsenate substitution depends on the solution composition. It increased as (AsO4/(AsO4+SO4))alunite≅0.5 (AsO4/(AsO4+SO4))L. For (AsO4/(AsO4+SO4))L<0.26, arsenical alunite was the unique phase and, above this ratio, mansfieldite (AlAsO4·2H2O) co-precipitated. The a unit cell parameter is practically independent of the AsO4 substitution, but the c unit cell parameter increased consistently with the differences between the AsO1 and SO1 distances in tetrahedral sites of the structure. The maximum stability of arsenical alunite in short-term tests is between pH 5 and 8, with an As-solubilization of 0.01-0.03mg/L in 24h. Long-term tests were performed at some synthesized samples at its natural pH. Arsenical alunite was stabilized at 0.3mg/L released As in 2.5 weeks. These values were similar to those obtained in pure and largely crystalline natural scorodite (0.4mg/L released As), but lower than the obtained for synthetic scorodite (1.3mg/L released As). Thus, arsenical alunite could be effective for arsenic immobilization, especially for effluents or wastes containing large SO4/AsO4 ratio. Hydronium alunite presents a low precipitation yield and a very low arsenate incorporation (up to 1% molar). This may be related by the difficulty of substituting protonated H2O-for-OH(-) groups, due to the location of the H-bridges of the H3O in the structure. These characteristics make hydronium alunite unsuitable for arsenic immobilization.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Novel identification of lipid-soluble arsenic compounds using chemical derivatisations in conjunction with RP-HPLC-ICPMS/ESMS

Authors: Amayo, KO; Raab, A; Krupp, EM; Gunnlaugsdottir, H; Feldmann, J (In Press) Analytical Chemistry. HERO ID: 1936033

[Less] The identification of molecular structures of arsenolipid is pivotal for its toxicological assessment . . . [More] The identification of molecular structures of arsenolipid is pivotal for its toxicological assessment and in understanding the arsenic cycling in the environment. However, analysis of these compounds in lipid matrix is an ongoing challenge. So far only few arsenolipids have been reported, such as arsenic fatty acids (AsFAs) and arsenic hydrocarbons (AsHCs). By means of RP-HPLC-ICPMS/ESMS, we investigated Capelin oil (Mallotus villosus) for possible new species of arsenolipid. Twelve arsenolipids were identified in the fish oil including three AsFAs and seven AsHCs. Among the AsHCs, four of them identified with protonotated molecular masses 305, 331, 347 and 359 have not been reported before. In addition, the compounds with molecular formulae C20H44AsO+ and C24H44AsO+ found in low concentrations showed chromatographic properties and MS data consistent with cationic trimethylarsenio fatty alcohols. Derivatisation by acetylation and thiolation coupled with accurate mass spectrometry was successfully used to establish the occurrence of this new class of arsenolipids as cationic trimethylarsenio fatty alcohols (TMAsFOH).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exceptional arsenic (III,V) removal performance of highly porous, nanostructured ZrO2 spheres for fixed bed reactors and the full-scale system modeling

Authors: Cui, H; Su, Y; Li, Q; Gao, S; Shang, JK (In Press) Water Research. HERO ID: 1936037

[Less] Highly porous, nanostructured zirconium oxide spheres were fabricated from ZrO2 nanoparticles with the . . . [More] Highly porous, nanostructured zirconium oxide spheres were fabricated from ZrO2 nanoparticles with the assistance of agar powder to form spheres with size at millimeter level followed with a heat treatment at 450 °C to remove agar network, which provided a simple, low-cost, and safe process for the synthesis of ZrO2 spheres. These ZrO2 spheres had a dual-pore structure, in which interconnected macropores were beneficial for liquid transport and the mesopores could largely increase their surface area (about 98 m2/g) for effective contact with arsenic species in water. These ZrO2 spheres demonstrated an even better arsenic removal performance on both As(III) and As(V) than ZrO2 nanoparticles, and could be readily applied to commonly used fixed-bed adsorption reactors in the industry. A short bed adsorbent test was conducted to validate the calculated external mass transport coefficient and the pore diffusion coefficient. The performance of full-scale fixed bed systems with these ZrO2 spheres as the adsorber was estimated by the validated pore surface diffusion modeling. With the empty bed contact time (EBCT) at 10 min and the initial arsenic concentration at 30 ppb, the number of bed volumes that could be treated by these dry ZrO2 spheres reached ∼255,000 BVs and ∼271,000 BVs for As(III) and As(V), respectively, until the maximum contaminant level of 10 ppb was reached. These ZrO2 spheres are non-toxic, highly stable, and resistant to acid and alkali, have a high arsenic adsorption capacity, and could be easily adapted for various arsenic removal apparatus. Thus, these ZrO2 spheres may have a promising potential for their application in water treatment practice.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Organization and regulation of the arsenite oxidase operon of the moderately acidophilic and facultative chemoautotrophic Thiomonas arsenitoxydans

Authors: Slyemi, D; Moinier, D; Talla, E; Bonnefoy, V (In Press) . HERO ID: 1936040

[Less] Thiomonas arsenitoxydans is an acidophilic and facultatively autotrophic bacterium that can grow by . . . [More] Thiomonas arsenitoxydans is an acidophilic and facultatively autotrophic bacterium that can grow by oxidizing arsenite to arsenate. A comparative genomic analysis showed that the T. arsenitoxydans aioBA cluster encoding the two subunits of arsenite oxidase is distinct from the other clusters, with two specific genes encoding a cytochrome c and a metalloregulator belonging to the ArsR/SmtB family. These genes are cotranscribed with aioBA, suggesting that these cytochromes c are involved in arsenite oxidation and that this operon is controlled by the metalloregulator. The growth of T. arsenitoxydans in the presence of thiosulfate and arsenite, or arsenate, is biphasic. Real-time PCR experiments showed that the operon is transcribed during the second growth phase in the presence of arsenite or arsenate, whereas antimonite had no effect. These results suggest that the expression of the aioBA operon of T. arsenitoxydans is regulated by the electron donor present in the medium, i.e., is induced in the presence of arsenic but is repressed by more energetic substrates. Our data indicate that the genetic organization and regulation of the aioBA operon of T. arsenitoxydans differ from those of the other arsenite oxidizers.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Stable transformation of ferns using spores as targets: Pteris vittata and Ceratopteris thalictroides

Authors: Muthukumar, B; Joyce, BL; Elless, MP; Stewart, CN, Jr (In Press) Plant Physiology. HERO ID: 1936070

[Less] Ferns (Pteridophyta) are very important members of the plant kingdom that lag behind other taxa with . . . [More] Ferns (Pteridophyta) are very important members of the plant kingdom that lag behind other taxa with regards to our understanding of their genetics, genomics, and molecular biology. We report here the first instance of stable transformation of fern with recovery of transgenic sporophytes. Spores of the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) and tetraploid Ceratopteris thalictroides (C-fern 'Express') were stably transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens with constructs containing the P. vittata actin promoter driving a GUSPlus reporter gene. Reporter gene expression assays were performed on multiple tissues and growth stages of gametophytes and sporophytes. Southern blot analysis confirmed stable transgene integration in recovered sporophytes and also confirmed that no plasmid from Agrobacterium was present in the sporophyte tissues. We recovered seven independent transformants of P. vittata and four independent C. thalictroides transgenics. Inheritance analyses using GUS histochemical staining revealed that the GUS transgene was stably expressed in second (T2) generation C. thalictroides sporophytic tissues. In an independent experiment, the gusA gene that was driven by the 2x CaMV 35S promoter was bombarded into P. vittata spores using biolistics in which putatively stable transgenic gametophytes were recovered. Transformation procedures required no tissue culture or selectable marker genes. However, we did attempt to use hygromycin selection, which was ineffective to recover transgenic ferns. This simple stable transformation method should help facilitate functional genomics studies in ferns.