Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)


1,856 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparison of the acute effects of benzo-a-pyrene on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) cardiorespiratory function following intraperitoneal injection versus aqueous exposure

Authors: Gerger, CJ; Weber, LP (2015) Aquatic Toxicology 165:19-30. HERO ID: 3121801

[Less] Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. PAH exposure causes . . . [More] Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. PAH exposure causes developmental toxicity in multiple fish species, while acute adult fish toxicity is thought to be minimal. The literature increasingly suggests sublethal PAH effects may occur, but differences in exposure route may confound conclusions. We hypothesized that acute PAH exposure in adult fish will cause cardiorespiratory impairment that will not differ with exposure route. In order to investigate this hypothesis, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were injected intraperitoneal (i.p.) twice with increasing concentrations of the prototypical PAH, benzo-a-pyrene (BaP; 0.1, 10, and 1000μg/kg) or exposed aqueously (static, renewal at 24h; 16.2 and 162μg/L) for 48h and compared to corresponding dimethylsulfoxide controls. No mortalities or significant effects on weight of the fish were noted at any exposure concentration or route. At 48h, fish were subjected to swimming tests with concurrent oxygen consumption measurement (n=10 fish/treatment) or echocardiography (n=12 fish/treatment). Oxygen consumption (MO2) was increased at three swimming speeds in BaP-injected groups compared to control (p<0.01 in Fisher's LSD tests after two-way ANOVA). In contrast, aqueously BaP-exposed fish showed increased MO2 under only basal conditions. Despite increased oxygen demand, ventricular heart rate was significantly decreased in BaP-exposed fish, both injected and aqueously-exposed. Analysis of BaP body burdens in fish tissue allowed for identification of an overlapping dose group between exposure routes, through which comparisons of cardiorespiratory toxicity were then made. This comparison revealed most effects were similar between the two exposures routes, although minor differences were noted. At similar BaP body burdens, injected fish suffered from more severe bradycardia than aqueously exposed fish and had greater levels of increases in cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) mRNA levels in liver and heart tissue compared to aqueous exposed fish. In conclusion, acute BaP exposure in adult zebrafish had negative effects on cardiorespiratory function. Differences in effect between exposure routes were attributed primarily to differences in bioavailability, since overall, similar effects were noted between the two exposure routes when similar BaP body burdens were achieved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Integrating toxicogenomics into human health risk assessment: lessons learned from the benzo[a]pyrene case study

Authors: Chepelev, NL; Moffat, ID; Labib, S; Bourdon-Lacombe, J; Kuo, B; Buick, JK; Lemieux, F; Malik, AI; Halappanavar, S; Williams, A; Yauk, CL (2015) Critical Reviews in Toxicology 45:44-52. [Review] HERO ID: 2944147

[Less] The use of short-term toxicogenomic tests to predict cancer (or other health effects) offers considerable . . . [More] The use of short-term toxicogenomic tests to predict cancer (or other health effects) offers considerable advantages relative to traditional toxicity testing methods. The advantages include increased throughput, increased mechanistic data, and significantly reduced costs. However, precisely how toxicogenomics data can be used to support human health risk assessment (RA) is unclear. In a companion paper ( Moffat et al. 2014 ), we present a case study evaluating the utility of toxicogenomics in the RA of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a known human carcinogen. The case study is meant as a proof-of-principle exercise using a well-established mode of action (MOA) that impacts multiple tissues, which should provide a best case example. We found that toxicogenomics provided rich mechanistic data applicable to hazard identification, dose-response analysis, and quantitative RA of BaP. Based on this work, here we share some useful lessons for both research and RA, and outline our perspective on how toxicogenomics can benefit RA in the short- and long-term. Specifically, we focus on (1) obtaining biologically relevant data that are readily suitable for establishing an MOA for toxicants, (2) examining the human relevance of an MOA from animal testing, and (3) proposing appropriate quantitative values for RA. We describe our envisioned strategy on how toxicogenomics can become a tool in RA, especially when anchored to other short-term toxicity tests (apical endpoints) to increase confidence in the proposed MOA, and emphasize the need for additional studies on other MOAs to define the best practices in the application of toxicogenomics in RA.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparison of toxicogenomics and traditional approaches to inform mode of action and points of departure in human health risk assessment of benzo[a]pyrene in drinking water

Authors: Moffat, I; Chepelev, NL; Labib, S; Bourdon-Lacombe, J; Kuo, B; Buick, JK; Lemieux, F; Williams, A; Halappanavar, S; Malik, AI; Luijten, M; Aubrecht, J; Hyduke, DR; Fornace, AJ; Swartz, CD; Recio, L; Yauk, CL (2015) Critical Reviews in Toxicology 45:1-43. [Review] HERO ID: 2947764

[Less] Toxicogenomics is proposed to be a useful tool in human health risk assessment. However, a systematic . . . [More] Toxicogenomics is proposed to be a useful tool in human health risk assessment. However, a systematic comparison of traditional risk assessment approaches with those applying toxicogenomics has never been done. We conducted a case study to evaluate the utility of toxicogenomics in the risk assessment of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a well-studied carcinogen, for drinking water exposures. Our study was intended to compare methodologies, not to evaluate drinking water safety. We compared traditional (RA1), genomics-informed (RA2) and genomics-only (RA3) approaches. RA2 and RA3 applied toxicogenomics data from human cell cultures and mice exposed to BaP to determine if these data could provide insight into BaP's mode of action (MOA) and derive tissue-specific points of departure (POD). Our global gene expression analysis supported that BaP is genotoxic in mice and allowed the development of a detailed MOA. Toxicogenomics analysis in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells demonstrated a high degree of consistency in perturbed pathways with animal tissues. Quantitatively, the PODs for traditional and transcriptional approaches were similar (liver 1.2 vs. 1.0 mg/kg-bw/day; lungs 0.8 vs. 3.7 mg/kg-bw/day; forestomach 0.5 vs. 7.4 mg/kg-bw/day). RA3, which applied toxicogenomics in the absence of apical toxicology data, demonstrates that this approach provides useful information in data-poor situations. Overall, our study supports the use of toxicogenomics as a relatively fast and cost-effective tool for hazard identification, preliminary evaluation of potential carcinogens, and carcinogenic potency, in addition to identifying current limitations and practical questions for future work.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Macrophages promote benzopyrene-induced tumor transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells by activation of NF-κB and STAT3 signaling in a bionic airway chip culture and in animal models

Authors: Li, E; Xu, Z; Zhao, H; Sun, Z; Wang, L; Guo, Z; Zhao, Y; Gao, Z; Wang, Q (2015) Oncotarget 6:8900-8913. HERO ID: 3121819

[Less] We investigated the role of macrophages in promoting benzopyrene (BaP)-induced malignant transformation . . . [More] We investigated the role of macrophages in promoting benzopyrene (BaP)-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells using a BaP-induced tumor transformation model with a bionic airway chip in vitro and in animal models. The bionic airway chip culture data showed that macrophages promoted BaP-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells, which was mediated by nuclear factor (NF)-κB and STAT3 pathways to induce cell proliferation, colony formation in chip culture, and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Blockage of interleukin (IL)-6 or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α signaling or inhibition of NF-κB, STAT3, or cyclinD1 expression abrogated the effect of macrophages on malignant transformation in the bionic airway chip culture. In vivo, macrophages promoted lung tumorigenesis in a carcinogen-induced animal model. Similarly, blockage of NF-κB, STAT3, or cyclinD1 using siRNA transfection decreased the carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis in rats. We demonstrated that macrophages are critical in promoting lung tumorigenesis and that the macrophage-initiated TNF-α/NF-κB/cyclinD1 and IL-6/STAT3/cyclinD1 pathways are primarily responsible for promoting lung tumorigenesis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Vehicular traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and breast cancer incidence: The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP)

Authors: Mordukhovich, I; Beyea, J; Herring, AH; Hatch, M; Stellman, SD; Teitelbaum, SL; Richardson, DB; Millikan, RC; Engel, LS; Shantakumar, S; Steck, SE; Neugut, AI; Rossner, P; Santella, RM; Gammon, MD (2015) Environmental Health Perspectives 124:30-38. HERO ID: 3021352

[Less] BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants, . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants, known human lung carcinogens, and potent mammary carcinogens in laboratory animals. However, the association between PAHs and breast cancer in women is unclear. Vehicular traffic is a major ambient source of PAH exposure.

OBJECTIVES: Our study aim was to evaluate the association between residential exposure to vehicular traffic and breast cancer incidence.

METHODS: Residential histories of 1,508 breast cancer cases and 1,556 controls were assessed in a population-based investigation conducted in 1996-1997. Traffic exposure estimates of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), as a proxy for traffic-related PAHs, for the years 1960-1995 were reconstructed using a model previously shown to generate estimates that are consistent with measured soil PAHs, PAH-DNA adducts, and CO readings. Associations between vehicular traffic exposure estimates and breast cancer incidence were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression.

RESULTS: The odds ratio (95% CI) was modestly elevated by 1.44 (0.78, 2.68) for the association between breast cancer and long-term 1960-1990 vehicular traffic estimates in the top 5%, compared with below the median. The association with recent 1995 traffic exposure was elevated by 1.14 (0.80, 1.64) for the top 5%, compared with below the median, which was stronger among women with low fruit/vegetable intake (1.46 (0.89, 2.40), but not among those with high intake (0.92 (0.53, 1.60)). Among the subset of women with information regarding traffic exposure and tumor hormone receptor subtype, the traffic-breast cancer association was higher for those with estrogen/progesterone-negative tumors (1.67 (0.91, 3.05) relative to controls), but lower among all other tumor subtypes (0.80 (0.50, 1.27) compared with controls).

CONCLUSIONS: In our population-based study, we observed positive associations between vehicular traffic-related B[a]P exposure and breast cancer incidence among women with comparatively high long-term traffic B[a]P exposures, although effect estimates were imprecise.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Changes in Peripheral Blood Monocytes and Liver Macrophages in Male Rats after Benzo(a)pyrene Injection

Authors: Kolesnikov, SI; Michurina, SV; Arkhipov, SA (2015) Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 158:735-738. HERO ID: 3121816

[Less] Intraperitoneal injections of benzo(a)pyrene to male rats in a total dose of 60 mg/kg modified the production . . . [More] Intraperitoneal injections of benzo(a)pyrene to male rats in a total dose of 60 mg/kg modified the production of ROS and the phagocytic potential of blood monocytes by modulating their potential bactericidal activity. The lysosomal system (particularly the secondary lysosomes) of liver macrophages was activated, which promoted fusion of the hydrolytic potentials of macrophages and monocytes. These results indicated that the toxin modulated the cellular immune homeostasis and the level of general nonspecific resistance.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

AHR2-Mediated transcriptomic responses underlying the synergistic cardiac developmental toxicity of PAHs

Authors: Jayasundara, N; Van Tiem Garner, L; Meyer, JN; Erwin, KN; Di Giulio, RT (2015) Toxicological Sciences 143:469-481. HERO ID: 2947686

[Less] Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) induce developmental defects including cardiac deformities in . . . [More] Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) induce developmental defects including cardiac deformities in fish. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxicity of some PAHs. Exposure to a simple PAH mixture during embryo development consisting of an AHR agonist (benzo(a)pyrene-BaP) with fluoranthene (FL), an inhibitor of cytochrome p450 1(CYP1)--a gene induced by AHR activation--results in cardiac deformities. Exposure to BaP or FL alone at similar concentrations alters heart rates, but does not induce morphological deformities. Furthermore, AHR2 knockdown prevents the toxicity of BaP + FL mixture. Here, we used a zebrafish microarray analysis to identify heart-specific transcriptomic changes during early development that might underlie cardiotoxicity of BaP + FL. We used AHR2 morphant embryos to determine the role of this receptor in mediating toxicity. Control and knockdown embryos at 36 h post-fertilization were exposed to DMSO, 100 μg/l BaP, 500 μg/l FL, or 100 μg/l BaP + 500 μg/l FL, and heart tissues for RNA were extracted at 2, 6, 12, and 18 h-post-exposure (hpe), prior to the appearance of cardiac deformities. Data show AHR2-dependent BaP + FL effects on expression of genes involved in protein biosynthesis and neuronal development in addition to signaling molecules and their associated molecular pathways. Ca(2+)-cycling and muscle contraction genes were the most significantly differentially expressed category of transcripts when comparing BaP + FL-treated AHR2 morphant and control embryos. These differences were most prominent at 2 and 6 hpe. Therefore, we postulate that BaP + FL may affect cellular Ca(2+) levels and subsequently cardiac muscle function, potentially underlying BaP + FL cardiotoxicity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of benzo[a]pyrene exposure on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell angiogenesis, metastasis, and NF-κB signaling

Authors: Ba, Q; Li, J; Huang, C; Qiu, H; Li, J; Chu, R; Zhang, W; Xie, D; Wu, Y; Wang, H (2015) Environmental Health Perspectives 123:246-254. HERO ID: 3121773

[Less] BACKGROUND: Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a common environmental and foodborne pollutant. . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a common environmental and foodborne pollutant. Although the carcinogenicity of high-dose B[a]P has been extensively reported, the effects of long-term B[a]P exposure at lower environmental doses on cancer development are less understood.

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the impact of B[a]P on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression at various levels of exposure and identified a potential intervention target.

METHODS: We used a model based on human HCC cells exposed to various concentrations of B[a]P (i.e., 0.01, 1, or 100 nM) for 1 month to examine the effects of B[a]P on cell growth, migration, invasion, and angiogenicity. A bioluminescent murine model was established to assess tumor metastasis in vivo.

RESULTS: Chronic B[a]P exposure did not alter HCC cell growth but promoted cell migration and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. There was an negative association between B[a]P exposure and the survival of tumor-bearing mice. In addition, B[a]P-treated HCC cells recruited vascular endothelial cells and promoted tumor angiogenesis, possibly through elevating vascular endothelial growth factor secretion. Furthermore, the NF-κB pathway may be an adverse outcome pathway associated with the cumulative effects of B[a]P on HCC metastasis.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings a) indicate that B[a]P has effects on HCC progression; b) identify a possible adverse outcome pathway; and c) contribute to a better understanding of the adverse effects of chronic exposure of B[a]P to human health.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The protective effect of astragaloside IV against benzo[a]pyrene induced endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction

Authors: Ji, K; Chen, J; Hu, J; Xue, Y; Yin, R; Lu, Q; Wu, W; Wang, G; Wang, X; Song, X; Li, J; Liao, L; Tang, J (2015) Life Sciences 132:13-19. HERO ID: 3121809

[Less] AIMS: Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a prominent component of tobacco, has been revealed to . . . [More] AIMS: Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a prominent component of tobacco, has been revealed to induce damage to endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in China. In this study, we evaluated the effects of AS-IV on the function of human EPCs after BaP exposure and explored the underlying mechanism.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells were isolated using density gradient centrifugation. Cells of the 4th passage were randomly divided into 6 groups. EPCs of experimental groups were pre-treated with different concentrations (2, 10 and 50 μg/mL) of AS-IV for 2h before exposure to BaP (20 μM) for 24h. The proliferation, migration, and adhesion of the treated EPCs were evaluated using a cell counting kit-8, Transwell assay and adhesion assay respectively. Interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, malondialdehyde and SOD contents in the supernatant were evaluated. The expression of RAGE protein was measured by Western blotting.

KEY FINDINGS: The results demonstrated that AS-IV pre-treatment significantly improved BaP-induced dysfunction of EPCs in terms of proliferation, migration and adhesion. Furthermore, AS-IV reduced the production of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α of the BaP-treated EPCs. Finally AS-IV pre-treated EPCs showed an increased SOD activity and decreased RAGE protein expression.

SIGNIFICANCE: AS-IV is able to prevent BaP-mediated EPC dysfunction by at least inhibiting oxidative stress through the RAGE pathway.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Repeatedly high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and cockroach sensitization among inner-city children

Authors: Jung, KH; Lovinsky-Desir, S; Perzanowski, M; Liu, X; Maher, C; Gil, E; Torrone, D; Sjodin, A; Li, Z; Perera, FP; Miller, RL (2015) Environmental Research 140:649-656. HERO ID: 3010306

[Less] BACKGROUND: Exposures to traffic-related air pollutants including polycyclic aromatic . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Exposures to traffic-related air pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been associated with the development and exacerbation of asthma. However, there is limited evidence on whether these pollutants are associated with the development of cockroach sensitization, a strong risk factor for urban asthma. We hypothesized that repeatedly high PAH exposure during childhood would be associated with increased risk of new cockroach sensitization.

METHODS: As part of the research being conducted by the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH) birth cohort study in New York, a spot urine sample was collected from children at age 5 years (2003-2008) and again at age 9-10 years (2008-2012; n=248) and analyzed for 10 PAH metabolites. Repeatedly high PAH (High-High) exposure was defined as measures above median for age 5 PAH metabolites at both time points. Child blood samples at age 5 and 9 years were analyzed for total, anti-cockroach, mouse, dust mite, cat and dog IgE. Relative risks (RR) were estimated with multivariable modified Poisson regression.

RESULTS: Individual PAH metabolite levels, except for 1-naphthol (1-OH-NAP), increased by 10-60% from age 5 to age 9-10. The prevalence of cockroach sensitization increased from 17.6% (33/188) at age 5 to 33.0% (62/188) at 9 years (p=0.001). After controlling for potential covariates including cockroach sensitization at age 5 in regression analyses, positive associations were found between repeatedly high exposure (High-High) to 1-OH-NAP, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-OH-PHEN), or 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-PYR) and cockroach sensitization at age 9 (p-values<0.05). Compared to Low-Low exposure, the relative risk (RR) [95% CI] with repeatedly high exposure was 1.83 [1.06-3.17] for 1-OH-NAP, 1.54 [1.06-2.23] for 3-OH-PHEN, and 1.59 [1.04-2.43] for 1-OH-PYR.

CONCLUSIONS: Repeatedly high levels of urinary PAH metabolites during childhood may increase likelihood of sensitization to cockroach allergen in urban inner-city children at age 9 years.