Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Nanoscale Silver

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722 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles in testicular cells

Authors: Asare, N; Instanes, C; Sandberg, WJ; Refsnes, M; Schwarze, P; Kruszewski, M; Brunborg, G (2012) Toxicology 291:65-72. HERO ID: 1021908

[Less] Serious concerns have been expressed about potential risks of engineered nanoparticles. Regulatory health . . . [More] Serious concerns have been expressed about potential risks of engineered nanoparticles. Regulatory health risk assessment of such particles has become mandatory for the safe use of nanomaterials in consumer products and medicines; including the potential effects on reproduction and fertility, are relevant for this risk evaluation. In this study, we examined effects of silver particles of nano- (20nm) and submicron- (200nm) size, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2)-NPs; 21nm), with emphasis on reproductive cellular- and genotoxicity. Ntera2 (NT2, human testicular embryonic carcinoma cell line), and primary testicular cells from C57BL6 mice of wild type (WT) and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase knock-out (KO, mOgg1(-/-)) genotype were exposed to the particles. The latter mimics the repair status of human testicular cells vs oxidative damage and is thus a suitable model for human male reproductive toxicity studies. The results suggest that silver nano- and submicron-particles (AgNPs) are more cytotoxic and cytostatic compared to TiO(2)-NPs, causing apoptosis, necrosis and decreased proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The 200nm AgNPs in particular appeared to cause a concentration-dependent increase in DNA-strand breaks in NT2 cells, whereas the latter response did not seem to occur with respect to oxidative purine base damage analysed with any of the particles tested.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mechanism of silver nanoparticle toxicity is dependent on dissolved silver and surface coating in Caenorhabditis elegans

Authors: Yang, X; Gondikas, AP; Marinakos, SM; Auffan, M; Liu, J; Hsu-Kim, H; Meyer, JN (2012) Environmental Science and Technology 46:1119-1127. HERO ID: 1021911

[Less] The rapidly increasing use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in consumer products and medical applications . . . [More] The rapidly increasing use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in consumer products and medical applications has raised ecological and human health concerns. A key question for addressing these concerns is whether Ag NP toxicity is mechanistically unique to nanoparticulate silver, or if it is a result of the release of silver ions. Furthermore, since Ag NPs are produced in a large variety of monomer sizes and coatings, and since their physicochemical behavior depends on the media composition, it is important to understand how these variables modulate toxicity. We found that a lower ionic strength medium resulted in greater toxicity (measured as growth inhibition) of all tested Ag NPs to Caenorhabditis elegans and that both dissolved silver and coating influenced Ag NP toxicity. We found a linear correlation between Ag NP toxicity and dissolved silver, but no correlation between size and toxicity. We used three independent and complementary approaches to investigate the mechanisms of toxicity of differentially coated and sized Ag NPs: pharmacological (rescue with trolox and N-acetylcysteine), genetic (analysis of metal-sensitive and oxidative stress-sensitive mutants), and physicochemical (including analysis of dissolution of Ag NPs). Oxidative dissolution was limited in our experimental conditions (maximally 15% in 24 h) yet was key to the toxicity of most Ag NPs, highlighting a critical role for dissolved silver complexed with thiols in the toxicity of all tested Ag NPs. Some Ag NPs (typically less soluble due to size or coating) also acted via oxidative stress, an effect specific to nanoparticulate silver. However, in no case studied here was the toxicity of a Ag NP greater than would be predicted by complete dissolution of the same mass of silver as silver ions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nanosilver conditionally registered as new active ingredient

Author: Bergeson, LL (2012) Pollution Engineering, 44:(2)17 HERO ID: 1021919

[Less] The article reports on the conditional registration issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency . . . [More] The article reports on the conditional registration issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to Swiss company HeiQ Materials Ag. It mentions that the EPA has a conditional registration for the nanosilver pesticide and textile preservative, HeiQ AGS-20, manufactured by the Swiss company to enter the American market. It states that the agency required the company to conduct many studies on the adverse effect of the nanopesticide product to human health and the environment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Accumulation and phytotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to Cucurbita pepo

Authors: Hawthorne, J; Musante, C; Sinha, SK; White, JC (2012) International Journal of Phytoremediation 14:429-442. HERO ID: 1006110

[Less] The effect of bulk and engineered nanoparticle (NP) Ag, Au, Cu, Si, and C at 250 and 750 mg/L on zucchini . . . [More] The effect of bulk and engineered nanoparticle (NP) Ag, Au, Cu, Si, and C at 250 and 750 mg/L on zucchini biomass, transpiration, and element content was determined. The pH of bulk and NP solutions prior to plant growth frequently differed. Nanoparticle Cu solution pH was significantly higher than bulk Cu, whereas for Ag and C, the NPs had significantly lower pH. Plants were unaffected by Au, regardless of particle size or concentration. NP Ag reduced plant biomass and transpiration by 49-91% compared to equivalent bulk Ag. NP Si at 750 mg/L reduced plant growth and transpiration by 30-51% relative to bulk Si. Bulk and NP Cu were phytotoxic but much of the effect was alleviated by humic acid. The shoot Ag and Cu content did not differ based on particle size or concentration. The accumulation of bulk Au was greater than the NP, but humic acid increased the accumulation of NP and bulk Au by 5.6-fold and 80%, respectively. The uptake of NP Si was 5.6-6.5-fold greater than observed with the bulk element. These findings show that the NPs may have unique phytotoxicity or accumulation patterns and that solution properties can significantly impact particle fate and effects.

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What is nanotechnology?

Author: NNI (2012) Available online at http://www.nano.gov/nanotech-101/what/definition. (Aug 4, 2012). [Website] HERO ID: 1257391


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Interspecies comparisons on the uptake and toxicity of silver and cerium dioxide nanoparticles

Authors: Gaiser, BK; Fernandes, TF; Jepson, MA; Lead, JR; Tyler, CR; Baalousha, M; Biswas, A; Britton, GJ; Cole, PA; Johnston, BD; Ju-Nam, Y; Rosenkranz, P; Scown, TM; Stone, V (2012) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31:144-154. HERO ID: 1021895

[Less] An increasing number and quantity of manufactured nanoparticles are entering the environment as the . . . [More] An increasing number and quantity of manufactured nanoparticles are entering the environment as the diversity of their applications increases, and this will lead to the exposure of both humans and wildlife. However, little is known regarding their potential health effects. We compared the potential biological effects of silver (Ag; nominally 35 and 600-1,600 nm) and cerium dioxide (CeO(2;) nominally <25 nm and 1-5 µm) particles in a range of cell (human hepatocyte and intestinal and fish hepatocyte) and animal (Daphnia magna, Cyprinus carpio) models to assess possible commonalities in toxicity across taxa. A variety of analytical techniques were employed to characterize the particles and investigate their biological uptake. Silver particles were more toxic than CeO(2) in all test systems, and an equivalent mass dose of Ag nanoparticles was more toxic than larger micro-sized material. Cellular uptake of all materials tested was shown in C3A hepatocytes and Caco-2 intestinal cells, and for Ag, into the intestine, liver, gallbladder, and gills of carp exposed via the water. The commonalities in toxicity of these particle types across diverse biological systems suggest that cross-species extrapolations may be possible for metal nanoparticle test development in the future. Our findings also suggest transport of particles through the gastrointestinal barrier, which is likely to be an important uptake route when assessing particle risk.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Controllable synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles as standards for quantitative assessment of their cytotoxicity

Authors: Li, L; Sun, J; Li, X; Zhang, Y; Wang, Z; Wang, C; Dai, J; Wang, Q (2012) Biomaterials 33:1714-1721. HERO ID: 1021900

[Less] Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are appealing due to their excellent antibacterial/antivirus properties. . . . [More] Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are appealing due to their excellent antibacterial/antivirus properties. At the meantime, the wide applications of Ag NPs as antibacterial/antivirus agents arise the concern of Ag NPs' toxicity. However, quantitative understanding of the cytotoxicity of Ag NPs is minimum since that the Ag NPs in current studies have wide size distributions, in which the size effect of Ag NPs on cytotoxicity was unable to be accurately evaluated. In this work, unprecedentedly monodispersed Ag NPs with sizes of 25, 35, 45, 60 and 70 nm were obtained, respectively, by using an optimized polyol method with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as surfactant. It was found that the reaction temperature, reaction time, concentration of the surfactant and reactants are playing important roles in determining the size and size distribution of Ag NPs. With the monodispersed Ag NPs as standard samples, the size- and dose- dependent cytotoxicity of Ag NPs against Human lung fibroblast (HLF) cells was accurately accomplished in terms of cell viability, apoptosis and necrosis, reactive oxygen species, etc. We expect that the monodispersed Ag NPs will act as the standard samples for quantitatively characterizing the toxicity of Ag NPs in vitro and in vivo.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Piper longum leaf extracts and its cytotoxic activity against Hep-2 cell line

Authors: Jacob, SJ; Finub, JS; Narayanan, A (2012) Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 91:212-214. HERO ID: 1021902

[Less] There is an increasing commercial demand for various nanoparticles due to their extensive applicability . . . [More] There is an increasing commercial demand for various nanoparticles due to their extensive applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy and medicine. Wet chemical techniques were used for the traditional synthesis of metallic nanoparticles, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In the present study, we describe a cost effective and eco-friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from 1 mM AgNO(3) solution using the extract of Piper longum leaf as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, FTIR, and SEM. SEM analysis showed the spherical nanoparticles with 17.6-41 nm in size. These biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also exhibiting excellent cytotoxic effect on HEp-2 cell lines.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity study of silver nanoparticle on two mammalian cell lines

Authors: Mukherjee, SG; O'Claonadh, N; Casey, A; Chambers, G (2012) Toxicology In Vitro 26:238-251. HERO ID: 1021907

[Less] In this study the cytotoxic effect of commercially available silver (Ag) nanoparticle was evaluated . . . [More] In this study the cytotoxic effect of commercially available silver (Ag) nanoparticle was evaluated using human dermal and cervical cancer cell lines. Prior to the cellular studies a full particle size characterisation was carried out using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy in distilled water and cell culture media. The Zeta Potential (ZP) associated with the Ag nanoparticle was also determined in order to assess its stability in the solutions and its possible interaction with the media. The DLS and ZP study have suggested interaction of Ag nanoparticles with the media, which can lead to secondary toxicity. The toxic effects of Ag nanoparticles were then evaluated using different cytotoxic endpoints namely the lysosomal activity, mitochondrial metabolism, basic cellular metabolism, cellular protein content and cellular proliferative capacity. The cytotoxic effect of Ag nanoparticle was dependant on dose, exposure time and on the cell line tested. Further investigation was carried out on HeLa and HaCaT cell lines to elucidate the mechanism of its cytotoxicity. The Ag nanoparticle was noted to induce elevated levels of oxidative stress, glutathione depletion and damage to the cell membrane as found from the adenylate kinase assay and that leads to the apoptosis. Overall, significant differences were observed between the sensitivity of the two cell lines which can be understood in terms of their natural antioxidant levels.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cytotoxicity induced by engineered silver nanocrystallites is dependent on surface coatings and cell types

Authors: Suresh, AK; Pelletier, DA; Wang, W; Morrell-Falvey, JL; Gu, B; Doktycz, MJ (2012) Langmuir 28:2727-2735. HERO ID: 1021894

[Less] Due to their unique antimicrobial properties silver nanocrystallites have garnered substantial attention . . . [More] Due to their unique antimicrobial properties silver nanocrystallites have garnered substantial attention and are used extensively for biomedical applications as an additive to wound dressings, surgical instruments and bone substitute materials. They are also released into unintended locations such as the environment or biosphere. Therefore it is imperative to understand the potential interactions, fate and transport of nanoparticles with environmental biotic systems. Numerous factors including the composition, size, shape, surface charge, and capping molecule of nanoparticles are known to influence cell cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrate that the physical/chemical properties of the silver nanoparticles including surface charge, differential binding and aggregation potential, which are influenced by the surface coatings, are a major determining factor in eliciting cytotoxicity and in dictating potential cellular interactions. In the present investigation, silver nanocrystallites with nearly uniform size and shape distribution but with different surface coatings, imparting overall high negativity to high positivity, were synthesized. These nanoparticles included poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride-Ag, biogenic-Ag, colloidal-Ag (uncoated), and oleate-Ag with zeta potentials +45 ± 5, -12 ± 2, -42 ± 5, and -45 ± 5 mV, respectively; the particles were purified and thoroughly characterized so as to avoid false cytotoxicity interpretations. A systematic investigation on the cytotoxic effects, cellular response, and membrane damage caused by these four different silver nanoparticles was carried out using multiple toxicity measurements on mouse macrophage (RAW-264.7) and lung epithelial (C-10) cell lines. Our results clearly indicate that the cytotoxicity was dependent on various factors such as surface charge and coating materials used in the synthesis, particle aggregation, and the cell-type for the different silver nanoparticles that were investigated. Poly(diallyldimethylammonium)-coated Ag nanoparticles were found to be the most toxic, followed by biogenic-Ag and oleate-Ag nanoparticles, whereas uncoated or colloidal silver nanoparticles were found to be the least toxic to both macrophage and lung epithelial cells. Also, based on our cytotoxicity interpretations, lung epithelial cells were found to be more resistant to the silver nanoparticles than the macrophage cells, regardless of the surface coating.