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Nanoscale Carbon

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Anti-tumor Activity of Biodegradable Polymer-Paclitaxel Conjugate Micelles on Lewis Lung Cancer Mice Models

Authors: Wan, Y; Zheng, Y; Song, X; Hu, X; Liu, S; Tong, T; Jing, X (In Press) Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition. HERO ID: 738900

[Less] Two kinds of paclitaxel (PTX) conjugate nanomicelles were prepared for cell apoptosis and anti-tumor . . . [More] Two kinds of paclitaxel (PTX) conjugate nanomicelles were prepared for cell apoptosis and anti-tumor activity evaluation on Lewis lung cancer mice models. One (PTX micelles) was prepared by self-assembling the PTX-conjugate co-polymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lactide-co-2-methyl-2-carboxyl-propylene carbonate/PTX), and the other (FA-PTX micelles) was by co-assembling a mixture of the folic acid (FA)-carrying co-polymer poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lactide-co-2,2-dihydroxylmethyl-propylene carbonate/FA) (PEG-b-P(LA-co-DHP/FA)), and the PTX-conjugate co-polymer. At 7 and 14 days after tail intravenous injection, the mice were killed. The inhibition rates of tumor growth for PTX and FA-PTX micelles were 50 and 90%, respectively, on the day 7, and 33 and 71%, respectively, on the day 14 after drug injection. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the cell apoptosis rates were 43, 54 and 72% for the control group, PTX micelles group and FA-PTX micelles group, respectively, on the day 7, and 16, 25 and 42 on the day 14. With the TUNEL assay, the grey values of PTX micelles and FA-PTX micelles groups were determined to be 61-62% and 43-44%, of that of the control group, on day 7 or day 14, respectively. Therefore, the PTX micelles and the FA-PTX composite micelles significantly inhibited the subcutaneously inoculated Lewis lung cancer and effectively induced the cell apoptosis, and the FA-PTX composite micelles displayed a better efficacy than the PTX-micelles, implying the contribution of the folate-mediated targeting and endocytosis effect.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Carcinoembryonic Antigen Admittance Biosensor Based on Au and ZnO Nanoparticles Using FFT Admittance Voltammetry

Authors: Norouzi, P; Gupta, VK; Faridbod, F; Pirali-Hamedani, M; Larijani, B; Ganjali, MR (In Press) Analytical Chemistry. HERO ID: 738524

[Less] In this work, a highly sensitive carcinoembryonic antigen fast Fourier transform admittance biosensor . . . [More] In this work, a highly sensitive carcinoembryonic antigen fast Fourier transform admittance biosensor is introduced. The proposed biosensor is based on bilayer films of ZnO/Au nanoparticles as an immobilization matrix. These layers are prepared by self-assembly and deposition method on a gold electrode surface, respectively. Carcinoembryonic antibody (anti-CEA) was immobilized on gold nanoparticles and positively charged horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used to block sites against nonspecific binding. The admittance biosensor was developed based on fast Fourier transform continuous square wave voltammetry, which produces a sensitive, fast (less than 20 s) and reliable response for determination of carcinoembryonic antigen. The technique was applied as a detector in a flow injection system. The admittances reduction current of the biosensor decreases linearly in two concentrations ranges of CEA from 0.1 to 70 ng/mL and from 70 to 200 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.01 ng/mL in presence of 0.5 mM H(2)O(2) as an eluent solution.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Adsorption mechanism of single guanine and thymine on single-walled carbon nanotubes

Authors: Rajarajeswari, M; Iyakutti, K; Kawazoe, Y (In Press) Journal of Molecular Modeling. HERO ID: 751960

[Less] Bio-nano hybrids introduce magnificent applications of nanomaterials to various fields. The choice of . . . [More] Bio-nano hybrids introduce magnificent applications of nanomaterials to various fields. The choice of carbon nanotube as well as sequence selection of the nucleic acid bases play a crucial role in shaping DNA-carbon nanotube hybrids. To come up with a clear vision for the choice of carbon nanotube and nucleic acid bases to create bio-nano hybrids, we studied the adsorption mechanism of the nucleic acid bases guanine and thymine on four different types of nanotubes based on density functional theory. Nucleic acid bases exhibit differential binding strengths according to their structural geometry, inter-molecular distances, the carbon nanotube diameter, and charge transfer. The π-π interaction mechanism between the adsorbent and adsorbate is discussed in terms of charge density profile and electronic band structure analysis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Near-infrared light induced in vivo photodynamic therapy of cancer based on upconversion nanoparticles

Authors: Wang, C; Tao, H; Cheng, L; Liu, Z (In Press) Biomaterials. HERO ID: 752169

[Less] Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) that emit high-energy photons upon excitation by the low-energy near-infrared . . . [More] Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) that emit high-energy photons upon excitation by the low-energy near-infrared (NIR) light are emerging as new optical nano-probes useful in biomedicine. Herein, we load Chlorin e6 (Ce6), a photosensitizer, on polymer-coated UCNPs, forming a UCNP-Ce6 supramolecular complex that produces singlet oxygen to kill cancer cells under NIR light. Excellent photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy is achieved in tumor-bearing mice upon intratumoral injection of UCNP-Ce6 and the followed NIR light exposure. It is further uncovered that UCNPs after PDT treatment are gradually cleared out from mouse organs, without rendering appreciable toxicity to the treated animals. Moreover, we demonstrate that the NIR-induced PDT based on UCNP-Ce6 exhibits a remarkably increased tissue penetration depth compared to the traditional PDT using visible excitation light, offering significantly improved treatment efficacy for tumors blocked by thick biological tissues. Our work demonstrates NIR light-induced in vivo PDT treatment of cancer in animals, and highlights the promise of UCNPs for multifunctional in vivo cancer treatment and imaging.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Supercritical carbon dioxide processed resorbable polymer nanocomposite bone graft substitutes

Authors: Baker, KC; Manitiu, M; Bellair, R; Gratopp, CA; Herkowitz, HN; Kannan, RM (In Press) Acta Biomaterialia. HERO ID: 752185

[Less] The development of synthetic bone graft substitutes is an intense area of research due to the complications . . . [More] The development of synthetic bone graft substitutes is an intense area of research due to the complications associated with the harvest of autogenous bone and concerns about the supply of allogenic bone. Porous resorbable polymers have been used extensively in hard tissue engineering applications, but currently lack load-bearing capacity. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) processing is used as a novel method to simultaneously impart a porous structure and disperse a nano-clay in a resorbable polymer matrix suitable for load-bearing applications. Porous resorbable polylactic acid (PLA)/cloisite clay nanocomposite constructs prepared using scCO(2) processing exhibit a 2.5-fold increase in compressive strength compared with pure polymer constructs. The resulting mechanical properties are comparable with human cancellous and cortico-cancellous bone. In addition to the significant improvements in mechanical properties, the nanocomposite constructs display a biocompatibility greater than that of polystyrene culture plate controls. Furthermore, calcium phosphate-rich deposits could clearly be seen on the surface of the constructs, as well as at the center of the cultured constructs, indicating that osteoblasts are able to penetrate the porous network of the nanocomposite constructs. Cellular infiltration of these constructs is important for their in vivo use as bone graft substitutes. The diameter of the pores suggests that these constructs would also support neovascularization, which is integral for nutrient transport.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Site-specific protein glycosylation analysis with glycan isomer differentiation

Authors: Hua, S; Nwosu, CC; Strum, JS; Seipert, RR; An, HJ; Zivkovic, AM; German, JB; Lebrilla, CB (In Press) Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. HERO ID: 752189

[Less] Glycosylation is one of the most common yet diverse post-translational modifications. Information on . . . [More] Glycosylation is one of the most common yet diverse post-translational modifications. Information on glycan heterogeneity and glycosite occupancy is increasingly recognized as crucial to understanding glycoprotein structure and function. Yet, no approach currently exists with which to holistically consider both the proteomic and glycomic aspects of a system. Here, we developed a novel method of comprehensive glycosite profiling using nanoflow liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (nano-LC/MS) that shows glycan isomer-specific differentiation on specific sites. Glycoproteins were digested by controlled non-specific proteolysis in order to produce informative glycopeptides. High-resolution, isomer-sensitive chromatographic separation of the glycopeptides was achieved using microfluidic chip-based capillaries packed with graphitized carbon. Integrated LC/MS/MS not only confirmed glycopeptide composition but also differentiated glycan and peptide isomers and yielded structural information on both the glycan and peptide moieties. Our analysis identified at least 13 distinct glycans (including isomers) corresponding to five compositions at the single N-glycosylation site on bovine ribonuclease B, 59 distinct glycans at five N-glycosylation sites on bovine lactoferrin, 13 distinct glycans at one N-glycosylation site on four subclasses of human immunoglobulin G, and 20 distinct glycans at five O-glycosylation sites on bovine κ-casein. Porous graphitized carbon provided effective separation of glycopeptide isomers. The integration of nano-LC with MS and MS/MS of non-specifically cleaved glycopeptides allows quantitative, isomer-sensitive, and site-specific glycoprotein analysis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Calcium-Decorated Carbyne Networks as Hydrogen Storage Media

Authors: Sorokin, PB; Lee, H; Antipina, LY; Singh, AK; Yakobson, BI (In Press) Nano Letters. HERO ID: 752192

[Less] Among the carbon allotropes, carbyne chains appear outstandingly accessible for sorption and very light. . . . [More] Among the carbon allotropes, carbyne chains appear outstandingly accessible for sorption and very light. Hydrogen adsorption on calcium-decorated carbyne chain was studied using ab initio density functional calculations. The estimation of surface area of carbyne gives the value four times larger than that of graphene, which makes carbyne attractive as a storage scaffold medium. Furthermore, calculations show that a Ca-decorated carbyne can adsorb up to 6 H(2) molecules per Ca atom with a binding energy of ∼0.2 eV, desirable for reversible storage, and the hydrogen storage capacity can exceed ∼8 wt %. Unlike recently reported transition metal-decorated carbon nanostructures, which suffer from the metal clustering diminishing the storage capacity, the clustering of Ca atoms on carbyne is energetically unfavorable. Thermodynamics of adsorption of H(2) molecules on the Ca atom was also investigated using equilibrium grand partition function.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Visualizing Zeptomole (Electro)Catalysis at Single Nanoparticles within an Ensemble

Authors: Lai, SC; Dudin, PV; Macpherson, JV; Unwin, PR (In Press) Journal of the American Chemical Society. HERO ID: 752206

[Less] The relationship between the structural properties, such as the size and the shape, of a catalytic nanoparticle . . . [More] The relationship between the structural properties, such as the size and the shape, of a catalytic nanoparticle and its reactivity is a key concept in (electro)catalysis. Current understanding of this relationship is mainly derived from studies involving large ensembles of nanoparticles (NPs). However, the results necessarily reflect the average catalytic behavior of an ensemble, even though the properties of individual particles may vary widely. Here, we demonstrate a novel approach using scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM) to locate and map the reactivity of individual NPs within an electrocatalytic ensemble, consisting of platinum NPs supported on a single carbon nanotube. Significantly, our studies show that subtle variations in the morphology of NPs lead to dramatic changes in (potential-dependent) reactivity, which has important implications for the design and assessment of NP catalysts. The instrumental approach described is general and opens up new avenues of research in functional imaging, nanoscale electron transfer, and catalysis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In vivo biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of carbon nanotubes

Authors: Yang, K; Liu, Z (In Press) Current Drug Metabolism. HERO ID: 1071840

[Less] Owing to their interesting physical and chemical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted . . . [More] Owing to their interesting physical and chemical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted wide attentions in nanomedicine for applications in biological sensing, drug delivery, as well as biomedical imaging. The in vivo behaviors and toxicology of CNTs in biological systems, which are important fundamental questions, although have been intensively studied in recent years, remain to be clarified as distinctive results have been reported by various teams, confusing the scientific community as well as the public. In this article, we review the research on the in vivo behaviors of CNTs, and summarize the toxicity studies of CNTs in animals by different groups. Similar to other nanomaterials, the in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of CNTs are closely associated with their surface coatings. The excretion of CNTs from animals may happen via renal and fecal pathways, depending on the CNT surface chemistry, shape, and sizes. Regarding the toxicology of CNTs, which has been a debating topic for years, the administration routes, doses, and again the surface functionalization are critical to the in vivo toxicity of nanotubes. Much more efforts are still required to develop functional CNT bioconjugates with improved biocompatible coatings and controllable optimal sizes to achieve fast excretion and minimal toxicity, for various applications in biomedicine.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Reactive oxygen species-mediated p38 MAPK regulates carbon nanotube-induced fibrogenic and angiogenic responses

Authors: Azad, N; Iyer, AK; Wang, L; Liu, Y; Lu, Y; Rojanasakul, Y (In Press) Nanotoxicology. HERO ID: 1071850

[Less] Abstract Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are fibrous nanoparticles that are being used widely . . . [More] Abstract Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are fibrous nanoparticles that are being used widely for various applications including drug delivery. SWCNTs are currently under special attention for possible cytotoxicity. Recent reports suggest that exposure to nanoparticles leads to pulmonary fibrosis. We report that SWCNT-mediated interplay of fibrogenic and angiogenic regulators leads to increased angiogenesis, which is a novel finding that furthers the understanding of SWCNT-induced cytotoxicity. SWCNTs induce fibrogenesis through reactive oxygen species-regulated phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Activation of p38 MAPK by SWCNTs led to the induction of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Both TGF-β1 and VEGF contributed significantly to the fibroproliferative and collagen-inducing effects of SWCNTs. Interestingly, a positive feedback loop was observed between TGF-β1 and VEGF. This interplay of fibrogenic and angiogenic mediators led to increased angiogenesis in response to SWCNTs. Overall this study reveals key signalling molecules involved in SWCNT-induced fibrogenesis and angiogenesis.