Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


tert-Butanol

3,380 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Discrepancy between thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities of the tert-butanol hydrates and its implication for obtaining pharmaceutical powders by freeze-drying

Authors: Ogienko, AG; Stoporev, AS; Ogienko, AA; Mel'gunov, MS; Adamova, TP; Yunoshev, AS; Manakov, AY; Boldyreva, EV (2019) HERO ID: 5343825

[Less] The tert-butanol (TBA)-water system is studied in relation to increasing the efficiency of obtaining . . . [More] The tert-butanol (TBA)-water system is studied in relation to increasing the efficiency of obtaining pharmaceutical powders by freeze-drying. Trehalose was used as a model target product. We report the X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data which add surprising new information to the phase diagram of this previously repeatedly studied system. The freezing protocol has a strong impact on the specific surface area of the trehalose freeze-dried cakes and on the primary drying time. This is related to a discrepancy between the kinetic and thermodynamic stabilities of several TBA hydrates: di-hydrate (H1), heptahydrate (H2), and decahydrate (H3).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Degradation of benzotriazole by sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation process

Authors: Ma, J; Ding, Y; Chi, L; Yang, X; Zhong, Y; Wang, Z; Shi, Q (2019) HERO ID: 5343833

[Less] Benzotriazole (BTA) is a recalcitrant contaminant that is widely distributed in aquatic environments. . . . [More] Benzotriazole (BTA) is a recalcitrant contaminant that is widely distributed in aquatic environments. This study explored the effectiveness of sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation process in degrading BTA (SR-AOP). The sulfate radical was generated by heat activation of persulfate (PS). Our results show alkaline pH promoted the BTA degradation. The solution pH also affected the speciation of total radicals. Sulfate radical ( ) predominated at acidic pH while hydroxyl radical (HO•) predominated at basic pH. High temperature, high PS concentration and low BTA concentration promoted the BTA degradation. Influence of water matrix constituents on the reaction kinetics was assessed. We found that ≤10 mM of Cl- promoted the reaction, but 100 mM Cl- inhibited it. was similar to Cl-. Br- and inhibited the reaction while did not affect the reaction. of ≤10 mM did not affect the reaction, but 100 mM of inhibited it. Eleven degradation intermediates were identified using ultra-high solution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Based on the intermediates identified, possible reaction pathways were proposed. Overall, SR-AOP can effectively mineralize BTA, but water matrix constituents greatly influenced the reaction kinetics and thus should be carefully considered for its practical application. Abbreviations: BTA, benzotriazole; PS, persulfate; PMS, peroxymonosulfate; SPC, sodium percarbonate; AOP, advanced oxidation process; PS-AOP, persulfate-based advanced oxidation process; SR-AOP, sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation process; TAP, thermally activated persulfate; TOC, total organic carbon; TBA, tert-butyl alcohol.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Photo-assisted catalytic degradation of acetaminophen using peroxymonosulfate decomposed by magnetic carbon heterojunction catalyst

Authors: Noorisepehr, M; Ghadirinejad, K; Kakavandi, B; Ramazanpour Esfahani, A; Asadi, A (2019) HERO ID: 5343824

[Less] Catalytic oxidative degradation of acetaminophen (ACT) was evaluated using magnetic mesoporous carbon . . . [More] Catalytic oxidative degradation of acetaminophen (ACT) was evaluated using magnetic mesoporous carbon (MNPs@C) coupled with UV light and peroxymonosulfate (PMS). The performance of hybrid system (i.e., MNPs@C/UV/PMS) was assessed as a function of some operational factors (e.g., reaction time and different concentrations of catalyst, PMS and ACT) in a batch system. MNPs@C represented a high magnetic response and was easily recovered from aqueous solution via an external magnet. A significant synergistic effect was observed among the applied techniques in MNPs@C/UV/PMS system for ACT degradation. After 40 min reaction, the removal efficiencies of 97.4 and 63.5% were obtained for ACT and TOC, respectively. Both adsorption and oxidation mechanisms were responsible simultaneously for ACT removal in MNPs@C/UV/PMS system. Under optimum conditions, the removal rates of ACT and TOC were reduced slightly to 91.7 and 49.4% after five consecutive catalyst uses, which indicates the excellent reusing potential of MNPs@C. In addition, a high stability was detected for as-prepared catalyst during recycling tests, since the quantity of leached Fe was <0.2 mg/L. Methanol and tert-butyl alcohol showed a strong quenching effect on the performance of MNPs@C/UV/PMS system, demonstrating the dominant role of SO4•- and HO radicals in ACT degradation process. MNPs@C in comparison with ferrous ions, as a homogeneous catalyst, showed a better performance in the activation of PMS and ACT degradation. Integration of MNPs@C, UV and PMS exhibited an excellent performance into ACT removal over 40 min reaction, which can be utilized as an effective and promising technique for the efficient decontamination of polluted waters.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Ultrasonically Activated Persulfate Degrades Typical Odors in Water]

Authors: Sun, X; Sun, J; Li, PF; Tang, JG; Yang, Q; Tang, X (2019) HERO ID: 5343832

[Less] In order to solve the problem of odor pollution in drinking water effectively, the typical odorants . . . [More] In order to solve the problem of odor pollution in drinking water effectively, the typical odorants 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) and Geosmin (GSM) were selected as target pollutants. The degradation effect and factors influencing these two typical odors by ultrasonically (US) activated persulfate (PS) advanced oxidation technology were systematically investigated in this work. When the sample was treated for 15 min, the application of US/PS combination technology increased the removal rates of 2-MIB and GSM by 57.0% and 63.6%, respectively, compared with sonication alone. Furthermore, the optimum removal rates of 2-MIB and GSM were 88.7% and 93.3% when the 2-MIB and GSM concentrations were 100 ng·L-1. Moreover, the degradation rates of 2-MIB and GSM increased with increasing PS concentration (from 0.25 mmol·L-1 to 2 mmol·L-1) and US intensity (from 0.33 W·cm-2 to 0.53 W·cm-2). The presence of humic acid competes to consume free radicals to inhibit the degradation of odor. The addition of the radical scavengers methanol and tert-butanol can reduce the removal rates of 2-MIB and GSM. The presence of methanol had a stronger inhibition effect on odor degradation than tert-butanol, indicating that the odor removal was mainly caused by sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals in the combination US/PS technology.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impact of Solvent Structuring in Water/ tert-Butanol Mixtures on the Assembly of Silica Nanoparticles to Aerogels

Authors: Winkler, R; Ré, E; Arrachart, G; Pellet-Rostaing, S (2019) HERO ID: 5343828

[Less] Soft matter structuring is a useful tool for the preparation of well-structured inorganic materials. . . . [More] Soft matter structuring is a useful tool for the preparation of well-structured inorganic materials. Here, we report a strategy using a structured solvent based on binary mixtures as a directing agent for silica nanoparticles in aerogel elaboration. Binary mixtures involving water/ethanol and water/ tert-butanol have been respectively chosen as representatives of unstructured and structured solvents. The water/alcohol/TEOS systems were effectively characterized as surfactant-free microemulsions. The enhanced solvent structuring, however, disappears upon the reaction with TEOS, and assembly is directed by solvent structuring found in the binary mixtures. For the first time, the influence of solvent composition on the sol-gel reaction was investigated with respect to the reaction rate and the structuring behavior thanks to dynamic light scattering (DLS), small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments. The silica nanoparticles aggregate in a different manner depending on the solvent composition, which allows the change in the morphology, the degree of interconnection, and the surface area of the resulting material. Silica nanoparticles with a very high surface area of up to 2000 m2/g can be obtained by this approach.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sonocatalytic degradation of tetracycline antibiotic using zinc oxide nanostructures loaded on nano-cellulose from waste straw as nanosonocatalyst

Authors: Soltani, RDC; Mashayekhi, M; Naderi, M; Boczkaj, G; Jorfi, S; Safari, M (2019) HERO ID: 5343829

[Less] The aim of the present investigation was the combination of ZnO nanostructures with nano-cellulose (NC) . . . [More] The aim of the present investigation was the combination of ZnO nanostructures with nano-cellulose (NC) for the efficient degradation of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic under ultrasonic irradiation. The removal efficiency of 12.8% was obtained by the sole use of ultrasound (US), while the removal efficiency increased up to 70% by the US/ZnO treatment process. Due to the integration of ZnO nanostructures with NC, the removal efficiency of 87.6% was obtained within 45 min. The removal efficiency substantially decreased in the presence of tert-butyl alcohol (more than 25% reduction), indicating that radOH-mediation oxidation is responsible for the degradation of TC molecules. Peroxymonosulfate (PMS) led to the most enhancing effect on the removal of TC among percarbonate, persulfate and periodate ions. The addition of PMS caused the degradation efficiency of 96.4% within the short contact time of 15 min. The bio-toxicity examination on the basis of inhibition test conducted on activated sludge revealed diminishing the oxygen consumption inhibition percent [IOUR (%)] from 33.6 to 22.1% during the US/ZnO/NC process. Consequently, the utilization of the US/ZnO/NC process can convert TC molecules to less toxic compounds. However, longer reaction time is required for complete conversion into non-toxic substances.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Photolysis of chloral hydrate in water with 254 nm ultraviolet: Kinetics, influencing factors, mechanisms, and products

Authors: Gan, Y; Ma, S; Guo, X; Chen, B; Jassby, D (2019) HERO ID: 5020703

[Less] Chloral hydrate (CH) is a common disinfection by-product found in treated water, and its effective control . . . [More] Chloral hydrate (CH) is a common disinfection by-product found in treated water, and its effective control is important to human health. This study evaluated the effects of some environmental factors (e.g., pH, CH dosage, typical ions) and operational variables (e.g., lamp power, irradiation time) on CH photolysis efficiency via low-pressure mercury lamp-induced ultraviolet (LPUV) at 254 nm. The results demonstrated that the photolysis rate increased significantly with increasing pH from 7.0 to 10.5 and lamp power from 6 to 12 W. Meanwhile, the presence of nitrate, iodide, or free chlorine facilitated CH photolysis, whereas the existence of natural organic matter hindered the process. Together, these factors may help explain varying CH photolysis in different types of waters: seawater > ultrapure water > tap water > lake water. In addition, the initial CH dosage also played an important role, with higher CH being degraded more slowly. Mechanistically, although no catalyst or oxidant was added, CH photolysis was to some extent inhibited by a hydroxyl radical quencher, tert-butyl alcohol, suggesting that indirect photolysis was also responsible for CH loss. In terms of reaction products, the CH photolysis yielded primarily chloride ions and carbon dioxide, thus supporting mineralization as the key pathway. The results may help better understand the control of CH in water using UV.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Freeze-Drying From Organic Co-Solvent Systems, Part 2: Process Modifications to Reduce Residual Solvent Levels and Improve Product Quality Attributes

Authors: Kunz, C; Schuldt-Lieb, S; Gieseler, H (2019) HERO ID: 5078536

[Less] The use of co-solvent systems can benefit the freeze-drying process and product performance. In this . . . [More] The use of co-solvent systems can benefit the freeze-drying process and product performance. In this study, cycle designs were applied based on existing recommendations for water-based formulations. Modifications thereof and the influence on the process (e.g., drying times) and product quality attributes (e.g., product appearance, residual solvent) were tested for various cosolvent systems. It was found that fast freezing was associated with the formation of large crystals for 50 mg/g polyvinylpyrrolidone in 40% 1,4-dioxane (w/w), resulting in a 7% reduction of primary drying. The application of high shelf temperatures during primary drying for 50 mg/g polyvinylpyrrolidone in 70% tert-butanol was feasible, resulting in shorter primary drying times but high residual solvent levels (7.7%). Most notable was that the inclusion of an evaporation step after freezing improved the product appearance for low-melting co-solvents (10% ethanol and 10% acetone). No ice or solvent nucleation occurred in the case of 50 mg/g mannitol in 50% N,N-dimethylacetamide during the normal freezing stage. Instead, the solution viscosity significantly increased after cooling to low shelf temperatures, followed by product evaporation (rather than sublimation) during the drying phase and failure to form a product cake after drying. The application of annealing enabled nucleation and sublimation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Lipid extraction from wet Nannochloropsis biomass via enzyme-assisted three phase partitioning

Authors: Qiu, C; He, Y; Huang, Z; Li, S; Huang, J; Wang, M; Chen, B (2019) HERO ID: 5343823

[Less] A green and efficient enzyme assisted three phase partitioning (EA-TPP) process was firstly developed . . . [More] A green and efficient enzyme assisted three phase partitioning (EA-TPP) process was firstly developed to extract microalgal lipids using wet Nannochloropsis sp. biomass. In the pretreatment of microalgal biomass by four hydrolytic enzymes, TPP obtained a higher TFAs lipid extraction efficiency by cellulase compared with the resting enzymes. After optimization by EA-TPP of the wet disrupted Nannochloropsis biomass (3 g), the maximum TFAs extraction yield (90.40%) was attained at 20% ammonium sulphate, 6-7 pH, 1:2 slurry/tert-butanol ratio and 70 °C for 2 h incubation time and two extraction cycles. Moreover, results also revealed that the lipidic species compositions of Nannochloropsis sp. biomass were greatly related with the EA-TPP parameters. In the laboratory scale for wet disrupted microalgae biomass, EA-TPP process achieved 88.70% TFAs extraction yield under the optimized conditions. In all, EA-TPP process could be a promising approach to extract microalgae lipids for food application using wet microalgae biomass.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

NDMA formation from 4,4'-hexamethylenebis (HDMS) during ozonation: influencing factors and mechanisms

Authors: Shen, L; Liao, X; Qi, H; Zhao, L; Li, F; Yuan, B (2019) HERO ID: 5343877

[Less] N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a toxic disinfection byproduct commonly associated with chloramination, . . . [More] N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a toxic disinfection byproduct commonly associated with chloramination, has recently been found to form from an anti-yellowing agent (4,4'-hexamethylenebis (1,1-dimethylsemicarbazide) (HDMS)) during ozonation but the mechanisms are unclear. In this paper, the potential roles of molecular ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radical (∙OH) on NDMA formation from HDMS were investigated under various oxidation conditions (ozone dosages, pH) and different components in water (bromide ion (Br-), bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), sulfate ion (SO42-), and humic acid (HA), as well as natural organic matter (NOM) from a lake). Moreover, HDMS transformation pathways by ozonation were determined. The results indicated that the formation of NDMA was enhanced through the combined effect of O3 and ∙OH compared to that by O3 alone (addition of tert-butyl alcohol (tBA) as ∙OH scavenger). ∙OH itself cannot generate NDMA directly; however, it can transform HDMS to intermediates with higher NDMA yield than parent compound. The NDMA generation was affected (small dosages promoted but high dosages inhibited) by HA or Br- no matter with or without tBA. The presence of SO42- and HCO3- ions lowered NDMA formation through ∙OH scavenging effect. Increasing pH not only increased degradation rate constant by enhancing ∙OH generation but also affected HDMS dissociation ratio, reaching the maximum NDMA formation at pH 7-8. Natural constituents in selected water matrix inhibited NDMA formation. Impacts of these influencing factors on NDMA formation by only O3 however were significantly less pronounced over that by the joint roles of O3 and ∙OH. Based on the result of Q-TOF, LC/MS/MS, and GC/MS, the possible transformation pathways of HDMS by ozonation were proposed. The NDMA enhancement mechanism by the combined effect of O3 and ∙OH can be attributed to greater amounts of intermediates with higher NDMA yield (such as unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH)) produced. These findings provide new understanding of NDMA formation upon ozonation of typical amine-based compounds.