Source attribution of personal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture using concurrent personal, indoor, and outdoor measurements
Authors: Choi, H; Spengler, J
Environment International 63:173-181.
HERO ID: 2214055
OBJECTIVES: Relative importance of multiple indoor and outdoor venues on personal exposure . . .
OBJECTIVES: Relative importance of multiple indoor and outdoor venues on personal exposure concentrations to pro-carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) remains poorly understood. This is particularly challenging because many c-PAHs share sources and occur as a complex mixture. Accurate and precise apportionment of personal exposure according to exposure venues could aid in the understanding of human health effects due to a given source. Here, we partitioned indoor and personal exposure concentrations to seven c-PAHs and pyrene according to the indoor- and outdoor-origins.
METHODS: A simultaneous, integrated monitoring of personal, indoor and outdoor concentrations of nine PAHs was conducted in 75 homes for a consecutive 48-hour period across a two-year period in Kraków, Poland. Due to few known indoor sources for chrysene, we used this PAH species as a tracer for infiltration of outdoor PAHs. Personal and indoor concentrations of seven c-PAHs and pyrene were apportioned to home indoor, non-home indoor and outdoor origins.
RESULTS: Using Chrysenein/Chryseneout as proxy for an infiltration factor, Finf, infiltrated PAHs of outdoor origin are overall higher in concentration than those emitted from the indoor origin. Average contribution by the outdoor sources on B[a]A, B[b]F, and B[k]F were 92%, 79%, and 78% across all seasons, respectively. In contrast, in homes where a household member smoked, average contributions by the outdoor sources on B[ghi]P, B[a]P, D[ah]A, and IP were lower (i.e., 67%, 65%, 67%, and 66%, respectively). Season-averaged contributions by the outdoor sources on personal exposure to B[a]A, B[b]F, and B[k]F were 92%, 74%, and 77%, respectively. On the other hand, season-averaged home indoor source contributions on personal exposure to B[a]A, B[b]F, and B[k]F were estimated at 6%, 15%, and 19%, respectively. Similar contributions by season-averaged home indoor sources on personal exposure were estimated at 28% for B[ghi]P, 31% for B[a]P, 25% for D[ah]A, and 28% for IP.
CONCLUSION: Of the seven c-PAHs, B[a]A, B[b]F, and B[k]F are enriched in indoor and personal exposure concentrations from the outdoor coal-combustion. B[ghi]P, B[a]P, D[a,h]A, and IP, PAHs with some of the highest carcinogenic and mutagenic potencies, are considerably enriched by cigarette smoke in addition to the outdoor sources.