Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


n-Butanol


5,955 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization of propionate CoA-transferase from Ralstonia eutropha H16

Authors: Volodina, E; Schürmann, M; Lindenkamp, N; Steinbüchel, A (In Press) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. HERO ID: 2283558

[Less] In this study, a propionate CoA-transferase (H16_A2718; EC 2.8.3.1) from Ralstonia eutropha H16 (Pct . . . [More] In this study, a propionate CoA-transferase (H16_A2718; EC 2.8.3.1) from Ralstonia eutropha H16 (Pct Re ) was characterized in detail. Glu342 was identified as catalytically active amino acid residue via site-directed mutagenesis. Activity of Pct Re was irreversibly lost after the treatment with NaBH4 in the presence of acetyl-CoA as it is shown for all CoA-transferases from class I, thereby confirming the formation of the covalent enzyme-CoA intermediate by Pct Re . In addition to already known CoA acceptors for Pct Re such as 3-hydroxypropionate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acrylate, succinate, lactate, butyrate, crotonate and 4-hydroxybutyrate, it was found that glycolate, chloropropionate, acetoacetate, valerate, trans-2,3-pentenoate, isovalerate, hexanoate, octanoate and trans-2,3-octenoate formed also corresponding CoA-thioesters after incubation with acetyl-CoA and Pct Re . Isobutyrate was found to be preferentially used as CoA acceptor amongst other carboxylates tested in this study. In contrast, no products were detected with acetyl-CoA and formiate, bromopropionate, glycine, pyruvate, 2-hydroxybutyrate, malonate, fumarate, itaconate, β-alanine, γ-aminobutyrate, levulate, glutarate or adipate as potential CoA acceptor. Amongst CoA donors, butyryl-CoA, crotonyl-CoA, 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA, succinyl-CoA and valeryl-CoA apart from already known propionyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA could also donate CoA to acetate. The highest rate of the reaction was observed with 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA (2.5 μmol mg(-1) min(-1)). K m values for propionyl-CoA, acetyl-CoA, acetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate were 0.3, 0.6, 4.5 and 4.3 mM, respectively. The rather broad substrate range might be a good starting point for enzyme engineering approaches and for the application of Pct Re in biotechnological polyester production.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Computational Studies of [bmim][PF6]/n-Alcohol Interfaces with Many-Body Potentials

Authors: Chang, TM; Dang, LX (In Press) Journal of Physical Chemistry A. HERO ID: 2283573

[Less] In this paper, we present the results from molecular dynamics simulations of the equilibrium properties . . . [More] In this paper, we present the results from molecular dynamics simulations of the equilibrium properties of liquid/liquid interfaces of room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) and simple alcohols (i.e., methanol, 1-butanol, and 1-hexanol) at room temperature. Polarizable potential models are employed to describe the interactions among species. Results from our simulations show stable interfaces between the ionic liquid and n-alcohols, and we found that the interfacial widths decrease from methanol to 1-butanol systems and then increase for 1-hexanol interfaces. Angular distribution analysis reveals that the interface induces a strong orientational order of [bmim] and n-alcohol molecules near the interface, with [bmim] extending its butyl group into the alcohol phase, whereas the alcohol has the OH group pointing into the ionic liquid region, which is consistent with the recent sum-frequency-generation experiments. We found the interface to have a significant influence on the dynamics of ionic liquids and n-alcohols. The orientational autocorrelation functions illustrate that [bmim] rotates more freely near the interface than in the bulk, whereas the rotation of n-alcohol is hindered at the interface. Additionally, the time scale associated with the diffusion along the interfacial direction is found to be faster for [bmim] but slowed down for n-alcohols approaching the interface. We also calculate the dipole moment of n-alcohols as a function of the distance normal to the interface. We found that, even though methanol and 1-butanol have different dipole moments in bulk phase, they reach a similar value at the interface.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sodium butyrate and short chain fatty acids in prevention of travellers' diarrhoea: A randomized prospective study

Authors: Krokowicz, L; Kaczmarek, BF; Krokowicz, P; Stojcev, Z; Mackiewicz, J; Walkowiak, J; Drews, M; Banasiewicz, T (In Press) HERO ID: 2283575

[Less] INTRODUCTION: Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) remains a considerable concern among international . . . [More] INTRODUCTION: Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) remains a considerable concern among international travellers. Known methods of prevention include dietary precautions, administration of vaccines and antibiotic agents.

AIM: To assess the efficacy of sodium butyrate (SB) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in prevention of TD.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: 67 adult patients planning to travel to subtropical countries were originally enrolled in the study. After eliminating 7 patients for not fulfilling the inclusion criteria, 60 patients were randomized into a study group receiving SB with SCFA and a placebo group. Patients were requested to complete previously distributed questionnaire daily. After elimination of 18 patients who did not return questionnaires, 42 patients completed the study (22 study, 20 placebo).

RESULTS: In comparison to the control arm, the study arm noted significantly reduced occurrence of TD (4.5% vs. 40%, p = 0.008), was associated with a significant decrease in number of stools per day in travellers (1.9 vs. 4.2, p = 0.04), as well as a decrease in gastrointestinal symptoms including pain, bloating and nausea with fevers (0.7 vs. 1.4, p = 0.01). We recorded a trend towards decrease in diarrhoea related utilization of medical care in subjects from the study arm. There were no adverse effects noted regarding the use of SB and SCFA.

CONCLUSIONS: Administration of SB with SCFA decreases occurrence of travellers' diarrhoea. It is safe and may constitute a new method of travellers' diarrhoea prevention.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures

Authors: Rodas-Junco, BA; Cab-Guillen, Y; Muñoz-Sanchez, JA; Vázquez-Flota, F; Monforte-Gonzalez, M; Hérnandez-Sotomayor, SM (In Press) HERO ID: 2283729

[Less] Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and . . . [More] Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulates SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. Salicylic acid was found to elicit PAL activity and consequently vanillin production, which was diminished or reversed upon exposure to the phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) signaling inhibitors neomycin and U73122. Exposure to the phosphatidic acid inhibitor 1-butanol altered PLD activity and prevented SA-induced vanillin production. Our results suggest that PLC and PLD-generated secondary messengers may be modulating SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of key biosynthetic pathway enzymes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Epithelia of the ovine and bovine forestomach express basolateral maxi-anion channels permeable to the anions of short-chain fatty acids

Authors: Georgi, MI; Rosendahl, J; Ernst, F; Günzel, D; Aschenbach, JR; Martens, H; Stumpff, F (In Press) HERO ID: 2283845

[Less] It has long been established that the absorption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) across epithelia . . . [More] It has long been established that the absorption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) across epithelia stimulates sodium proton exchange. The apically released protons are not available as countercations for the basolateral efflux of SCFA anions and a suitable transport model is lacking. Patch clamp and microelectrode techniques were used to characterize an anion conductance expressed by cultured cells of the sheep and bovine rumen and the sheep omasum and to localize the conductance in the intact tissue. Cells were filled with a Na-gluconate solution and superfused with sodium salts of acetate, propionate, butyrate, or lactate. Reversal potential rose and whole cell current at +100 mV decreased with the size of the anion. Anion-induced currents could be blocked by diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), NPPB (200 μmol l(-1)), or pCMB (1 mmol l(-1)). In patches of bovine ruminal cells, single channels were observed with a conductance for chloride (327 ± 11 pS), acetate (115 ± 8 pS), propionate (102 ± 10 pS), butyrate (81 ± 2 pS), and gluconate (44 ± 3 pS). Channels expressed by sheep rumen and omasum were similar. Microelectrode experiments suggest basolateral localization. In conclusion, forestomach epithelia express basolateral maxi-anion channels with a permeability sequence of chloride > acetate > propionate > butyrate. SCFA absorption may resemble functionally coupled transport of NaCl, with the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase driving the basolateral efflux of the anion through a channel. Since protons are apically extruded, the model accurately predicts that influx of buffers with saliva is essential for the pH homeostasis of the ruminant forestomach.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of fumaric acid on rumen fermentation, milk composition and metabolic parameters in lactating cows

Authors: Remling, N; Riede, S; Lebzien, P; Meyer, U; Höltershinken, M; Kersten, S; Breves, G; Flachowsky, G; Dänicke, S (In Press) HERO ID: 2283983

[Less] The aim of this study was to determine the influence of fumaric acid (FA) on ruminal fermentation and . . . [More] The aim of this study was to determine the influence of fumaric acid (FA) on ruminal fermentation and its effects on the acid-base balance of seven ruminally and duodenally fistulated multiparous German Holstein cows. The experiment was conducted in a change-over design with three periods in which the animals were randomly arranged in one of three treatments: Control (C; without FA), 300 or 600 g FA per day. The diets consisted of 7.4 kg DM grass silage, 4.2 kg concentrate mixture and 0, 300 or 600 g FA or wheat starch as isocaloric compensation per day and cow. FA supplementation decreased the rumen pH, acetic acid and butyric acid and increased propionic acid in rumen fluid. The results of the single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) did not show an influence of FA on the microbial population in the rumen. The beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration in blood and the pH of the urine decreased, while the blood gases were unaffected by supplementation of the acid. The microbial protein per MJ ME decreased in the duodenum with FA supplementation. The milk fat concentration decreased after addition of FA. We conclude that in this study feeding of up to 600 g FA per day did not result in an acidosis. It seems that up to 600 g FA per day did not have a significant influence on the acid-base balance of dairy cows.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Summer Meeting 2013: growth and physiology of bifidobacteria

Authors: De Vuyst, L; Moens, F; Selak, M; Rivière, A; Leroy, F (In Press) HERO ID: 2283986

[Less] Bifidobacteria are a minor fraction of the human colon microbiota with interesting properties for carbohydrate . . . [More] Bifidobacteria are a minor fraction of the human colon microbiota with interesting properties for carbohydrate degradation. Monosaccharides such as glucose and fructose are degraded through the bifid shunt, a dedicated pathway involving phosphoketolase activity. Its stoechiometry learns that three moles of acetate and two moles of lactate are produced per two moles of glucose or fructose that are degraded. However, deviations from this 3 : 2 ratio occur, depending on the rate of substrate consumption. Slower growth rates favour the production of acetate and pyruvate catabolites (such as formate) at the cost of lactate. Interestingly, bifidobacteria are capable to degrade inulin-type fructans (ITF) (oligofructose and inulin) and arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS). Beta-fructofuranosidase activity enables bifidobacteria to degrade ITF. However, this property is strain-dependent. Some strains consume both fructose and oligofructose, with different preferences and degradation rates. Small oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization or DP of 2-7) are taken up, in a sequential order, indicating intracellular degradation and as such giving these bacteria a competitive advantage towards other inulin-type fructan degraders such as lactobacilli, bacteroides and roseburias. Other strains consume long fractions of oligofructose and inulin. Exceptionally, oligosaccharides with a DP of up to 20 (long-chain inulin) are consumed by specific strains. Also, the degradation of AXOS by α-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase is strain-dependent. Particular strains consume the arabinose substituents, whether or not together with a consumption of the xylose backbones of AXOS, either up to xylotetraose or higher and either extra- or intracellularly. The production of high amounts of acetate that accompanies inulin-type fructan degradation by bifidobacteria cross-feeds other colon bacteria involved in the production of butyrate. However, bifidobacterial strain-dependent differences in prebiotic degradation indicate the existence of niche-specific adaptations and hence mechanisms to avoid competition among each other and to favour coexistence with other colon bacteria.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sodium butyrate into the insular cortex during conditioned taste-aversion acquisition delays aversive taste memory extinction

Authors: Núñez-Jaramillo, L; Reyes-López, J; Miranda, MI (In Press) HERO ID: 2284021

[Less] Histone acetylation is one mechanism that promotes gene expression, and it increases during learning . . . [More] Histone acetylation is one mechanism that promotes gene expression, and it increases during learning of various tasks. Specifically, novel taste consumption produces an increased acetylation of histone lysine residues in the insular cortex (IC), where protein synthesis is crucial during memory consolidation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). However, the role of this elevated histone acetylation during CTA learning has not been examined directly. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of sodium butyrate (NaBu), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, injected into the IC during CTA acquisition. Male Wistar rats, IC bilaterally implanted, were injected 60 min before saccharine presentation, with a total volume of 0.5 µl of NaBu solution (100, 500, and 10 µg/0.5 µl) or saline; 30 min later animals were injected intraperitoneally with lithium chloride, a malaise-inducing drug. The next day, CTA retrieval was tested. No effects of NaBu were observed during acquisition or retrieval, but during extinction trials, a significant delay in aversive memory extinction was observed in the group injected with the lowest NaBu dose. This result indicates that NaBu in the IC strengthens CTA and delays aversive memory extinction, and suggests that histone acetylation could increase long-term taste-aversive memory strength.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Polysaccharide from Seeds of Plantago asiatica L. Affects Lipid Metabolism and Colon Microbiota of Mouse

Authors: Hu, JL; Nie, SP; Wu, QM; Li, C; Fu, ZH; Gong, J; Cui, SW; Xie, MY (In Press) HERO ID: 2284056

[Less] Polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. was given via oral administration to mice (0.4 . . . [More] Polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. was given via oral administration to mice (0.4 g/kg body weight, 30 days) to observe its effects on mouse nutrient metabolism and colon microbiota. It was found the polysaccharide intake could lower the apparent absorption of lipid. Total triglyceride, cholesterol, and atherogenic index in blood serum with total lipid and cholesterol levels in liver of polysaccharide group mice were all significantly lower than those of the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the effect of the polysaccharide intake on mouse colon bacterial communities was investigated. Mice from the polysaccharide group showed a higher colon bacterial diversity than the control group. Bacteroides sp., Eubacterium sp., butyrate-producing bacteria Butyrivibrio sp., and probiotics Bifidobacterium bifidum , Lactobacillus fermentum , and Lactobacillus reuteri in mouse colon were all increased after polysaccharide intake. These indicated that the intake of polysaccharide from P. asiatica L. could be beneficial for lipid metabolism and colon microbiota.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Motor neuropathy-associated mutation impairs Seipin functions in neurotransmission

Authors: Wei, S; Soh, SL; Xia, J; Ong, WY; Pang, ZP; Han, W (In Press) HERO ID: 2284073

[Less] Gain-of-toxic-function mutations in Seipin (Asparagine 88 to Serine (N88S) and Serine 90 to Leucine . . . [More] Gain-of-toxic-function mutations in Seipin (Asparagine 88 to Serine (N88S) and Serine 90 to Leucine (S90L) mutations, both of which disrupt the N-glycosylation) cause autosomal dominant motor neuron diseases. However, the mechanism of how these missense mutations lead to motor neuropathy is unclear. Here, we analyze the impact of disruption of N-glycosylation of Seipin on synaptic transmission by over-expressing mutant Seipin in cultured cortical neurons via lentiviral infection. Immunostaining shows that over-expressed Seipin is partly colocalized with synaptic vesicle marker synaptophysin. Electrophysiological recordings reveal that the Seipin mutation significantly decreases the frequency, but not the amplitudes of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents and miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents. The amplitude of both evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents and inhibitory post-synaptic current is also compromised by mutant Seipin over-expression. The readily releasable pool and vesicular release probability of synaptic vesicles are both altered in neurons over-expressing Seipin-N88S, whereas neither γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) nor α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) induced whole cell currents are affected. Moreover, electron microscopy analysis reveals decreased number of morphologically docked synaptic vesicles in Seipin-N88S-expressing neurons. These data demonstrate that Seipin-N88S mutation impairs synaptic neurotransmission, possibly by regulating the priming and docking of synaptic vesicles at the synapse. Motoneuropathy-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein Seipin-N88S mutation disrupts N-glycosylation and decreased the frequency of miniature excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic currents (PSCs), and the amplitude of evoked excitatory and inhibitory PSCs. The readily releasable pool and synaptic vesicle (SV) release probability were reduced in neurons over-expressing Seipin-N88S, along with decreased number of docked vesicles. We propose that Seipin-N88S mutation impairs synaptic neurotransmission by regulating the docking of synaptic vesicles.