Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Exposure Factors Handbook (Post 2011)


3,440 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The GO-ACTIWE randomized controlled trial - An interdisciplinary study designed to investigate the health effects of active commuting and leisure time physical activity

Authors: Rosenkilde, M; Petersen, MB; Gram, AS; Quist, JS; Winther, J; Kamronn, SD; Milling, DH; Larsen, JE; Jespersen, AP; Stallknecht, B (2017) Contemporary Clinical Trials 53:122-129. HERO ID: 3975686

[Less] Regular physical activity is efficacious for improving metabolic health in overweight and obese individuals, . . . [More] Regular physical activity is efficacious for improving metabolic health in overweight and obese individuals, yet, many adults lead sedentary lives. Most exercise interventions have targeted leisure time, but physical activity also takes place in other domains of everyday life. Active commuting represents a promising alternative to increase physical activity, but it has yet to be established whether active commuting conveys health benefits on par with leisure time physical activity (LTPA). A 6-month randomized controlled trial was designed to investigate the effects of increased physical activity in transport (bicycling) or leisure time domains (moderate or vigorous intensity endurance exercise). We included 188 overweight and class 1 obese sedentary women and men (20-45years) of which 130 were randomized to either sedentary controls (n=18), active commuting (n=35) or moderate (n=39) or vigorous (n=38) intensity LTPA. At baseline and after 3 and 6months, participants underwent a rigorous 3-day biomedical test regimen followed by free-living measurements. In a sub-sample, physical activity level and energy expenditure were monitored by means of personal assistive technology and the doubly labeled water technique. Additionally, the delivery, reception and routinization of the exercise regimens were investigated by ethnological fieldwork. One year after termination of the intervention, participants will be invited for a follow-up visit to investigate sustained health effects and continuous physical activity adherence. By combining biomedical, technological and humanistic approaches, we aim to understand the health benefits of physical activity in different domains of everyday life, as well as how to improve adherence to physical activity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Physiologic Effects of High-Flow Nasal Cannula in Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure

Authors: Mauri, T; Turrini, C; Eronia, N; Grasselli, G; Volta, CA; Bellani, G; Pesenti, A (2017) American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 195:1207-1215. HERO ID: 3975688

[Less] RATIONALE: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) improves the clinical outcomes of nonintubated . . . [More] RATIONALE: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) improves the clinical outcomes of nonintubated patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF).

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of HFNC on gas exchange, inspiratory effort, minute ventilation, end-expiratory lung volume, dynamic compliance, and ventilation homogeneity in patients with AHRF.

METHODS: This was a prospective randomized crossover study in nonintubated patients with AHRF with PaO2/setFiO2 less than or equal to 300 mm Hg admitted to the intensive care unit. We randomly applied HFNC set at 40 L/min compared with a standard nonocclusive facial mask at the same clinically set FiO2 (20 min/step).

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Toward the end of each phase, we measured arterial blood gases, inspiratory effort, and work of breathing by esophageal pressure swings (ΔPes) and pressure time product, and we estimated changes in lung volumes and ventilation homogeneity by electrical impedance tomography. We enrolled 15 patients aged 60 ± 14 years old with PaO2/setFiO2 130 ± 35 mm Hg. Seven (47%) had bilateral lung infiltrates. Compared with the facial mask, HFNC significantly improved oxygenation (P < 0.001) and lowered respiratory rate (P < 0.01), ΔPes (P < 0.01), and pressure time product (P < 0.001). During HFNC, minute ventilation was reduced (P < 0.001) at constant arterial CO2 tension and pH (P = 0.27 and P = 0.23, respectively); end-expiratory lung volume increased (P < 0.001), and tidal volume did not change (P = 0.44); the ratio of tidal volume to ΔPes (an estimate of dynamic lung compliance) increased (P < 0.05); finally, ventilation distribution was more homogeneous (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AHRF, HFNC exerts multiple physiologic effects including less inspiratory effort and improved lung volume and compliance. These benefits might underlie the clinical efficacy of HFNC.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

OPTICAL FIBER REACH EXTENDED FMCW RADAR FOR REMOTE RESPIRATORY TRACKING

Authors: Suhr, LF; Monroy, IT; Olmos, JJV (2017) HERO ID: 3975757

[Less] Wireless monitoring of human vital signs such as breathing rate is a nonintrusive alternative to contemporary . . . [More] Wireless monitoring of human vital signs such as breathing rate is a nonintrusive alternative to contemporary solutions relying on physical contact. To ease the installment, fiber optical transmission is used to extend the reach from the transmitter and receiver circuitry to the antenna subsystem. In this paper, a frequency modulated carrier wave radar, operating at 25.7-26.6 GHz and utilizing optical fiber extension, was experimentally demonstrated to accurately recover the breathing rate of a human placed 1 m away from the radar antennas. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Using fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing to detect laryngeal penetration and aspiration in infants in the neonatal intensive care unit

Authors: Suterwala, MS; Reynolds, J; Carroll, S; Sturdivant, C; Armstrong, ES (2017) HERO ID: 3975832

[Less] OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and the reliability of both FEES and a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) in identifying laryngeal penetration and tracheal aspiration in infants under 3 months old in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-five infants at least 37 weeks postmenstrual age suspected of aspirating were assessed with FEES and VFSS. Complications, autonomic instability and vital signs before endoscope insertion and following FEES were documented. Blinded video recordings were coded by two reviewers to determine reliability.

RESULTS: We found no major complications or significant differences between FEES prefeeding and postfeeding vital signs, including respiratory rate, heart rate or oxygen saturation. FEES interrater reliability was 80% for both penetration and aspiration, compared with 87 and 90%, respectively, for VFSS.

CONCLUSION: FEES is safe and reliable in assessing laryngeal penetration and tracheal aspiration in NICU infants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Different responses of free-ranging wild guanacos (Lama guanicoe) to shearing operations: implications for better management practices in wildlife exploitation

Authors: Taraborelli, P; Torres, MEM; Gregorio, PF; Moreno, P; Rago, V; Panebianco, A; Schroeder, NM; Ovejero, R; Carmanchahi, P (2017) HERO ID: 3975846

[Less] In certain areas of South America, free-ranging, wild guanacos (Lama guanicoe) are exploited for fibre . . . [More] In certain areas of South America, free-ranging, wild guanacos (Lama guanicoe) are exploited for fibre by local people. This activity includes the capture and handling of animals which can adversely affect their behaviour and physiology. This study investigated the behavioural and physiological responses of guanacos to shearing and handling activities in order to obtain a better picture of the welfare state of individuals. Parameters that were assessed consisted of: time enclosed; handling time; sex; age; and vital signs (heart beat frequency per minute, respiratory rate per minute, body temperature and body condition). Blood samples were also collected to measure serum cortisol levels and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios. Frequencies of spitting, kicking, escape attempts and vocalisations were recorded as behaviours considered indicative of stress. Our results showed that stress behaviour frequencies were higher with increased handling time, whereas serum cortisol and N/L levels were higher when body condition scores were low. Handling time should be kept as short as possible to minimise individuals' stress levels, particularly when body condition is low. Stress behaviour rates and serum cortisol levels were higher in juvenile compared to adult guanacos. Finally, both physiological measures of stress - serum cortisol concentrations and N/L ratios - were higher during the management activities of 2010 than in 2009, which may have been as a result of more inclement weather in 2010. When managing guanacos, it is important to consider both animal traits and previous environmental conditions and to avoid shearing juveniles and individuals with poor body condition scores if weather conditions are severe. These management recommendations are likely to improve animal welfare, facilitating sustainable management of this wild and emblematic species from the desert biomes of South America.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Reiki Therapy for Symptom Management in Children Receiving Palliative Care: A Pilot Study

Authors: Thrane, SE; Maurer, SH; Ren, D; Danford, CA; Cohen, SM (2017) 34:373-379. HERO ID: 3975878

[Less] BACKGROUND: Pain may be reported in one-half to three-fourths of children with cancer . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Pain may be reported in one-half to three-fourths of children with cancer and other terminal conditions and anxiety in about one-third of them. Pharmacologic methods do not always give satisfactory symptom relief. Complementary therapies such as Reiki may help children manage symptoms.

OBJECTIVE: This pre-post mixed-methods single group pilot study examined feasibility, acceptability, and the outcomes of pain, anxiety, and relaxation using Reiki therapy with children receiving palliative care.

METHODS: A convenience sample of children ages 7 to 16 and their parents were recruited from a palliative care service. Two 24-minute Reiki sessions were completed at the children's home. Paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were calculated to compare change from pre to post for outcome variables. Significance was set at P < .10. Cohen d effect sizes were calculated.

RESULTS: The final sample included 8 verbal and 8 nonverbal children, 16 mothers, and 1 nurse. All mean scores for outcome variables decreased from pre- to posttreatment for both sessions. Significant decreases for pain for treatment 1 in nonverbal children ( P = .063) and for respiratory rate for treatment 2 in verbal children ( P = .009). Cohen d effect sizes were medium to large for most outcome measures.

DISCUSSION: Decreased mean scores for outcome measures indicate that Reiki therapy did decrease pain, anxiety, heart, and respiratory rates, but small sample size deterred statistical significance. This preliminary work suggests that complementary methods of treatment such as Reiki may be beneficial to support traditional methods to manage pain and anxiety in children receiving palliative care.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Centile Curves and Distributions by Age of Hospitalized Critically Ill Children

Authors: Eytan, D; Goodwin, AJ; Greer, R; Guerguerian, AM; Laussen, PC (2017) HERO ID: 3975946

[Less] Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) form the basis for monitoring the physiological state of patients. . . . [More] Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) form the basis for monitoring the physiological state of patients. Although norms have been published for healthy and hospitalized children, little is known about their distributions in critically ill children. The objective of this study was to report the distributions of these basic physiological variables in hospitalized critically ill children. Continuous data from bedside monitors were collected and stored at 5-s intervals from 3,677 subjects aged 0-18 years admitted over a period of 30 months to the pediatric and cardiac intensive care units at a large quaternary children's hospital. Approximately 1.13 billion values served to estimate age-specific distributions for these two basic physiological variables: HR and intra-arterial BP. Centile curves were derived from the sample distributions and compared to common reference ranges. Properties such as kurtosis and skewness of these distributions are described. In comparison to previously published reference ranges, we show that children in these settings exhibit markedly higher HRs than their healthy counterparts or children hospitalized on in-patient wards. We also compared commonly used published estimates of hypotension in children (e.g., the PALS guidelines) to the values we derived from critically ill children. This is a first study reporting the distributions of basic physiological variables in children in the pediatric intensive care settings, and the percentiles derived may serve as useful references for bedside clinicians and clinical trials.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Internet-based training of coronary artery patients: the Heart Cycle Trial

Authors: Skobel, E; Knackstedt, C; Martinez-Romero, A; Salvi, D; Vera-Munoz, C; Napp, A; Luprano, J; Bover, R; Glöggler, S; Bjarnason-Wehrens, B; Marx, N; Rigby, A; Cleland, J (2017) Heart and Vessels 32:408-418. HERO ID: 3975957

[Less] Low adherence to cardiac rehabilitation (CR) might be improved by remote monitoring systems that can . . . [More] Low adherence to cardiac rehabilitation (CR) might be improved by remote monitoring systems that can be used to motivate and supervise patients and tailor CR safely and effectively to their needs. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a smartphone-guided training system (GEX) and whether it could improve exercise capacity compared to CR delivered by conventional methods for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A prospective, randomized, international, multi-center study comparing CR delivered by conventional means (CG) or by remote monitoring (IG) using a new training steering/feedback tool (GEx System). This consisted of a sensor monitoring breathing rate and the electrocardiogram that transmitted information on training intensity, arrhythmias and adherence to training prescriptions, wirelessly via the internet, to a medical team that provided feedback and adjusted training prescriptions. Exercise capacity was evaluated prior to and 6 months after intervention. 118 patients (58 ± 10 years, 105 men) with CAD referred for CR were randomized (IG: n = 55, CG: n = 63). However, 15 patients (27 %) in the IG and 18 (29 %) in the CG withdrew participation and technical problems prevented a further 21 patients (38 %) in the IG from participating. No training-related complications occurred. For those who completed the study, peak VO2 improved more (p = 0.005) in the IG (1.76 ± 4.1 ml/min/kg) compared to CG (-0.4 ± 2.7 ml/min/kg). A newly designed system for home-based CR appears feasible, safe and improves exercise capacity compared to national CR. Technical problems reflected the complexity of applying remote monitoring solutions at an international level.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

PERFORMANCE AND CARDIORESPIRATORY INDICATORS IN CHILDREN IN THE MAXIMUM PROGRESSIVE TEST

Authors: Ferreira, RV; Leal, JC; Andrade Brunherotti, MA (2017) HERO ID: 3975996

[Less] Introduction: Children are always involved in physical activities and team sports. Thus, studies that . . . [More] Introduction: Children are always involved in physical activities and team sports. Thus, studies that combine physical performance and cardiorespiratory fitness are necessary to encourage and implement health promotion actions. Objective: To evaluate the response of physical performance and cardiorespiratory indicators in the spontaneous interruption of a maximum progressive test in children. Method: Prospective, analytical, observational and cross-sectional study. One hundred and six children with a mean age of 10.2 +/- 1.1 years participated in the study. Weight and height were obtained to determine the body mass index and the cardiorespiratory fitness was evaluated by the maximum progressive Leger test. The observed variables were heart rate, respiratory rate, peak forced expiratory flow, maximum oxygen volume, and abdominal muscle strength. The children were divided according to their performance in the maximum progressive test, a group achieving up to 280 meters and a group achieving over 280 meters. Result: The mean value of body mass index was 17.8 kg/m(2) and the maximum oxygen volume was 40.5 mlO(2)/kg(-1).min(-1). The group that reached the greater distance in the maximum progressive test had a lower body mass index (p=0.002), a higher speed (p=0.000), a longer time in the physical effort (p=0.000), higher maximum oxygen volume (p=0.000), and a greater abdominal muscle strength (p=0.007). The variables heart rate, respiratory rate and peak flow had values expected for age with no difference between groups. The group that reached the greater distance had a correlation with speed (r=0.950, p<0.000) and with oxygen volume (r=0.740, p<0.000). In contrast, the shorter distance group had a higher correlation with body mass index (r=-0.475, p=0.000) and respiratory rate (r=0.585, p<0.674). Conclusion: Children with a lower body mass presented better performance in the maximum progressive test, and girls stood out for the greater time of physical effort without increasing the maximum oxygen uptake.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Feasibility of monomodal analgesia with IV alfentanil during burn dressing changes at bedside (in spontaneously breathing non-intubated patients)

Authors: Fontaine, M; Latarjet, J; Payre, J; Poupelin, JC; Ravat, F (2017) 43:337-342. HERO ID: 3976024

[Less] INTRODUCTION: The severe pain related to repeated burn dressing changes at bedside . . . [More] INTRODUCTION: The severe pain related to repeated burn dressing changes at bedside is often difficult to manage. However these dressings can be performed at bedside on spontaneously breathing non-intubated patients using powerful intravenous opioids with a quick onset and a short duration of action such as alfentanil. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of the protocol which is used in our burn unit for pain control during burn dressing changes.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cohort study began after favorable opinion from local ethic committee has been collected. Patient's informed consent was collected. No fasting was required. Vital signs for patients were continuously monitored (non-invasive blood pressure, ECG monitoring, cutaneous oxygen saturation, respiratory rate) all over the process. Boluses of 500 (±250) mcg IV alfentanil were administered. A continuous infusion was added in case of insufficient analgesia. Adverse reactions were collected and pain intensity was measured throughout the dressing using a ten step verbal rating scale (VRS) ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain conceivable).

RESULTS: 100 dressings (35 patients) were analyzed. Median age was 45 years and median burned area 10%. We observed 3 blood pressure drops, 5 oxygen desaturations (treated with stimulation without the necessity of ventilatory support) and one episode of nausea. Most of the patients (87%) were totally conscious during the dressing and 13% were awakened by verbal stimulation. Median total dose of alfentanil used was 2000μg for a median duration of 35min. Pain scores during the procedure were low or moderate (VRS mean=2.0 and maximal VRS=5). Median satisfaction collected 2h after the dressing was 10 on a ten step scale.

CONCLUSION: Pain control with intravenous alfentanil alone is efficient and appears safe for most burn bedside repeated dressings in hospitalized patients. It achieves satisfactory analgesia during and after the procedure. It is now our standard analgesic method to provide repeated bedside dressings changes for burned patients.