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ISA Carbon Monoxide (2010)

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1,037 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Even low levels of ambient air pollutants are associated with increased emergency department visits for hypertension

Authors: Szyszkowicz, M; Rowe, BH; Brook, RD (2012) Canadian Journal of Cardiology 28:360-366. HERO ID: 1254276

[Less] BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported associations between air pollution and cardiovascular . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported associations between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases. While several studies illustrate that exposures to air pollutants can elevate blood pressure, few have evaluated the clinical relevance of this relationship. Hence, we aimed to explore the associations between daily concentrations of several air pollutants and emergency department visits for hypertension.

METHODS: Odds ratios (ORs) for emergency department visits for hypertension in Edmonton, Canada, from April 1992 to March 2002 were associated with pollutant levels (CO, NO(2), SO(2), O(3), and particulate matter [PM] < 10 microns [PM(10)] and < 2.5 microns [PM(2.5)] in aerodynamic diameter, respectively) by means of a case-crossover technique with time-stratified strategy to define controls. The analysis was performed for all (N = 5365), male (N = 2069), and female (N = 3296) patients and for six air pollutants lagged by 0 to 9 days. ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported for an increase in an interquartile range (IQR) for each pollutant.

RESULTS: We observed associations for all patients and levels of NO(2) (IQR = 12.8 parts per billion; OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.00-1.12), SO(2) (IQR = 2.3 parts per billion; OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.08), and PM(10) (IQR = 15.0 μg/m(3); OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.11) for lag day 3, as well as for PM(10) (IQR = 15.0 μg/m(3); OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.11) and PM(2.5) (IQR = 6.2 μg/m(3); OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.11) for lag day 6.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the contention that ambient pollution can produce clinically meaningful increases in blood pressure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Apparent temperature and acute myocardial infarction hospital admissions in Copenhagen, Denmark: A case-crossover study

Authors: Wichmann, J; Ketzel, M; Ellermann, T; Loft, S (2012) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 11. HERO ID: 1255122

[Less] BACKGROUND: The influence of temperature on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The influence of temperature on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not been investigated as extensively as the effects of broader outcomes of morbidity and mortality. Sixteen studies reported inconsistent results and two considered confounding by air pollution. We addressed some of the methodological limitations of the previous studies in this study.

METHODS: This is the first study of the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tapp(max)) and AMI hospital admissions in Copenhagen. The study period covered 1 January 1999-31 December 2006, stratified in warm (April-September) and cold (October-March) periods. A case-crossover epidemiology study design was applied. Models were adjusted for public holidays and influenza, confounding by PM₁₀, NO₂ and CO was investigated, the lag and non-linear effects of Tapp(max) was examined, effect modification by age, sex and SES was explored, and the results of the case-crossover models were compared to those of the generalised additive Poisson time-series and generalised estimating equation models.

RESULTS: 14,456 AMI hospital admissions (12,995 people) occurred during the study period. For an inter-quartile range (6 or 7°C) increase in the 5-day cumulative average of Tapp(max), a 4% (95% CI:-2%; 10%) and 9% (95% CI: 3%; 14%) decrease in the AMI admission rate was observed in the warm and cold periods, respectively. The 19-65 year old group, men and highest SES group seemed to be more susceptible in the cold period.

CONCLUSION: An increase in Tapp(max) is associated with a decrease in AMI admissions during the colder months.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ambient air pollution and the risk of acute ischemic stroke

Authors: Wellenius, GA; Burger, MR; Coull, BA; Schwartz, J; Suh, HH; Koutrakis, P; Schlaug, G; Gold, DR; Mittleman, MA (2012) Archives of Internal Medicine 172:229-234. HERO ID: 1255208

[Less] BACKGROUND: The link between daily changes in level of ambient fine particulate matter . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The link between daily changes in level of ambient fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution (PM <2.5 μm in diameter [PM(2.5)]) and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is well established. Whether PM(2.5) levels below current US National Ambient Air Quality Standards also increase the risk of ischemic stroke remains uncertain.

METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 1705 Boston area patients hospitalized with neurologist-confirmed ischemic stroke and abstracted data on the time of symptom onset and clinical characteristics. The PM(2.5) concentrations were measured at a central monitoring station. We used the time-stratified case-crossover study design to assess the association between the risk of ischemic stroke onset and PM(2.5) levels in the hours and days preceding each event. We examined whether the association with PM(2.5) levels differed by presumed ischemic stroke pathophysiologic mechanism and patient characteristics.

RESULTS: The estimated odds ratio (OR) of ischemic stroke onset was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.13-1.58) (P < .001) following a 24-hour period classified as moderate (PM(2.5) 15-40 μg/m(3)) by the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Air Quality Index compared with a 24-hour period classified as good (≤15 μg/m(3)). Considering PM(2.5) levels as a continuous variable, we found the estimated odds ratio of ischemic stroke onset to be 1.11 (95% CI, 1.03-1.20) (P = .006) per interquartile range increase in PM(2.5) levels (6.4 μg/m(3)). The increase in risk was greatest within 12 to 14 hours of exposure to PM(2.5) and was most strongly associated with markers of traffic-related pollution.

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that exposure to PM(2.5) levels considered generally safe by the US EPA increase the risk of ischemic stroke onset within hours of exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma in Windsor, Canada

Authors: Lavigne, E; Villeneuve, PJ; Cakmak, S (2012) Canadian Journal of Public Health 103:4-8. HERO ID: 1240059

[Less] OBJECTIVES: The city of Windsor is recognized to have poor air quality in comparison . . . [More] OBJECTIVES: The city of Windsor is recognized to have poor air quality in comparison with other Canadian cities. However, relatively few studies have evaluated associations between day-to-day fluctuations in air pollution levels and respiratory health in Windsor. In this study, we examined associations between short-term changes in ambient air pollution and emergency department (ED) visits for asthma in Windsor.

METHODS: A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied to 3,728 ED visits for asthma that occurred in Windsor area hospitals between 2002 and 2009. Daily air pollution levels for the region were estimated using Environment Canada's network of fixed-site monitors. ED visits were identified through the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS). Odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression, and were adjusted for the confounding influence of daily number of influenza ED visits and weather variables using natural spline functions.

RESULTS: Statistically significant associations were observed between ambient air pollution levels and ED visits for asthma in Windsor. Effects were particularly pronounced among children 2 to 14 years of age between April and September. Namely, increases in the interquartile range with 1-day lagged exposure to SO2, NO2 and CO levels were associated with increased risks of an asthma visit of 19%, 25% and 36%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Exposure in Windsor to ambient air pollution increases the risk of ED visits for asthma, particularly among children.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Environmental Protection Agency: 40 CFR Parts 50, 53 and 58 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0015; FRL-9455-2] RIN 2060-A143: Review of national ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide; finale rule

Author: Federal Register (2011) Federal Register 76:54294-54343. HERO ID: 2990925


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Erratum: Particulate air pollution exposure and C-reactive protein during early pregnancy

Authors: Lee, PC; Talbott, EO; Roberts, JM; Catov, JM; Sharma, RK; Ritz, B (2011) Epidemiology 22:752. [Erratum] HERO ID: 2049513

[Less] Throughout the paper, the unit of measure for C-reactive protein is given as nanograms per milliliter. . . . [More] Throughout the paper, the unit of measure for C-reactive protein is given as nanograms per milliliter. This should instead be micrograms per milliliter. In addition, under the exposure assessment section, the grid size is given as 13.4 square meters and this should instead be 0.46 square miles.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The effects of hourly differences in air pollution on the risk of myocardial infarction: Case crossover analysis of the MINAP database

Authors: Bhaskaran, K; Hajat, S; Armstrong, B; Haines, A; Herrett, E; Wilkinson, P; Smeeth, L (2011) B M J 343:d5531. HERO ID: 832557

[Less] Objectives To investigate associations between air pollution levels and myocardial infarction (MI) on . . . [More] Objectives To investigate associations between air pollution levels and myocardial infarction (MI) on short timescales, with data at an hourly temporal resolution. Design Time stratified case crossover study linking clinical data from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP) with PM(10), ozone, CO, NO(2), and SO(2) data from the UK National Air Quality Archive. Pollution effects were investigated with delays (lags) of 1-6, 7-12, 13-18, 19-24, and 25-72 hours in both single and multi-pollutant models, adjusted for ambient temperature, relative humidity, circulating levels of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, day of week, holidays, and residual seasonality within calendar month strata. Setting Population based study in 15 conurbations in England and Wales. Subjects 79 288 diagnoses of myocardial infarction recorded over the period 2003-6. Main outcome measures Excess risk of myocardial infarction per 10 mu g/m(3) increase in pollutant level. Results In single pollutant models, PM(10) and NO(2) levels were associated with a very short term increase in risk of myocardial infarction 1-6 hours later (excess risks 1.2% (95% confidence interval 0.3 to 2.1) and 1.1% (0.3 to 1.8) respectively per 10 mu g/m(3) increase); the effects persisted in multi-pollutant models, though with only weak evidence of an independent PM(10) effect (P=0.05). The immediate risk increases were followed by reductions in risk at longer lags: we found no evidence of any net excess risk associated with the five pollutants studied over a 72 hour period after exposure. Conclusions Higher levels of PM(10) and NO(2), which are typically markers of traffic related pollution, seem to be associated with transiently increased risk of myocardial infarction 1-6 hours after exposure, but later reductions in risk suggest that air pollution may be associated with bringing events forward in time ("short-term displacement") rather than increasing overall risk. The well established effect of air pollution on cardiorespiratory mortality may not be mediated through increasing the acute risk of myocardial infarction, but through another mechanism.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The relationship of air pollution and surrogate markers of endothelial dysfunction in a population-based sample of children

Authors: Poursafa, P; Kelishadi, R; Lahijanzadeh, A; Modaresi, M; Javanmard, SH; Assari, R; Amin, MM; Moattar, F; Amini, A; Sadeghian, B (2011) BMC Public Health 11:115. HERO ID: 1255306

[Less] BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the relationship of air pollution and plasma . . . [More] BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the relationship of air pollution and plasma surrogate markers of endothelial dysfunction in the pediatric age group.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009-2010 among 125 participants aged 10-18 years. They were randomly selected from different areas of Isfahan city, the second large and air-polluted city in Iran. The association of air pollutants' levels with serum thrombomodulin (TM) and tissue factor (TF) was determined after adjustment for age, gender, anthropometric measures, dietary and physical activity habits.

RESULTS: Data of 118 participants was complete and was analyzed. The mean age was 12.79 (2.35) years. The mean pollution standards index (PSI) value was at moderate level, the mean particular matter measuring up to 10 μm (PM10) was more than twice the normal level. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TF had significant relationship with all air pollutants except than carbon monoxide, and TM had significant inverse relationship with ozone. The odds ratio of elevated TF was significantly higher in the upper vs. the lowest quartiles of PM10, ozone and PSI. The corresponding figures were in opposite direction for TM.

CONCLUSIONS: The relationship of air pollutants with endothelial dysfunction and pro-coagulant state can be an important factor in the development of atherosclerosis from early life. This finding should be confirmed in future longitudinal studies. Concerns about the harmful effects of air pollution on children's health should be considered a top priority for public health policy; it should be underscored in primordial and primary prevention of chronic diseases.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage induced by ambient pollution in the Normative Aging Study

Authors: Ren, C; Fang, S; Wright, RO; Suh, H; Schwartz, J (2011) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68:562-569. HERO ID: 807160

[Less] Background: Studies show that exposure to air pollution damages human health, but the mechanisms are . . . [More] Background: Studies show that exposure to air pollution damages human health, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. One suggested pathway is via oxidative stress.

Objectives: This study examines associations between exposure to air pollution and oxidative DNA damage, as indicated by urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations in ageing participants during 2006–2008.

Methods: We fit linear regression models to examine associations between air pollutants and 8-OHdG adjusting for potential confounders.

Results: 8-OHdG was significantly associated with ambient particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), maximal 1 h ozone (O3), sulphate (SO42−) and organic carbon (OC), but not with black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), the number of particles (PN) or elemental carbon (EC). Effects were more apparent with multi-week averages of exposures. Per IQR increases in 21-day averages of PM2.5, PN, BC, EC, OC, CO, SO42−, NO2 and maximal 1 h O3 were associated with 30.8% (95% CI 9.3% to 52.2%), −13.1% (95% CI −41.7% to 15.5%), 3.0% (95% CI −19.8% to 25.8%), 5.3% (95% CI −23.6% to 34.2%), 24.4% (95% CI 1.8% to 47.1%), −2.0% (95% CI −12.4% to 8.3%), 29.8% (95% CI 6.3% to 53.3%), 32.2% (95% CI 7.4% to 56.9%) and 47.7% (95% CI 3.6% to 91.7%) changes in 8-OHdG, respectively.

Conclusions: This study suggests that ageing participants experienced an increased risk of developing oxidative DNA injury after exposure to secondary, but not primary, ambient pollutants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Air pollutants and morbidity of cardiopulmonary diseases in a semi-urban Greek peninsula

Authors: Kalantzi, EG; Makris, D; Duquenne, MN; Kaklamani, S; Stapountzis, H; Gourgoulianis, KI (2011) Atmospheric Environment 45:7121-7126. HERO ID: 1255105

[Less] Aim: To access the relationship between the frequency of hospitalizations due to respiratory and cardiovascular . . . [More] Aim: To access the relationship between the frequency of hospitalizations due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and air pollution. Material-method: Time series study during a seven year period (2001-2007) in a semi-urban tourist Greek peninsula. Data were collected from the computerized database of Volos General Hospital and included on a daily basis all emergency admissions of adults (>14 years old) which required hospitalization due to respiratory or cardiovascular problems. Daily concentrations of ambient pollutants [particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 mm (PM(10)), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO, NO(2), NO(x)) and ozone (O(3))] were obtained from three monitoring stations. The impact of air pollutants on morbidity was studied through time series analysis. The effects of time trend, season, and other cyclical factors, temperature, and humidity were accounted for. Auto-correlation and overdispersion were corrected. Results: There were significant associations between hospitalizations and all indicators of air pollution. Daily elevations in the concentrations of PM(10), NO, CO and O(3) increased significantly the number of hospitalizations for respiratory/cardiovascular causes both on the same day and at the next day (P < 0.05). Combined increase of CO and O(3) and of PM(10) and CO was associated with even higher hospitalization rates. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a significant relationship between morbidity burden of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and the levels of air pollution: these results underline that reinforcement of measures which target to control ambient pollution, is necessary. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.