Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


ISA-PM (2009 Final)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain

Authors: Lage, J; Almeida, SM; Reis, MA; Chaves, PC; Ribeiro, T; Garcia, S; Faria, JP; Fernández, BG; Wolterbeek, HT (2014) Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 77:856-866. HERO ID: 2528268

[Less] The adverse health effects of airborne particles have been subjected to intense investigation in recent . . . [More] The adverse health effects of airborne particles have been subjected to intense investigation in recent years; however, more studies on the chemical characterization of particles from pollution emissions are needed to (1) identify emission sources, (2) better understand the relative toxicity of particles, and (3) pinpoint more targeted emission control strategies and regulations. The main objective of this study was to assess the levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain. Instrumental and biomonitoring techniques were integrated and analytical methods for k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis and particle-induced x-ray emission were used to determine element content in aerosol filters and lichens. Results indicated that in general local industry contributed to the emissions of As, Sb, Cu, V, and Ni, which are associated with combustion processes. In addition, the steelwork emitted significant quantities of Fe and Mn and the cement factory was associated with Ca emissions. The spatial distribution of Zn and Al also indicated an important contribution of two industries located outside the studied area.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Air pollution and life expectancy

Author: Lipfert, FW (2014) Epidemiology 25:776-777. [Letter] HERO ID: 2347405


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the adverse health effects of ambient PM2.5 and PM10 pollution in the Chinese population

Authors: Lu, F; Xu, D; Cheng, Y; Dong, S; Guo, C; Jiang, X; Zheng, X (2014) Environmental Research 136C:196-204. [Review] HERO ID: 2533324

[Less] INTRODUCTION: As the largest developing country, China has some of the worst air quality . . . [More] INTRODUCTION: As the largest developing country, China has some of the worst air quality in the world. Heavy smog in January 2013 led to unprecedented public concern about the health impact of exposure to particulate matter. Conducting health impact assessments of particulate matter has thus become an urgent task for public health practitioners. Combined estimates of the health effects of exposure to particulate matter from quantitative reviews could provide vital information for epidemiology-based health impact assessments, but estimates for the Chinese population are limited.

METHODS: On December 31, 2013, we systematically searched the PubMed, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases using as keywords names of 127 major cities in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. From among the 1464 articles identified, 59 studies were manually screened. Random-effects or fixed-effects models were used to combine their risk estimates, the funnel plots with Egger test were performed to evaluate the publication bias and Meta regression were run to explore the association between exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 and 2.5µm (PM10 and PM2.5) and the resulting health effects by the Comprehensive Meta Analysis.

RESULTS: In terms of short-term effects, the combined excess risks of total non-accidental mortality, mortality due to cardiovascular disease, and mortality due to respiratory disease were 0.36% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.26%, 0.46%), 0.36% (95%CI: 0.24%, 0.49%), and 0.42% (95%CI: 0.28%, 0.55%), for each 10μg/m(3) increase in PM10. A 10μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.40% (95%CI: 0.22%, 0.59%) increase in total non-accidental mortality, a 0.63% (95%CI: 0.35%, 0.91%) increase in mortality due to cardiovascular disease, and a 0.75% (95%CI: 01.39%, 1.11%) increase in mortality due to respiratory disease. For constituent-specific mortality, increases of 0.40-3.11% were associated with an increase of 10ng/m(3) for nickel in PM. The summary estimate ranges of hospital utilization were 0.08% ~0.72% and -0.58% ~1.32% for a 10μg/m(3) increase in PM10 and PM2.5. In terms of long-term effects, a 10μg/m(3) increase of PM10 corresponded to 23-67% increase in the risk of mortality.

CONCLUSION: Short exposures to PM10 and PM2.5 are associated with increases in mortality, but evidence of constituent-associated health effects, long-term effects and morbidity in China is still inadequate.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterizing spatial patterns of airborne coarse particulate (PM10-2.5) mass and chemical components in three cities: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis

Authors: Zhang, K; Larson, TV; Gassett, A; Szpiro, AA; Daviglus, M; Burke, GL; Kaufman, JD; Adar, SD (2014) Environmental Health Perspectives 122:823-830. HERO ID: 2347426

[Less] BACKGROUND: The long-term health effects of coarse particular matter (PM10-2.5) are . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The long-term health effects of coarse particular matter (PM10-2.5) are challenging to assess due to a limited understanding of the spatial variation in PM10-2.5 mass and its chemical components.

OBJECTIVES: We conducted a spatially intensive field study and developed spatial prediction models for PM10-2.5 mass and four selected species (copper, zinc, phosphorus and silicon) in three American cities.

METHODS: PM10-2.5 snapshot campaigns were conducted in Chicago, Illinois, St. Paul, Minnesota, and Winston-Salem, North Carolina in 2009 for the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Coarse Airborne Particulate Matter (MESA Coarse). In each city, samples were collected simultaneously outside the homes of approximately 40 participants during 2-week periods in the winter and/or summer. City-specific and combined prediction models were developed using land use regression (LUR) and universal kriging (UK). Model performance was evaluated by cross-validation (CV).

RESULTS: PM10-2.5 mass and species varied within and between cities in a manner that was predictable by geographic covariates. City-specific LUR models generally performed well for total mass (CV R(2), 0.41 to 0.68), copper (CV R(2), 0.51 to 0.86), phosphorus (CV R(2), 0.50 to 0.76), silicon (CV R(2), 0.48 to 0.93) and zinc (CV R(2), 0.36 to 0.73). Models pooled across all cities performed inconsistently at capturing within-city variability. Little difference was observed between the performance of LUR and UK models in predicting concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS: Characterization of fine-scale spatial variability of these often heterogeneous pollutants using geographic covariates should reduce exposure misclassification and increase the power of epidemiological studies investigating the long-term health impacts of PM10-2.5.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Supplemental material: Characterizing spatial patterns of airborne coarse particulate (PM10-2.5) mass and chemical components in three cities: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis

Authors: Zhang, K; Larson, TV; Gassett, A; Szpiro, AA; Daviglus, M; Burke, GL; Kaufman, JD; Adar, SD (2014) Environmental Health Perspectives 122. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3644761


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Regional PM2.5 and asthma morbidity in an agricultural community: A panel study

Authors: Loftus, C; Yost, M; Sampson, P; Arias, G; Torres, E; Vasquez, VB; Bhatti, P; Karr, C (2014) Environmental Research 136C:505-512. HERO ID: 2533315

[Less] BACKGROUND: Elevated pediatric asthma morbidity has been observed in rural US communities, . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Elevated pediatric asthma morbidity has been observed in rural US communities, but the role of the ambient environment in exacerbating rural asthma is poorly understood.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between particulate matter less than 2.5μm in diameter (PM2.5) and pediatric asthma exacerbations in an agricultural community of Washington State.

METHODS: School-aged children with asthma (n=58) were followed for up to 25 months with repeated measures of respiratory health. Asthma symptoms and quick-relief medication use were assessed biweekly through phone administered surveys (n=2023 interviews). In addition, subjects used home peak flow meters on a daily basis to measure forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (n=7830 measurements). Regional PM2.5 was measured at a single air monitor located centrally in the study region. To assess relationships between PM2.5 and these outcomes we used linear regression with generalized estimating equations, adjusting for meteorological and temporal confounders. Effect modification by atopy was explored as well.

RESULTS: An interquartile increase (IQR) in weekly PM2.5 of 6.7μg/m(3) was associated with an increase in reported asthma symptoms Specific symptoms including wheezing, limitation of activities, and nighttime waking displayed the strongest associations. FEV1 as a percent of predicted decreased by 0.9% (95%CI: -1.8, 0.0) for an IQR increase in PM2.5 one day prior, and by 1.4% (95%CI: -2.7, -0.2) when restricted to children with atopic asthma.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that PM2.5 in an agricultural setting contributes to elevated asthma morbidity. Further work on identifying and mitigating sources of PM2.5 in the area is warranted.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cardiorespiratory treatments as modifiers of the relationship between particulate matter and health: A case-only analysis on hospitalized patients in Italy

Authors: Conti, S; Lafranconi, A; Zanobetti, A; Fornari, C; Madotto, F; Schwartz, J; Cesana, G (2014) Environmental Research 136C:491-499. HERO ID: 2533317

[Less] BACKGROUND: A few panel and toxicological studies suggest that health effects of particulate . . . [More] BACKGROUND: A few panel and toxicological studies suggest that health effects of particulate matter (PM) might be modified by medication intake, but whether this modification is confirmed in the general population or for more serious outcomes is still unknown.

OBJECTIVES: We carried out a population-based pilot study in order to assess how pre-hospitalization medical treatments modify the relationship between PM<10μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and the risk of cardiorespiratory admission.

METHODS: We gathered information on hospitalizations for cardiorespiratory causes, together with pre-admission pharmacological treatments, that occurred during 2005 in seven cities located in Lombardy (Northern Italy). City-specific PM10 concentrations were measured at fixed monitoring stations. Each treatment of interest was analyzed separately through a case-only approach, using generalized additive models accounting for sex, age, comorbidities, temperature and simultaneous intake of other drugs. Analyses were stratified by season and, if useful, by age and sex.

RESULTS: Our results showed a higher effect size for PM10 on respiratory admissions in subjects treated with theophylline (Odds Ratio (OR) of treatment for an increment of 10μg/m(3) in PM10 concentration: 1.119; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.013-1.237), while for cardiovascular admissions treatment with cardiac therapy (OR: 0.967, 95% CI: 0.940-0.995) and lipid modifying agents (OR: 0.962, 95% CI: 0.931-0.995) emerged as a protective factor, especially during the warm season. Evidence of a protective effect against the pollutant was found for glucocorticoids and respiratory admissions.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the treatment with cardiac therapy and lipid modifying agents might mitigate the effect of PM10 on cardiovascular health, while the use of theophylline seems to enhance the effect of the pollutant, possibly due to confounding by indication. It is desirable to extend the analyses to a larger population.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Physiological and perceived health effects from daily changes in air pollution and weather among persons with heart failure: A panel study

Authors: Goldberg, MS; Wheeler, AJ; Burnett, RT; Mayo, NE; Valois, MF; Brophy, JM; Giannetti, N (2014) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 25:187-199. HERO ID: 2349746

[Less] We carried out this daily diary panel study in Montreal, Quebec, to determine whether oxygen saturation, . . . [More] We carried out this daily diary panel study in Montreal, Quebec, to determine whether oxygen saturation, pulse rate, blood pressure, self-rated health, and shortness of breath at night were associated with concentrations of indoor carbon monoxide (CO), and indoor and outdoor fine particles (PM2.5), temperature, and relative humidity. Over a 2-month consecutive period between 2008 and 2010, we measured daily indoor and outdoor levels of the air pollutants and weather variables and 55 subjects measured their daily health and other variables. To estimate the associations between the health outcomes and the environmental exposures, we used a mixed effects regression model using an autoregressive model of order-one and we adjusted for month and day and personal variables. The general pattern of associations can be summarized as follows: oxygen saturation was reduced for increases in indoor- and outdoor-PM2.5 and temperature. Pulse rate increased on the concurrent day for increases in indoor CO and PM2.5. Diastolic blood pressure increased with increasing indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and relative humidity. Systolic blood pressure increased with indoor PM2.5 and decreased with increasing indoor and outdoor temperature. Self-rated health diminished with increases in outdoor PM2.5 and indoor and outdoor temperature. Self-reported shortness of breath at night increased with increasing indoor and outdoor temperatures. Health in heart failure is affected in the short term by personal and environmental conditions that are manifest in intermediate physiological parameters.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 18 June 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.43.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Smog episodes, fine particulate pollution and mortality in China

Authors: Zhou, M; He, G; Fan, M; Wang, Z; Liu, Y; Ma, J; Ma, Z; Liu, J; Liu, Y; Wang, L; Liu, Y (2014) Environmental Research 136C:396-404. HERO ID: 2533318

[Less] BACKGROUND: Starting from early January 2013, northern China was hit by multiple prolonged . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Starting from early January 2013, northern China was hit by multiple prolonged and severe smog events which were characterized by extremely high-level concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with hourly peaks of PM2.5 over 800µg/m(3). However, the consequences of this severe air pollution are largely unknown. This study investigates the acute effect of the smog episodes and PM2.5 on mortality for both urban and rural areas in northern China.

DATA AND METHODS: We collected PM2.5, mortality, and meteorological data for 5 urban city districts and 2 rural counties in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Province of China from January 1, 2013 through December 31, 2013. We employed the generalized additive models to estimate the associations between smog episodes or PM2.5 and daily mortality for each district/county.

RESULTS: Without any meteorological control, the smog episodes are positively and statistically significantly associated with mortality in 5 out of 7 districts/counties. However, the findings are sensitive to the meteorological factors. After controlling for temperature, humidity, dew point and wind, the statistical significance disappears in all urban districts. In contrast, the smog episodes are consistently and statistically significantly associated with higher total mortality and mortality from cardiovascular/respiratory diseases in the two rural counties. In Ji County, a smog episode is associated with 6.94% (95% Confidence Interval, -0.20 to 14.58) increase in overall mortality, and in Ci County it is associated with a 19.26% (95% CI, 6.66-33.34) increase in overall mortality. The smog episodes kill people primarily through its impact on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. On average, a smog episode is associated with 11.66% (95% CI, 3.12-20.90) increase in cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in Ji County, and it is associated with a 22.23% (95% CI, 8.11-38.20) increase in cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in Ci County. A 10μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 concentration is associated with 0.88% (95% CI, 0.3-1.46) increase in overall mortality and 1.2% (95% CI, 0.55-1.85) in Ji County. A 10μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 concentration is associated with 0.55% (95% CI, -0.02 to 1.13) increase in overall mortality in Ci County. The findings suggest that the smog episodes and fine particulate have bigger and more detrimental impacts on rural residents, especially for those living close to big and polluted cities.

CONCLUSIONS: The smog episodes and PM2.5 are statistically associated with mortality in rural areas of China. The associations for urban areas are not statistically significant.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Source attribution of personal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture using concurrent personal, indoor, and outdoor measurements

Authors: Choi, H; Spengler, J (2014) Environment International 63:173-181. HERO ID: 2214055

[Less] OBJECTIVES: Relative importance of multiple indoor and outdoor venues on personal exposure . . . [More] OBJECTIVES: Relative importance of multiple indoor and outdoor venues on personal exposure concentrations to pro-carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) remains poorly understood. This is particularly challenging because many c-PAHs share sources and occur as a complex mixture. Accurate and precise apportionment of personal exposure according to exposure venues could aid in the understanding of human health effects due to a given source. Here, we partitioned indoor and personal exposure concentrations to seven c-PAHs and pyrene according to the indoor- and outdoor-origins.

METHODS: A simultaneous, integrated monitoring of personal, indoor and outdoor concentrations of nine PAHs was conducted in 75 homes for a consecutive 48-hour period across a two-year period in Kraków, Poland. Due to few known indoor sources for chrysene, we used this PAH species as a tracer for infiltration of outdoor PAHs. Personal and indoor concentrations of seven c-PAHs and pyrene were apportioned to home indoor, non-home indoor and outdoor origins.

RESULTS: Using Chrysenein/Chryseneout as proxy for an infiltration factor, Finf, infiltrated PAHs of outdoor origin are overall higher in concentration than those emitted from the indoor origin. Average contribution by the outdoor sources on B[a]A, B[b]F, and B[k]F were 92%, 79%, and 78% across all seasons, respectively. In contrast, in homes where a household member smoked, average contributions by the outdoor sources on B[ghi]P, B[a]P, D[ah]A, and IP were lower (i.e., 67%, 65%, 67%, and 66%, respectively). Season-averaged contributions by the outdoor sources on personal exposure to B[a]A, B[b]F, and B[k]F were 92%, 74%, and 77%, respectively. On the other hand, season-averaged home indoor source contributions on personal exposure to B[a]A, B[b]F, and B[k]F were estimated at 6%, 15%, and 19%, respectively. Similar contributions by season-averaged home indoor sources on personal exposure were estimated at 28% for B[ghi]P, 31% for B[a]P, 25% for D[ah]A, and 28% for IP.

CONCLUSION: Of the seven c-PAHs, B[a]A, B[b]F, and B[k]F are enriched in indoor and personal exposure concentrations from the outdoor coal-combustion. B[ghi]P, B[a]P, D[a,h]A, and IP, PAHs with some of the highest carcinogenic and mutagenic potencies, are considerably enriched by cigarette smoke in addition to the outdoor sources.