Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Exposure Factors Handbook (Post 2011)


3,305 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

From the Cover: Manganese Stimulates Mitochondrial H2O2 Production in SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells Over Physiologic as well as Toxicologic Range

Authors: Fernandes, J; Hao, L; Bijli, KM; Chandler, JD; Orr, M; Hu, X; Jones, DP; Go, YM (2017) Toxicological Sciences 155:213-223. HERO ID: 3691552

[Less] Manganese (Mn) is an abundant redox-active metal with well-characterized mitochondrial accumulation . . . [More] Manganese (Mn) is an abundant redox-active metal with well-characterized mitochondrial accumulation and neurotoxicity due to excessive exposures. Mn is also an essential co-factor for the mitochondrial antioxidant protein, superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), and the range for adequate intake established by the Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board is 20% of the interim guidance value for toxicity by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, leaving little margin for safety. To study toxic mechanisms over this critical dose range, we treated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with a series of MnCl2 concentrations (from 0 to 100 μM) and measured cellular content to compare to human brain Mn content. Concentrations ≤10 μM gave cellular concentrations comparable to literature values for normal human brain, whereas concentrations ≥50 μM resulted in values comparable to brains from individuals with toxic Mn exposures. Cellular oxygen consumption rate increased as a function of Mn up to 10 μM and decreased with Mn dose ≥50 μM. Over this range, Mn had no effect on superoxide production as measured by aconitase activity or MitoSOX but increased H2O2 production as measured by MitoPY1. Consistent with increased production of H2O2, SOD2 activity, and steady-state oxidation of total thiol increased with increasing Mn. These findings have important implications for Mn toxicity by re-directing attention from superoxide anion radical to H2O2-dependent mechanisms and to investigation over the entire physiologic range to toxicologic range. Additionally, the results show that controlled Mn exposure provides a useful cell manipulation for toxicological studies of mitochondrial H2O2 signaling.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Indoor air pollutants, ventilation rate determinants and potential control strategies in Chinese dwellings: A literature review

Authors: Ye, W; Zhang, X; Gao, J; Cao, G; Zhou, X; Su, X (2017) Science of the Total Environment 586:696-729. HERO ID: 3603220

[Less] After nearly twenty years of rapid modernization and urbanization in China, huge achievements have transformed . . . [More] After nearly twenty years of rapid modernization and urbanization in China, huge achievements have transformed the daily lives of the Chinese people. However, unprecedented environmental consequences in both indoor and outdoor environments have accompanied this progress and have triggered public awareness and demands for improved living standards, especially in residential environments. Indoor pollution data measured for >7000 dwellings (approximately 1/3 were newly decorated and were tested for volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements, while the rest were tested for particles, phthalates and other semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon) in China within the last ten years were reviewed, summarized and compared with indoor concentration recommendations based on sensory or health end-points. Ubiquitous pollutants that exceed the concentration recommendations, including particulate matter, formaldehyde, benzene and other VOCs, moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon, were found, indicating a common indoor air quality (IAQ) issue in Chinese dwellings. With very little prevention, oral, inhalation and dermal exposure to those pollutants at unhealthy concentration levels is almost inevitable. CO2, VOCs, humidity and radon can serve as ventilation determinants, each with different ventilation demands and strategies, at typical occupant densities in China; and particle reduction should be a prerequisite for determining ventilation requirements. Two directional ventilation modes would have profound impacts on improving IAQ for Chinese residences are: 1) natural (or window) ventilation with an air cleaner and 2) mechanical ventilation with an air filtration unit, these two modes were reviewed and compared for their applicability and advantages and disadvantages for reducing human exposure to indoor air pollutants. In general, mode 2 can more reliably ensure good IAQ for occupants; while mode 1 is more applicable due to its low cost and low energy consumption. However, besides a roadmap, substantial efforts are still needed to develop affordable, applicable and general ventilation solutions to improve the IAQ of residential buildings in China.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Indoor-to-outdoor relationship of aerosol particles inside a naturally ventilated apartment - A comparison between single-parameter analysis and indoor aerosol model simulation

Author: Hussein, T (2017) Science of the Total Environment 596-597:321-330. HERO ID: 3863695

[Less] The indoor-to-outdoor relationship of aerosol particles is affected by several mechanisms including . . . [More] The indoor-to-outdoor relationship of aerosol particles is affected by several mechanisms including penetration, ventilation rate, dry deposition rate and sources. Understanding the effect of these factors is essential for a deeper knowledge of the indoor-to-outdoor relationship. In real-life conditions, it is difficult to analyze these factors in a naturally ventilated environment. In this study, a naturally ventilated and an occupied apartment was used to investigate the indoor-to-outdoor relationship of aerosol particles by applying two different techniques; single-parameter analysis and indoor aerosol model simulation. The indoor aerosol model simulation approach can describe the effect of these factors based on high time-resolution calculations and it is a powerful and robust approach. Single parameter analysis is very simple to apply but it is valid under certain conditions. In the absence of indoor activities (i.e. nighttime) and based on the particle number concentrations, the I/O ratio was <1 during spring but ~1.2 during winter. Based on the indoor aerosol model simulation results for the coarse fraction, the penetration factor (P) was 0.3-1, the ventilation rate (λ) was 0.1-2h(-1), and the deposition rate (λd) was ~0.15h(-1). The coarse particles concentration was strongly affected by indoor activities. During extreme mechanical activities (e.g. vacuum cleaning), the concentration increased by a factor of 9 (source strength ~160particles/h). During children play, the coarse fraction concentration increased by a factor of 3 (source strength ~10particles/h). Spraying an insect pesticide increased the coarse fraction concentration by a factor of 9 (source strength ~420particles/h). Water-pipe tobacco smoking produced huge amounts of both micron and submicron particulate matter; it caused the coarse fraction concentration to significantly increase by a factor of 18 (source strength ~140particles/h). The use of natural gas heater affected the submicron fraction only and did not affect the micron fraction.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Numerical modeling of particle deposition in ferret airways: A comparison with humans

Authors: Ou, C; Li, Y; Wei, J; Yen, HuiL; Deng, Q (2017) HERO ID: 3863725

[Less] The ferret is commonly used as an animal model for studying human respiratory diseases, but the validation . . . [More] The ferret is commonly used as an animal model for studying human respiratory diseases, but the validation is lacking. The particle deposition patterns in ferret airways was investigated and compared to those in humans. A computational fluid dynamics method was used to simulate particle deposition in the tracheobronchial airway by using the truncated single- path models. The deposition characteristics of particles with diameters of 1, 3, and 5 mu m were investigated under various respiratory rates at different activity conditions (i.e., sedentary, light, moderate, and intense activities). For both human and ferret models, deposition increased with both generation and particle size but decreased with respiratory rate. Particles of 1-5 mu m deposit more but transport upper in ferrets than in humans, which suggests that ferrets are more likely to be infected in the proximal airways. The results show that the trend of particle deposition in the ferret airways is similar to that in human airways but with different deposition rates and sites. Our findings indicate that ferret for studying human respiratory diseases is suitable for the upper respiratory diseases, such as human influenza, but may not be suitable for studying the lower respiratory diseases, such as pneumonia.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The GO-ACTIWE randomized controlled trial - An interdisciplinary study designed to investigate the health effects of active commuting and leisure time physical activity

Authors: Rosenkilde, M; Petersen, MB; Gram, AS; Quist, JS; Winther, J; Kamronn, SD; Milling, DH; Larsen, JE; Jespersen, AP; Stallknecht, B (2017) Contemporary Clinical Trials 53:122-129. HERO ID: 3975686

[Less] Regular physical activity is efficacious for improving metabolic health in overweight and obese individuals, . . . [More] Regular physical activity is efficacious for improving metabolic health in overweight and obese individuals, yet, many adults lead sedentary lives. Most exercise interventions have targeted leisure time, but physical activity also takes place in other domains of everyday life. Active commuting represents a promising alternative to increase physical activity, but it has yet to be established whether active commuting conveys health benefits on par with leisure time physical activity (LTPA). A 6-month randomized controlled trial was designed to investigate the effects of increased physical activity in transport (bicycling) or leisure time domains (moderate or vigorous intensity endurance exercise). We included 188 overweight and class 1 obese sedentary women and men (20-45years) of which 130 were randomized to either sedentary controls (n=18), active commuting (n=35) or moderate (n=39) or vigorous (n=38) intensity LTPA. At baseline and after 3 and 6months, participants underwent a rigorous 3-day biomedical test regimen followed by free-living measurements. In a sub-sample, physical activity level and energy expenditure were monitored by means of personal assistive technology and the doubly labeled water technique. Additionally, the delivery, reception and routinization of the exercise regimens were investigated by ethnological fieldwork. One year after termination of the intervention, participants will be invited for a follow-up visit to investigate sustained health effects and continuous physical activity adherence. By combining biomedical, technological and humanistic approaches, we aim to understand the health benefits of physical activity in different domains of everyday life, as well as how to improve adherence to physical activity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Physical Abuse of Children

Author: Berkowitz, CD (2017) HERO ID: 3978597


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluating clinical care in the prehospital setting: Is Rapid Emergency Medicine Score the missing metric of EMS?

Authors: Alter, SM; Infinger, A; Swanson, D; Studnek, JR (2017) HERO ID: 3978598

[Less] INTRODUCTION: The Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS) was developed to predict emergency . . . [More] INTRODUCTION: The Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS) was developed to predict emergency department patient mortality. Our objective was to utilize REMS to assess initial patient acuity and evaluate clinical change during prehospital care.

METHODS: All non-cardiac arrest emergency transports from April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2014 were analyzed from a single EMS agency. Using age, pulse rate, mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and Glasgow Coma Scale, initial and final REMS were calculated. Change in REMS was calculated by initial minus final with a positive number indicating clinical improvement. Descriptive analyses were performed calculating means and 95% confidence intervals.

RESULTS: There were 61,346 patients analyzed with an average initial REMS of 4.3 (95% CI: 4.2-4.3) and an average REMS change of 0.37 (95% CI: 0.36-0.38). Those patients classified with the highest dispatch priority had the highest initial REMS (5.8; 95% CI: 5.5-6.2) and the greatest change (0.95; 95% CI: 0.72-1.17). Patients transported with high priority had greater initial REMS, as well as greater improvement in REMS (high priority 7.3 [95% CI: 7.1-7.4], change 0.61 [95% CI: 0.53-0.69]; middle priority 5.3 [95% CI: 5.2-5.4], change 0.55 [95% CI: 0.51-0.59]; low priority 3.9 [95% CI: 3.8-3.9], change 0.32 [95% CI: 0.31-0.33]).

CONCLUSION: Descriptive analyses indicate that as dispatch and transport priorities increased in severity so too did initial REMS. The largest change in REMS was seen in patients with the highest dispatch and transport priorities. This indicates that REMS may provide system level insight into evaluating clinical changes during care.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Individual differences in cardiorespiratory measures of mental workload: An investigation of negative affectivity and cognitive avoidant coping in pilot candidates

Authors: Grassmann, M; Vlemincx, E; von Leupoldt, A; Van den Bergh, O (2017) HERO ID: 3978599

[Less] Cardiorespiratory measures provide useful information in addition to well-established self-report measures . . . [More] Cardiorespiratory measures provide useful information in addition to well-established self-report measures when monitoring operator capacity. The purpose of our study was to refine the assessment of operator load by considering individual differences in personality and their associations with cardiorespiratory activation. Physiological and self-report measures were analyzed in 115 pilot candidates at rest and while performing a multiple task covering perceptual speed, spatial orientation, and working memory. In the total sample and particularly in individuals with a general tendency to worry a lot, a cognitive avoidant coping style was associated with a smaller task-related increase in heart rate. Negative affectivity was found to moderate the association between cardiac and self-reported arousal. Given that physiological and self-report measures of mental workload are usually combined when evaluating operator load (e.g., in pilot selection and training), our findings suggest that integrating individual differences may reduce unexplained variance and increase the validity of workload assessments.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Interpreting the Incremental Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test

Author: Nusair, S (2017) The American Journal of Cardiology 119:497-500. [Review] HERO ID: 3978601

[Less] The incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is an increasingly used diagnostic method that . . . [More] The incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is an increasingly used diagnostic method that serves to evaluate patients with chief complaint of dyspnea during exercise. Performing maximal symptom-limited CPET can show if the tested subject has a reduced exercise capacity and give clues to the mechanism of such exercise capacity reduction, cardiac, pulmonary, or pulmonary vascular source. In this review, it is suggested that the evaluation of the complex results of CPET should be performed by first determining if myocardial/circulatory insufficiency is present and second if there is gas exchange abnormality. By looking with scrutiny at the oxygen consumption (VO2) versus work rate plot, one can see if oxygen delivery is adequate or if it is hampered by abnormally reduced blood flow through skeletal muscle. Elevated ventilatory equivalent of carbon dioxide at the ventilatory threshold and or arterial oxygen desaturation during effort, strongly suggest gas exchange abnormalities. The absence of circulatory insufficiency and gas exchange abnormalities, almost always suggest normal response to effort or deconditioning whenever peak VO2 is below the maximal predicted value.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Static Person Detection and Localization with Estimation of Person's Breathing Rate Using Single Multistatic UWB Radar

Authors: Novak, D; Kocur, D; Demcak, J; IEEE (2017) HERO ID: 3978624

[Less] In the past period, great efforts have been made to develop the methods for the detection of human beings . . . [More] In the past period, great efforts have been made to develop the methods for the detection of human beings based on a monitoring their respiratory motion. For that purpose, ultra-wideband sensors (radars) operating in the frequency band DC-5 GHz can be used with advantage. The basic principle of respiratory motion detection consists in the identification of sensor signal components possessing a significant power in the frequency band 0.2-0.7 Hz (frequency band of a human respiratory rate) corresponding to a constant range between the target and radar. However, the problem of person localization associated with the estimation of their breathing rate has not been studied deeply. In order to fill this gap, an approach for a joint localization and breathing rate estimation of a person will be introduced in this chapter. For that purpose, a combination of a method for the static person localization based on power-spectrum estimation using Welch periodogram referred to as WP-STAPELOC method and the Welch periodogram, MUSIC algorithm and Burg methods for the estimation of a fundamental harmonic of respiratory motion will be introduced. The performance of proposed procedure will be evaluated using a data obtained at experimental scenario. Moreover, a reference measurement will be performed in order to compare the results from UWB radar with the results from the optical sensor.