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ISA Carbon Monoxide (2010)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Air pollution and autonomic and vascular dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease: Interactions of systemic inflammation, overweight, and gender

Authors: Huang, W; Zhu, T; Pan, X; Hu, M; Lu, SE; Lin, Y; Wang, T; Zhang, Y; Tang, X (2012) American Journal of Epidemiology 176:117-126. HERO ID: 1255463

[Less] The authors conducted a 2-year follow-up of 40 cardiovascular disease patients (mean age = 65.6 years . . . [More] The authors conducted a 2-year follow-up of 40 cardiovascular disease patients (mean age = 65.6 years (standard deviation, 5.8)) who underwent repeated measurements of cardiovascular response before and during the 2008 Beijing Olympics (Beijing, China), when air pollution was strictly controlled. Ambient levels of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM(2.5)), black carbon, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and carbon monoxide were measured continuously, with validation of concurrent real-time measurements of personal exposure to PM(2.5) and carbon monoxide. Linear mixed-effects models were used with adjustment for individual risk factors, time-varying factors, and meteorologic effects. Significant heart rate variability reduction and blood pressure elevation were observed in association with exposure to air pollution. Specifically, interquartile-range increases of 51.8 µg/m(3), 2.02 µg/m(3), and 13.7 ppb in prior 4-hour exposure to PM(2.5), black carbon, and nitrogen dioxide were associated with significant reductions in the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals of 4.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9, 6.4), 4.2% (95% CI: 1.8, 6.6), and 3.9% (95% CI: 2.2, 5.7), respectively. Greater heart rate variability declines were observed among subjects with C-reactive protein values above the 90th percentile, subjects with a body mass index greater than 25, and females. The authors conclude that autonomic and vascular dysfunction may be one of the mechanisms through which air pollution exposure can increase cardiovascular disease risk, especially among persons with systemic inflammation and overweight.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Air pollution and markers of coagulation, inflammation, and endothelial function: Associations and epigene-environment interactions in an elderly cohort

Authors: Bind, MA; Baccarelli, A; Zanobetti, A; Tarantini, L; Suh, H; Vokonas, P; Schwartz, J (2012) Epidemiology 23:332-340. HERO ID: 1012937

[Less] BACKGROUND: : Previous studies suggest that air pollution is related to thrombosis, . . . [More] BACKGROUND: : Previous studies suggest that air pollution is related to thrombosis, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Mechanisms and sources of susceptibility are still unclear. One possibility is that these associations can be modified by DNA methylation states.

METHODS: : We conducted a cohort study with repeated measurements of fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in 704 elderly men participating in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study (2000-2009). We investigated short- and intermediate-term air pollution effects on these blood markers, and epigene-environment interactions by DNA methylation of Alu, LINE-1, tissue factor (F3), Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2), and ICAM-1.

RESULTS: : We found effects of particle number, black carbon, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) on fibrinogen. Ozone was a predictor of C-reactive protein and ICAM-1. Particle number, black carbon, NO2, CO, PM2.5, and sulfates were associated with ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. An interquartile range increase in 24-hour exposure for NO2 was associated with a 1.7% (95% confidence interval = 0.2%-3.3%) increase in fibrinogen for ozone; a 10.8% (2.2%-20.0%) increase in C-reactive protein for particle number; a 5.9% (3.6%-8.3%) increase in ICAM-1; and for PM2.5, a 3.7% (1.7%-5.8%) increase in VCAM-1. The air pollution effect was stronger among subjects having higher Alu, lower LINE-1, tissue factor, or TLR-2 methylation status.

CONCLUSION: : We observed associations of traffic-related pollutants on fibrinogen, and both traffic and secondary particles on C-reactive protein, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. There was effect modification by DNA methylation status, indicating that epigenetic states can convey susceptibility to air pollution.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Apparent temperature and acute myocardial infarction hospital admissions in Copenhagen, Denmark: A case-crossover study

Authors: Wichmann, J; Ketzel, M; Ellermann, T; Loft, S (2012) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 11. HERO ID: 1255122

[Less] BACKGROUND: The influence of temperature on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The influence of temperature on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not been investigated as extensively as the effects of broader outcomes of morbidity and mortality. Sixteen studies reported inconsistent results and two considered confounding by air pollution. We addressed some of the methodological limitations of the previous studies in this study.

METHODS: This is the first study of the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tapp(max)) and AMI hospital admissions in Copenhagen. The study period covered 1 January 1999-31 December 2006, stratified in warm (April-September) and cold (October-March) periods. A case-crossover epidemiology study design was applied. Models were adjusted for public holidays and influenza, confounding by PM₁₀, NO₂ and CO was investigated, the lag and non-linear effects of Tapp(max) was examined, effect modification by age, sex and SES was explored, and the results of the case-crossover models were compared to those of the generalised additive Poisson time-series and generalised estimating equation models.

RESULTS: 14,456 AMI hospital admissions (12,995 people) occurred during the study period. For an inter-quartile range (6 or 7°C) increase in the 5-day cumulative average of Tapp(max), a 4% (95% CI:-2%; 10%) and 9% (95% CI: 3%; 14%) decrease in the AMI admission rate was observed in the warm and cold periods, respectively. The 19-65 year old group, men and highest SES group seemed to be more susceptible in the cold period.

CONCLUSION: An increase in Tapp(max) is associated with a decrease in AMI admissions during the colder months.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Association between changes in air pollution levels during the Beijing Olympics and biomarkers of inflammation and thrombosis in healthy young adults

Authors: Rich, DQ; Kipen, HM; Huang, W; Wang, G; Wang, Y; Zhu, P; Ohman-Strickland, P; Hu, M; Philipp, C; Diehl, SR; Lu, SE; Tong, J; Gong, J; Thomas, D; Zhu, T; Zhang, JJ (2012) JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 307:2068-2078. HERO ID: 1257762

[Less] CONTEXT: Air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the . . . [More] CONTEXT: Air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the underlying biological mechanisms are not well understood.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether markers related to CVD pathophysiological pathways (biomarkers for systemic inflammation and thrombosis, heart rate, and blood pressure) are sensitive to changes in air pollution.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Using a quasi-experimental opportunity offered by greatly restricted air pollution emissions during the Beijing Olympics, we measured pollutants daily and the outcomes listed below in 125 healthy young adults before, during, and after the 2008 Olympics (June 2-October 30). We used linear mixed-effects models to estimate the improvement in outcome levels during the Olympics and the anticipated reversal of outcome levels after pollution controls ended to determine whether changes in outcome levels were associated with changes in pollutant concentrations.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), soluble P-selectin (sCD62P) concentrations; white blood cell count (WBC); heart rate; and blood pressure.

RESULTS: Concentrations of particulate and gaseous pollutants decreased substantially (-13% to -60%) from the pre-Olympic period to the during-Olympic period. Using 2-sided tests conducted at the .003 level, we observed statistically significant improvements in sCD62P levels by -34.0% (95% CI, -38.4% to -29.2%; P < .001) from a pre-Olympic mean of 6.29 ng/mL to a during-Olympic mean of 4.16 ng/mL and von Willebrand factor by -13.1% (95% CI, -18.6% to -7.5%; P < .001) from 106.4% to 92.6%. After adjustments for multiple comparisons, changes in the other outcomes were not statistically significant. In the post-Olympic period when pollutant concentrations increased, most outcomes approximated pre-Olympic levels, but only sCD62P and systolic blood pressure were significantly worsened from the during-Olympic period. The fraction of above-detection-limit values for CRP (percentage ≥ 0.3 mg/L) was reduced from 55% in the pre-Olympic period to 46% in the during-Olympic period and reduced further to 36% in the post-Olympic period. Interquartile range increases in pollutant concentrations were consistently associated with statistically significant increases in fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, heart rate, sCD62P, and sCD40L concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS: Changes in air pollution levels during the Beijing Olympics were associated with acute changes in biomarkers of inflammation and thrombosis and measures of cardiovascular physiology in healthy young persons. These findings are of uncertain clinical significance.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Environmental Protection Agency: 40 CFR Parts 50, 53 and 58 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0015; FRL-9455-2] RIN 2060-A143: Review of national ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide; finale rule

Author: Federal Register (2011) Federal Register 76:54294-54343. HERO ID: 2990925


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Erratum: Particulate air pollution exposure and C-reactive protein during early pregnancy

Authors: Lee, PC; Talbott, EO; Roberts, JM; Catov, JM; Sharma, RK; Ritz, B (2011) Epidemiology 22:752. [Erratum] HERO ID: 2049513

[Less] Throughout the paper, the unit of measure for C-reactive protein is given as nanograms per milliliter. . . . [More] Throughout the paper, the unit of measure for C-reactive protein is given as nanograms per milliliter. This should instead be micrograms per milliliter. In addition, under the exposure assessment section, the grid size is given as 13.4 square meters and this should instead be 0.46 square miles.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The relationship of air pollution and surrogate markers of endothelial dysfunction in a population-based sample of children

Authors: Poursafa, P; Kelishadi, R; Lahijanzadeh, A; Modaresi, M; Javanmard, SH; Assari, R; Amin, MM; Moattar, F; Amini, A; Sadeghian, B (2011) BMC Public Health 11:115. HERO ID: 1255306

[Less] BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the relationship of air pollution and plasma . . . [More] BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the relationship of air pollution and plasma surrogate markers of endothelial dysfunction in the pediatric age group.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009-2010 among 125 participants aged 10-18 years. They were randomly selected from different areas of Isfahan city, the second large and air-polluted city in Iran. The association of air pollutants' levels with serum thrombomodulin (TM) and tissue factor (TF) was determined after adjustment for age, gender, anthropometric measures, dietary and physical activity habits.

RESULTS: Data of 118 participants was complete and was analyzed. The mean age was 12.79 (2.35) years. The mean pollution standards index (PSI) value was at moderate level, the mean particular matter measuring up to 10 μm (PM10) was more than twice the normal level. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TF had significant relationship with all air pollutants except than carbon monoxide, and TM had significant inverse relationship with ozone. The odds ratio of elevated TF was significantly higher in the upper vs. the lowest quartiles of PM10, ozone and PSI. The corresponding figures were in opposite direction for TM.

CONCLUSIONS: The relationship of air pollutants with endothelial dysfunction and pro-coagulant state can be an important factor in the development of atherosclerosis from early life. This finding should be confirmed in future longitudinal studies. Concerns about the harmful effects of air pollution on children's health should be considered a top priority for public health policy; it should be underscored in primordial and primary prevention of chronic diseases.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Electrocardiographic ST-segment depression and exposure to traffic‑related aerosols in elderly subjects with coronary artery disease

Authors: Delfino, RJ; Gillen, DL; Tjoa, T; Staimer, N; Polidori, A; Arhami, M; Sioutas, C; Longhurst, J (2011) Environmental Health Perspectives 119:196-202. HERO ID: 677632

[Less] Background: Air pollutants have not been associated with ambulatory electrocardiographic evidence of . . . [More] Background: Air pollutants have not been associated with ambulatory electrocardiographic evidence of ST-segment depression ≥ 1 mm (probable cardiac ischemia). We previously found that markers of primary (combustion-related) organic aerosols and gases were positively associated with circulating biomarkers of inflammation and ambulatory blood pressure in the present cohort panel study of elderly subjects with coronary artery disease.

Objectives: We specifically aimed to evaluate whether exposure markers of primary organic aerosols and ultrafine particles were more strongly associated with ST-segment depression of ≥ 1 mm than were secondary organic aerosols or PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) mass.

Methods: We evaluated relations of air pollutants to ambulatory electrocardiographic evidence of cardiac ischemia over 10 days in 38 subjects without ST depression on baseline electrocardiographs. Exposures were measured outdoors in retirement communities in the Los Angeles basin, including daily size-fractionated particle mass and hourly markers of primary and secondary organic aerosols and gases. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate odds of hourly ST-segment depression (≥ 1 mm) from hourly air pollution exposures and to estimate relative rates of daily counts of ST-segment depression from daily average exposures, controlling for potential confounders.

Results: We found significant positive associations of hourly ST-segment depression with markers 
of combustion-related aerosols and gases averaged 1-hr through 3-4 days, but not secondary (photochemically aged) organic aerosols or ozone. The odds ratio per interquartile increase in 2-day average primary organic carbon (5.2 µg/m3) was 15.4 (95% confidence interval, 3.5-68.2). Daily counts of ST-segment depression were consistently associated with primary combustion markers and 2-day average quasi-ultrafine particles < 0.25 µm.

Conclusions: Results suggest that exposure to quasi-ultrafine particles and combustion-related pollutants (predominantly from traffic) increase the risk of myocardial ischemia, coherent with our previous findings for systemic inflammation and blood pressure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The relationship between traffic-related air pollutants and cardiac autonomic function in a panel of healthy adults: A further analysis with existing data

Authors: Wu, S; Deng, F; Niu, J; Huang, Q; Liu, Y; Guo, X (2011) Inhalation Toxicology 23:289-303. HERO ID: 712765

[Less] Context: Epidemiological studies have linked particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) exposures . . . [More] Context: Epidemiological studies have linked particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) exposures with alterations in cardiac autonomic function as measured by heart rate variability (HRV) in populations. Recently, we reported association of several HRV indices with marked changes in particulate air pollution around the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games in a panel of healthy adults. Objective: We further investigated the cardiac effects of traffic-related air pollutants over wide exposure ranges with expanded data set in this panel of healthy adults. Methods: We obtained real-time data on nine taxi drivers' in-car exposures to PM ≤2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)) and CO and on multiple HRV indices during a separate daily work shift in four study periods with dramatically changing air pollution levels around the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Mixed effect models and a loess smoother method were used to investigate the associations of exposures with HRV indices. Results: Results showed overall negative associations of traffic-related air pollutants with HRV indices across periods, as well as differences in period-specific and individual associations. After stratifying the individuals into two different response groups (positive/negative), cardiac effects of air pollutants became stronger within each group. Exposure-response modeling identified changed curvilinear relationships between air pollution exposures and HRV indices with threshold effects. Discussion and conclusion: Our results support the association of exposure to traffic-related air pollution with altered cardiac autonomic function in young healthy adults free of cardiovascular compromises. These results suggest a complicated mechanism that traffic-related air pollutants influence the cardiovascular system of healthy adults.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposures to PM(2.5) components and heart rate variability in taxi drivers around the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

Authors: Wu, SW; Deng, FR; Niu, J; Huang, QS; Liu, YC; Guo, XB (2011) Science of the Total Environment 409:2478-2485. HERO ID: 835799

[Less] Background: Carbonaceous and metallic components of particles have been shown to play a role in particles' . . . [More] Background: Carbonaceous and metallic components of particles have been shown to play a role in particles' effects on cardiac autonomic function as measured by heart rate variability (HRV). Previously we reported the association of HRV with marked changes in traffic-related particulate air pollution around the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games in a panel of taxi drivers. Objective: We further investigated the relationship between exposures to the carbonaceous and metallic components of traffic-related particles and HRV in the same population. Methods: Repeated measurements of in-car exposures to particulate matter <= 2.5 jam in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)), carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides were conducted in a group of 14 taxi drivers for one work shift in four study periods around the Beijing 2008 Olympics. The quantities of organic/elemental carbons and 27 elements of the in-car PM(2.5) mass were determined laboratorially. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the impact of exposures to different PM(2.5) components on HRV while controlling for potential confounders. Results: Taxi drivers' exposures to in-car PM(2.5) and its components showed dramatic changes across the four study periods around the Beijing 2008 Olympics. Differences in associations of in-car PM(2.5) components with HRV were found. An interquartile range (IQR: 917.9 ng/m(3)) increase in calcium was associated with a 5.48 millisecond [ms, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71. 10.24] increase in standard deviations of normal-to-normal (SDNN) intervals, while an IQR (4.1 ng/m(3)) increase in nickel was associated with a 1.53 ms (95% CI: 0.14, 2.92) increase in SDNN index. Additionally, a decline of 8.11 ms (95% CI: -15.26, -0.97) in SDNN per IQR (481.4 ng/m(3)) increase in iron was also found. Conclusion: The results suort associations of PM(2.5) metallic components with HRV in younger healthy individuals. Future studies are needed to clarify the interaction among different PM(2.5) components or the role of PM(2.5) mixtures. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.