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ISA-Ozone (2013)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Air pollution and heart failure: Relationship with the ejection fraction

Authors: Dominguez-Rodriguez, A; Abreu-Afonso, J; Rodríguez, S; Juarez-Prera, RA; Arroyo-Ucar, E; Gonzalez, Y; Abreu-Gonzalez, P; Avanzas, P (2013) World Journal of Cardiology 5:49-53. HERO ID: 1519388

[Less] AIM: To study whether the concentrations of particulate matter in ambient air are associated . . . [More] AIM: To study whether the concentrations of particulate matter in ambient air are associated with hospital admission due to heart failure in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and reduced ejection fraction.

METHODS: We studied 353 consecutive patients admitted into a tertiary care hospital with a diagnosis of heart failure. Patients with ejection fraction of ≥ 45% were classified as having heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and those with an ejection fraction of < 45% were classified as having heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. We determined the average concentrations of different sizes of particulate matter (< 10, < 2.5, and < 1 μm) and the concentrations of gaseous pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone) from 1 d up to 7 d prior to admission.

RESULTS: The heart failure with preserved ejection fraction population was exposed to higher nitrogen dioxide concentrations compared to the heart failure with reduced ejection fraction population (12.95 ± 8.22 μg/m(3) vs 4.50 ± 2.34 μg/m(3), P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that nitrogen dioxide was a significant predictor of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (odds ratio ranging from (1.403, 95%CI: 1.003-2.007, P = 0.04) to (1.669, 95%CI: 1.043-2.671, P = 0.03).

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that short-term nitrogen dioxide exposure is independently associated with admission in the heart failure with preserved ejection fraction population.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ambient ozone concentrations and the risk of perforated and nonperforated appendicitis: A multicity case-crossover study

Authors: Kaplan, GG; Tanyingoh, D; Dixon, E; Johnson, M; Wheeler, AJ; Myers, RP; Bertazzon, S; Saini, V; Madsen, K; Ghosh, S; Villeneuve, PJ (2013) Environmental Health Perspectives 121:939-943. HERO ID: 1790950

[Less] BACKGROUND: Environmental determinants of appendicitis are poorly understood. Past . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Environmental determinants of appendicitis are poorly understood. Past work suggests that air pollution may increase the risk of appendicitis.

OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether ambient ground-level ozone concentrations were associated with appendicitis and whether these associations varied between perforated and nonperforated appendicitis.

METHODS: This time-stratified case-crossover study was based on 35,811 individuals hospitalized with appendicitis from 2004-2008 in 12 Canadian cities. Data from a national network of fixed-site monitors were used to calculate daily maximum ozone concentrations for each city. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate city-specific odds ratios (OR) relative to an interquartile range (IQR) increase in ozone adjusted for temperature and relative humidity. A random effects meta-analysis was used to derive a pooled risk estimate. Stratified analyses were used to estimate associations separately for perforated and nonperforated appendicitis.

RESULTS: Overall, a 16 ppb increase in the 7-day cumulative average daily maximum ozone concentration was associated with all appendicitis cases across the 12 cities (pooled OR=1.07; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.13). The association was stronger among patients presenting with perforated appendicitis for the 7-day average (pooled OR=1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.36), when compared to the corresponding estimate for nonperforated appendicitis (7-day average: pooled OR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.09). Heterogeneity was not statistically significant across cities for either perforated or nonperforated appendicitis (p>0.20).

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that higher levels of ambient ozone exposure may increase the risk of perforated appendicitis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ambient air pollution and autism in Los Angeles County, California

Authors: Becerra, TA; Wilhelm, M; Olsen, J; Cockburn, M; Ritz, B (2013) Environmental Health Perspectives 121:380-386. HERO ID: 1508479

[Less] BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Autistic Disorder (AD), a serious developmental condition, has risen dramatically . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Autistic Disorder (AD), a serious developmental condition, has risen dramatically over the past two decades but high-quality population-based research addressing etiology is limited.

OBJECTIVES: We studied the influence of exposures to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy on the development of autism using data from air monitoring stations and a land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures.

METHODS: Children of mothers who gave birth in Los Angeles who were diagnosed with a primary AD diagnosis at ages 3-5 years during 1998-2009 were identified through the California Department of Developmental Services and linked to 1995-2006 California birth certificates. For 7,603 children with autism and 10 controls per case matched by sex, birth year, and minimum gestational age, birth addresses were mapped and linked to the nearest air monitoring station and a LUR model. We used conditional logistic regression, adjusting for maternal and perinatal characteristics including indicators of SES.

RESULTS: Per interquartile range (IQR) increase, we estimated a 12-15% relative increase in odds of autism for O3 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.19; per 11.54 ppb increase) and PM2.5 (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.24; per 4.68 μg/m3 increase) when mutually adjusting for both pollutants. Furthermore, we estimated 3-9% relative increases in odds per IQR increase for LUR-based NO and NO2 exposure estimates. LUR-based associations were strongest for children of mothers with less than a high school education.

CONCLUSION: Measured and estimated exposures from ambient pollutant monitors and LUR model suggest associations between autism and prenatal air pollution exposure, mostly related to traffic sources.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The association of ambient air pollution and traffic exposures with selected congenital anomalies in the San Joaquin Valley of California

Authors: Padula, AM; Tager, IB; Carmichael, SL; Hammond, SK; Lurmann, F; Shaw, GM (2013) American Journal of Epidemiology 177:1074-1085. HERO ID: 1518997

[Less] Congenital anomalies are a leading cause of infant mortality and are important contributors to subsequent . . . [More] Congenital anomalies are a leading cause of infant mortality and are important contributors to subsequent morbidity. Studies suggest associations between environmental contaminants and some anomalies, although evidence is limited. We aimed to investigate whether ambient air pollutant and traffic exposures in early gestation contribute to the risk of selected congenital anomalies in the San Joaquin Valley of California, 1997-2006. Seven exposures and 5 outcomes were included for a total of 35 investigated associations. We observed increased odds of neural tube defects when comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of exposure for several pollutants after adjusting for maternal race/ethnicity, education, and multivitamin use. The adjusted odds ratio for neural tube defects among those with the highest carbon monoxide exposure was 1.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 3.2) compared with those with the lowest exposure, and there was a monotonic exposure-response across quartiles. The highest quartile of nitrogen oxide exposure was associated with neural tube defects (adjusted odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.8). The adjusted odds ratio for the highest quartile of nitrogen dioxide exposure was 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.7). Ozone was associated with decreased odds of neural tube defects and increased odds of gastroschisis among mothers aged ≥20 years. Our results extend the limited body of evidence regarding air pollution exposure and adverse birth outcomes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exploring prenatal outdoor air pollution, birth outcomes and neonatal health care utilization in a nationally representative sample

Authors: Trasande, L; Wong, K; Roy, A; Savitz, DA; Thurston, G (2013) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 23:315-321. HERO ID: 1521270

[Less] The impact of air pollution on fetal growth remains controversial, in part, because studies have been . . . [More] The impact of air pollution on fetal growth remains controversial, in part, because studies have been limited to sub-regions of the United States with limited variability. No study has examined air pollution impacts on neonatal health care utilization. We performed descriptive, univariate and multivariable analyses on administrative hospital record data from 222,359 births in the 2000, 2003 and 2006 Kids Inpatient Database linked to air pollution data drawn from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Aerometric Information Retrieval System. In this study, air pollution exposure during the birth month was estimated based on birth hospital address. Although air pollutants were not individually associated with mean birth weight, a three-pollutant model controlling for hospital characteristics, demographics, and birth month identified 9.3% and 7.2% increases in odds of low birth weight and very low birth weight for each μg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) (both P<0.0001). PM(2.5) and NO(2) were associated with -3.0% odds/p.p.m. and +2.5% odds/p.p.b. of preterm birth, respectively (both P<0.0001). A four-pollutant multivariable model indicated a 0.05 days/p.p.m. NO(2) decrease in length of the birth hospitalization (P=0.0061) and a 0.13 days increase/p.p.m. CO (P=0.0416). A $1166 increase in per child costs was estimated for the birth hospitalization per p.p.m. CO (P=0.0002) and $964 per unit increase in O(3) (P=0.0448). A reduction from the 75th to the 25th percentile in the highest CO quartile for births predicts annual savings of $134.7 million in direct health care costs. In a national, predominantly urban, sample, air pollutant exposures during the month of birth are associated with increased low birth weight and neonatal health care utilization. Further study of this database, with enhanced control for confounding, improved exposure assessment, examination of exposures across multiple time windows in pregnancy, and in the entire national sample, is supported by these initial investigations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Time-series analyses of air pollution and mortality in the United States: A subsampling approach

Authors: Moolgavkar, SH; Mcclellan, RO; Dewanji, A; Turim, J; Luebeck, EG; Edwards, M (2013) Environmental Health Perspectives 121:73-78. HERO ID: 1419410

[Less] BACKGROUND: Hierarchical Bayesian methods have been used in previous papers to estimate national mean . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Hierarchical Bayesian methods have been used in previous papers to estimate national mean effects of air pollutants on daily deaths in time-series analyses. OBJECTIVES: To obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the common national effects of the criteria pollutants on mortality based on time-series data from up to 108 metropolitan areas in the U.S. METHODS: We used a subsampling bootstrap procedure to obtain the maximum likelihood estimates and confidence bounds for common national effects of the criteria pollutants, as measured by the percentage increase in daily mortality associated with a unit increase in daily 24-hour mean pollutant concentration on the previous day, while controlling weather and temporal trends. Five pollutants, PM10, ozone, CO, NO2, and SO2 were considered in single and multi-pollutant analyses. Flexible ambient concentration-response models for the pollutant effects were considered as well. Limited sensitivity analyses with different degrees of freedom for time trends were performed. RESULTS: In single pollutant models, we observed significant associations of daily deaths with all pollutants. The ozone coefficient was highly sensitive to the degree of smoothing of time trends. Among the gases, SO2 and NO2 were most strongly associated with mortality. The flexible ambient concentration-response curve for ozone showed evidence of non-linearity and a threshold at about 30 ppb. CONCLUSIONS: Differences between the results of our analyses and those reported from the Bayesian approach suggest that estimates of the quantitative impact of pollutants are dependent on choice of statistical approach, although results are not directly comparable because they are based on different data. Additionally, the estimate of the ozone-mortality coefficient depends on the amount of smoothing of time trends.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Summertime cyclones over the Great Lakes Storm Track from 1860–2100: variability, trends, and association with ozone pollution

Authors: Turner, AJ; Fiore, AM; Horowitz, LW; Naik, V; Bauer, M (2012) HERO ID: 1322985


Technical Report
Technical Report

Analysis of recent U.S. ozone air quality data to support the O3 NAAQS review and quadratic rollback simulations to support the first draft of the risk and exposure assessment

Authors: Wells, B; Wesson, K; Jenkins, S (2012) HERO ID: 1323655

[Less] Ambient air quality information is an important element of the 03 NAAQS Health and Welfare Risk and . . . [More] Ambient air quality information is an important element of the 03 NAAQS Health and Welfare Risk and Exposure Assessments (REAs; U.S. EPA, 2012a, b), as well as the Policy Assessment (PA; U.S. EPA, 2012c). This memorandum provides information about the ambient 03 monitoring data, modeling data, and spatial fusion technique analyzed in both REAs, as well as information on the ambient 03 concentrations in locations and time periods of the health studies discussed in the PA.

In addition, this memorandum also provides information on the "quadratic rollback" method, which uses a quadratic equation to reduce high concentrations at a greater rate than low concentrations in simulations of just meeting the current 03 standard. In this review, quadratic rollback was used to simulate reductions in 03 concentrations in areas that did not meet the current 03 standard of 0.075 ppm (75 ppb). This memorandum discusses the application of the quadratic rollback to simulate just meeting the current standard in 12 case study areas for the Health REA (U.S. EPA, 2012a) and in the national-scale analysis for the Welfare REA (U.S. EPA, 2012b). An evaluation of the rollback approach is also discussed for the urban case study analysis, as well as the national-scale application.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Deaths: Preliminary data for 2010

Authors: Murphy, SL; Xu, JQ; Kochanek, KD (2012) In National Vital Statistics Reports. (4). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. HERO ID: 1158076

[Less] Objectives—This report presents preliminary U.S. data on deaths, death rates, life expectancy, leading . . . [More] Objectives—This report presents preliminary U.S. data on deaths, death rates, life expectancy, leading causes of death, and infant mortality for 2010 by selected characteristics such as age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin.
Methods—Data in this report are based on death records comprising more than 98 percent of the demographic and medical files for all deaths in the United States in 2010. The records are weighted to independent control counts for 2010. Comparisons are made with 2009 final data.
Results—The age-adjusted death rate decreased from 749.6 deaths per 100,000 population in 2009 to 746.2 deaths per 100,000 population in 2010. From 2009 to 2010, age-adjusted death rates decreased significantly for 7 of the 15 leading causes of death: Diseases of heart, Malignant neoplasms, Chronic lower respiratory diseases, Cerebrovascular diseases, Accidents (unintentional injuries), Influenza and pneumonia, and Septicemia. Assault (homicide) fell from among the top 15 leading causes of death in 2010, replaced by Pneumonitis due to solids and liquids as the 15th leading cause of death. The age-adjusted death rate increased for 5 leading causes of death: Alzheimer’s disease, Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis, Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, Parkinson's disease, and Pneumonitis due to solids and liquids. Life expectancy increased by 0.1 year from 78.6 in 2009 to 78.7 in 2010.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution associated with blood pressure and self-reported hypertension in a Danish cohort

Authors: Sørensen, M; Hoffmann, B; Hvidberg, M; Ketzel, M; Jensen, SS; Andersen, ZJ; Tjønneland, A; Overvad, K; Raaschou-Nielsen, O (2012) Environmental Health Perspectives 120:418-424. HERO ID: 1065945

[Less] BACKGROUND: Short-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with changes in . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Short-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with changes in blood pressure (BP) and emergency department visits for hypertension, but little is known about the effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on BP and hypertension.

OBJECTIVES: We studied whether long-term exposure to air pollution is associated with BP and hypertension.

METHODS: In 1993-1997, 57,053 participants 50-64 years of age were enrolled in a population-based cohort study. Systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP, respectively) were measured at enrollment. Self-reported incident hypertension during a mean follow-up of 5.3 years was assessed by questionnaire. We used a validated dispersion model to estimate residential long-term nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), a marker of traffic-related air pollution, for the 1- and 5-year periods prior to enrollment and before a diagnosis of hypertension. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of associations between air pollution and BP at enrollment with linear regression, adjusting for traffic noise, measured short-term NO(x), temperature, relative humidity, and potential lifestyle confounders (n = 44,436). We analyzed incident hypertension with Cox regression, adjusting for traffic noise and potential confounders.

RESULTS: A doubling of NO(x) exposure during 1- and 5-year periods preceding enrollment was associated with 0.53-mmHg decreases [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.88, -0.19 mmHg] and 0.50-mmHg decreases (95% CI: -0.84, -0.16 mmHg) in SBP, respectively. Long-term exposure also was associated with a lower prevalence of baseline self-reported hypertension (per doubling of 5-year mean NO(x): odds ratio = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.00), whereas long-term NO(x) exposure was not associated with incident self-reported hypertension during follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution was associated with a slightly lower prevalence of BP at baseline, but was not associated with incident hypertension.