Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


DCM (Dichloromethane) (Final, 2011)


394 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Insights from epidemiology into dichloromethane and cancer risk

Authors: Cooper, GS; Scott, CS; Bale, AS (2011) International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 8:3380-3398. [Review] HERO ID: 787814

[Less] Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology . . . [More] Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers), focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of lung cancer in the cohort studies (standardized mortality ratios ranging from 0.46 to 1.21). These cohorts are relatively small, and variable effects (e.g., point estimates ranging from 0.5 to 2.0) were seen for the rarer forms of cancers such as brain cancer and specific hematopoietic cancers. Three large population-based case-control studies of incident non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Europe and the United States observed odds ratios between 1.5 and 2.2 with dichloromethane exposure (ever exposed or highest category of exposure), with higher risk seen in specific subsets of disease. More limited indications of associations with brain cancer, breast cancer, and liver and biliary cancer were also seen in this collection of studies. Existing cohort studies, given their size and uneven exposure information, are unlikely to resolve questions of cancer risks and dichloromethane exposure. More promising approaches are population-based case-control studies of incident disease, and the combination of data from such studies, with robust exposure assessments that include detailed occupational information and exposure assignment based on industry-wide surveys or direct exposure measurements.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Genetic variation in metabolic genes, occupational solvent exposure, and risk of non-hodgkin lymphoma

Authors: Barry, KH; Zhang, Y; Lan, Q; Zahm, SH; Holford, TR; Leaderer, B; Boyle, P; Hosgood, HD; Chanock, S; Yeager, M; Rothman, N; Zheng, T (2011) American Journal of Epidemiology 173:404-413. HERO ID: 730513

[Less] Using 1996-2000 data among Connecticut women, the authors evaluated whether genetic variation in 4 metabolic . . . [More] Using 1996-2000 data among Connecticut women, the authors evaluated whether genetic variation in 4 metabolic genes modifies organic solvent associations with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 5 major histologic subtypes. P(interaction) values were determined from cross-product terms between dichotomous (ever/never) solvent variables and genotypes at examined loci in unconditional logistic regression models. The false discovery rate method was used to account for multiple comparisons. Overall associations between the chlorinated solvents dichloromethane (odds ratio (OR) = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 2.69), carbon tetrachloride (OR = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.40), and methyl chloride (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 0.94, 2.20) and total non-Hodgkin lymphoma were increased among women TT for rs2070673 in the cytochrome P4502E1 gene, CYP2E1 (dichloromethane: OR = 4.42, 95% CI: 2.03, 9.62; P(interaction) < 0.01; carbon tetrachloride: OR = 5.08, 95% CI: 1.82, 14.15; P(interaction) = 0.04; and methyl chloride: OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.24, 4.51; P(interaction) = 0.03). In contrast, no effects of these solvents were observed among TA/AA women. Similar patterns were observed for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma, as well as marginal zone lymphoma for dichloromethane. The weak, nonsignificant overall association between benzene and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.98) was increased among women AA for rs2234922 in the microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene, EPHX1 (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.97; P(interaction) = 0.06). In contrast, no effect was observed among AG/GG women. Additional studies with larger sample size are needed to replicate these findings.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Update of a cohort mortality study of workers exposed to methylene chloride employed at a plant producing cellulose triacetate film base

Author: Tomenson, JA (2011) International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 84:889-897. HERO ID: 787813

[Less] PURPOSE: To update the mortality experience of employees of a factory that produced cellulose triacetate . . . [More] PURPOSE: To update the mortality experience of employees of a factory that produced cellulose triacetate film base at Brantham in the United Kingdom and generate information on the effects of exposure to methylene chloride, in particular, mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancers of the lung, liver and biliary tract, pancreas and brain. METHODS: All 1,785 male employees with a record of employment at the film factory in 1946-1988 were followed through 2006, including 1,473 subjects exposed to methylene chloride on average for 9 years at a concentration of 19 ppm (8 h time-weighted average). RESULTS: A total of 559 deaths occurred during the follow-up period. In the subcohort of workers exposed to methylene chloride, substantially reduced mortalities compared with national and local rates were found for all causes, all cancers, and all the principal cancer sites of interest except for brain cancer. There was a small excess of brain cancer deaths (8 observed and 4.4 expected), but no evidence of an association with exposure to methylene chloride. Lung cancer mortality was significantly reduced in exposed workers, even compared to the low mortality rate in the local population (SMR 55). In contrast, mortality from ischaemic heart disease in exposed workers was slightly increased compared with local rates (SMR 102), but was lower in active employees (SMR 94; local rates), where a direct effect of exposure to methylene chloride should be concentrated. CONCLUSIONS: The study provided no indication that employment at the plant, or exposure to methylene chloride, had adversely affected the mortalities of workers.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The relationship between multiple myeloma and occupational exposure to six chlorinated solvents

Authors: Gold, LS; Stewart, PA; Milliken, K; Purdue, M; Severson, R; Seixas, N; Blair, A; Hartge, P; Davis, S; De Roos, AJ (2010) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68:391-399. HERO ID: 699241

[Less] Objectives: Few studies have examined whether exposure to chlorinated solvents is associated with multiple . . . [More] Objectives: Few studies have examined whether exposure to chlorinated solvents is associated with multiple myeloma. We evaluated associations between multiple myeloma and occupational exposure to six chlorinated solvents: 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene (TCE), methylene chloride (DCM), perchloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform.

Methods: In-person interviews obtained occupational histories and information on jobs with likely solvent exposure. We assigned exposure metrics of probability, frequency, intensity and confidence using job-exposure matrices modified by job-specific questionnaire information. We used logistic regression to estimate ORs and 95% CIs for associations between multiple myeloma and ever exposure to each, and any, chlorinated solvent and analysed whether associations varied by duration and cumulative exposure. We also considered all occupations that were given the lowest confidence scores as unexposed and repeated all analyses.

Results: Risk of multiple myeloma was elevated for subjects ever exposed to 1,1,1-trichloroethane (OR (95% CI): 1.8 (1.1 to 2.9)). Ever exposure to TCE or DCM also entailed elevated, but not statistically significant, risks of multiple myeloma; these became statistically significant when occupations with low confidence scores were considered unexposed (TCE: 1.7 (1.0 to 2.7); DCM: 2.0 (1.2 to 3.2)). Increasing cumulative exposure to perchloroethylene was also associated with increasing multiple myeloma risk. We observed non-significantly increased multiple myeloma risks with exposure to chloroform; however, few subjects were exposed.

Conclusions: Evidence from this relatively large case-control study suggests that exposures to certain chlorinated solvents may be associated with increased incidence of multiple myeloma; however, the study is limited by relatively low participation (52%) among controls.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Susceptibility to the cytogenetic effects of dichloromethane is related to the glutathione S-transferase theta phenotype

Authors: Olvera-Bello, AE; Estrada-Muñiz, E; Elizondo, G; Vega, L (2010) Toxicology Letters 199:218-224. HERO ID: 783479

[Less] The carcinogenicity of dichloromethane (DCM) has been demonstrated by mutagenicity studies using bacteria . . . [More] The carcinogenicity of dichloromethane (DCM) has been demonstrated by mutagenicity studies using bacteria and yeasts and using animal bioassays. Epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to DCM increases the incidences of liver and pancreas cancers. In the present study, we determine whether DCM generates DNA damage in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and whether that process depends on glutathione S-transferase theta (GSTT)-1 activity. GSTT1 is one of the enzymes that biotransforms DCM. To this end, PBMC cultures from healthy men were treated with DCM (15-500 ppm) for 72 h. Cell cultures were harvested and processed according to classical cytogenetic techniques. The frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), the mitotic index (MI), the cell proliferation kinetic (CPK) value, and the level of GSTT1 activity were determined. DCM exposure decreased the MI in a dose-dependent manner in all individuals tested (20). The CPK value decreased from 125 ppm DCM, and the SCEs frequency increased from 60 ppm DCM. A significantly different response was observed when the group of individuals with low GSTT1 enzymatic activity (4 individuals), the group with medium GSTT1 activity (10 individuals), and the group of individuals with high GSTT1 enzymatic activity (6 individuals) were compared (0.077 ± 0.0124, 0.325 ± 0.0269, and 7.365 ± 1.3474 nmol HCOH/min/mg protein, respectively). These differences were reflected in the amount of change for all of the evaluated cytogenetic parameters (p<0.05, ANOVA) and indicated a clear susceptibility to DCM genotoxic effects related to GSTT1 activity because the cytogenetic effects were directly related to the GSTT1-specific activity. DCM was highly cytotoxic in PBMCs, even at doses within the safety range. Due to this toxicity, a review of the maximal limits for occupational exposure to DCM is advised.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Cancer risk based on an individual tumor type or summing of tumors

Authors: Salmon, AG; Roth, LA (2010) HERO ID: 730472


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluation of two different metabolic hypotheses for dichloromethane toxicity using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling for in vivo inhalation gas uptake data exposure in female B6C3F1 mice

Authors: Evans, MV; Caldwell, JC (2010) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 244:280-290. HERO ID: 380808

[Less] Dichloromethane (DCM, methylene chloride) is a lipophilic volatile compound readily absorbed and then . . . [More] Dichloromethane (DCM, methylene chloride) is a lipophilic volatile compound readily absorbed and then metabolized to several metabolites that may lead to chronic toxicity in different target organs. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are useful tools for calculation of internal and target organ doses of parent compound and metabolites. PBPK models, coupled with in vivo inhalation gas-uptake data, can be useful to estimate total metabolism. Previously, such an approach was used to make predictions regarding the metabolism and to make subsequent inferences of DCM's mode of action for toxicity. However, current evidence warrants re-examination of this approach. The goal of this work was to examine two different hypotheses for DCM metabolism in mice. One hypothesis describes two metabolic pathways: one involving cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and a second glutathione (GSH). The second metabolic hypothesis describes only one pathway mediated by CYP2E1 that includes multiple binding sites. The results of our analysis show that the in vivo gas-uptake data fit both hypotheses well and the traditional analysis of the chamber concentration data is not sufficient to distinguish between them. Gas-uptake data were re-analyzed by construction of a velocity plot as a function of increasing DCM initial concentration. The velocity (slope) analysis revealed that there are two substantially different phases in velocity, one rate for lower exposures and a different rate for higher exposures. The concept of a "metabolic switch," namely that due to conformational changes in the enzyme after one site is occupied - a different metabolic rate is seen - is also consistent with the experimental data. Our analyses raise questions concerning the importance of GSH metabolism for DCM. Recent research results also question the importance of this pathway in the toxicity of DCM. GSH-related DNA adducts were not formed after in vivo DCM exposure in mice and DCM-induced DNA damage has been detected in human lung cultures without GSH metabolism. In summary, a revised/updated metabolic hypothesis for DCM has been examined using in vivo inhalation data in mice combined with PBPK modeling that is consistent with up-to-date models of the active site for CYP2E1 and suggests that this pathway is the major metabolizing pathway for DCM metabolism.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Suppression of pulmonary host defenses and enhanced susceptibility to respiratory bacterial infection in mice following inhalation exposure to trichloroethylene and chloroform

Authors: Selgrade, MK; Gilmour, MI (2010) Journal of Immunotoxicology 7:350-356. HERO ID: 730119

[Less] Numerous epidemiological studies have associated episodes of increased air pollution with increased . . . [More] Numerous epidemiological studies have associated episodes of increased air pollution with increased incidence of respiratory disease, including pneumonia, croup, and bronchitis. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform are among 33 hazardous air pollutants identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as presenting the greatest threat to public health in the largest number of urban areas. Also, both are common indoor air pollutants. Here, we assessed the potential effects of TCE and chloroform on resistance to pulmonary bacterial infection and related alveolar macrophage (AM) function. CD-1 mice were exposed by inhalation to filtered air (control) or concentrations of TCE ranging from 5 to 200 ppm, or concentrations of chloroform ranging from 100 to 2000 ppm. Immediately following exposure, mice were challenged with an aerosol of Streptococcus zooepidemicus and monitored for clearance of bacteria from the lung and mortality. In separate experiments, exposed mice were injected intratracheally with viable bacteria and phagocytic function was evaluated in macrophages obtained from lung washes 30 min later. The NOEL for enhanced mortality to infection was 25 ppm for TCE and 500 ppm for chloroform. Relative to the air controls, differences in clearance of bacteria from the lung were noted in mice exposed to TCE (NOEL = 50 ppm) and to chloroform (NOEL 100 ppm), and differences in AM phagocytic index were noted for TCE (NOEL = 100 ppm) and for chloroform (NOEL < 100 ppm). The data support the utility of the S. zooepidemicus infectivity model in assessing potential increased risk of respiratory infection and suggest that delayed clearance of bacteria from the lung or decreased phagocytosis are viable alternatives to mortality as an endpoint. Collectively, these endpoints are among the most sensitive health effects reported for TCE.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mutagenicity testing for chemical risk assessment: Update of the WHO/IPCS harmonized scheme

Authors: Eastmond, DA; Hartwig, A; Anderson, D; Anwar, WA; Cimino, MC; Dobrev, I; Douglas, GR; Nohmi, T; Phillips, DH; Vickers, C (2009) Mutagenesis 24:341-349. HERO ID: 412478

[Less] Since the publication of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) Harmonized Scheme for . . . [More] Since the publication of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) Harmonized Scheme for Mutagenicity Testing, there have been a number of publications addressing test strategies for mutagenicity. Safety assessments of substances with regard to genotoxicity are generally based on a combination of tests to assess effects on three major end points of genetic damage associated with human disease: gene mutation, clastogenicity and aneuploidy. It is now clear from the results of international collaborative studies and the large databases that are currently available for the assays evaluated that no single assay can detect all genotoxic substances. The World Health Organization therefore decided to update the IPCS Harmonized Scheme for Mutagenicity Testing as part of the IPCS project on the Harmonization of Approaches to the Assessment of Risk from Exposure to Chemicals. The approach presented in this paper focuses on the identification of mutagens and genotoxic carcinogens. Selection of appropriate in vitro and in vivo tests as well as a strategy for germ cell testing are described

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occupational exposure to solvents and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Connecticut women

Authors: Wang, R; Zhang, Y; Lan, Q; Holford, TR; Leaderer, B; Zahm, SH; Boyle, P; Dosemeci, M; Rothman, N; Zhu, Y; Qin, Q; Zheng, T (2009) American Journal of Epidemiology 169:176-185. HERO ID: 626703

[Less] A population-based case-control study involving 601 incident cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and . . . [More] A population-based case-control study involving 601 incident cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 717 controls was conducted in 1996-2000 among Connecticut women to examine associations with exposure to organic solvents. A job-exposure matrix was used to assess occupational exposures. Increased risk of NHL was associated with occupational exposure to chlorinated solvents (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 1.8) and carbon tetrachloride (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.0). Those ever exposed to any organic solvent in work settings had a borderline increased risk of NHL (OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6); moreover, a significantly increased risk was observed for those with average probability of exposure to any organic solvent at medium-high level (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). A borderline increased risk was also found for ever exposure to formaldehyde (OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.7) in work settings. Risk of NHL increased with increasing average intensity (P = 0.01), average probability (P < 0.01), cumulative intensity (P = 0.01), and cumulative probability (P < 0.01) level of organic solvent and with average probability level (P = 0.02) and cumulative intensity level of chlorinated solvent (P = 0.02). Analyses by NHL subtype showed a risk pattern for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma similar to that for overall NHL, with stronger evidence of an association with benzene exposure. Results suggest an increased risk of NHL associated with occupational exposure to organic solvents for women.