Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Exposure Factors Handbook (Post 2011)


3,440 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sport fish consumption and body burden levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons: A study of Wisconsin anglers

Authors: Fiore, BJ; Anderson, HA; Hanrahan, LP; Olson, LJ; Sonzogni, WC (1989) Archives of Environmental Health 44:82-88. HERO ID: 731884

[Less] Sport-caught fish consumption is the major source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposure for the . . . [More] Sport-caught fish consumption is the major source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposure for the general population. To assess this and 2,2'-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE) exposure, we surveyed 801 Wisconsin anglers for fishing and consumption habits and comprehension of and compliance with the Wisconsin fish consumption health advisory. The mean annual number of sport-caught fish meals was 18. Seventy-two percent of anglers were familiar with the health advisory and 57% had changed their fishing or fish consumption habits as a result of the advisory. The mean PCB serum congener sum level for 192 anglers was 2.2 micrograms/l (range = nondetectable to 27.1 micrograms/l); mean DDE was 6.3 micrograms/l (range = nondetectable to 40.0 micrograms/l). Statistically significant positive Spearman correlations were observed between sport-caught fish meals and PCB and DDE sera levels (R = .21 and .14, respectively) and between kilograms of fish caught and PCB sera levels (R = .25). These results demonstrate that anglers may provide a population for assessment of PCBs and DDE associated morbidity and mortality.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Michigan sport anglers fish consumption study

Authors: West, PC; Fly, JM; Marans, R; Larkin, F (1989) Ann Arbor, MI: Michigan Department of Natural Resources. HERO ID: 1065478


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Studies in human lactation: Milk volumes in lactating women during the onset of lactation and full lactation

Authors: Neville, MC; Keller, R; Seacat, J; Lutes, V; Neifert, M; Casey, C; Allen, J; Archer, P (1988) American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48:1375-1386. HERO ID: 1005809

[Less] After validation of test-weighing procedures milk volumes produced by 13 multiparous US Caucasian women . . . [More] After validation of test-weighing procedures milk volumes produced by 13 multiparous US Caucasian women were followed longitudinally through the 1st year of lactation. All practiced exclusive breastfeeding for at least 5 months. Milk transfer to the infant was low on days 1 and 2 and increased rapidly to 498 +or- 129 g/d (approximately equal to x +or- standard deviation) on day 5 and then more slowly to 753 +or- 89 g/d during months 3–5. There was a characteristic milk volume for each mother-infant pair that was significantly related neither to milk yield on days 4–6 nor to birthweight. It was, however, strongly related to infant weight at 1 month, suggesting that infant and/or maternal factors coming into play during the 1st month of life are strong determinants of subsequent milk transfer to the infant. The subjects in the study were all nonsmokers who planned to continue breastfeeding for at least 1 year. None used hormonal contraception during the study. Mean age at the birth of the study infant was 31.9 +or- 4.4 standard deviation (range 25–39 years). Median family income was US$35,000/year. All mothers were high school graduates and all but 2 had college degrees. The data in this study differ in no significant respect from milk-volume data obtained in larger, cross-sectional studies from a variety of populations throughout the world. Future studies focusing on the infant factors that influence the demand for breast milk in the 1st month postpartum may be of considerable importance in understanding the growth of the breastfed infant.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Selection criteria for mathematical models used in exposure assessments: Ground-water models

Author: U.S. EPA (1988) EPA600888075. HERO ID: 1062784

[Less] Prior to the issuance of the Guidelines for Estimating Exposures in 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection . . . [More] Prior to the issuance of the Guidelines for Estimating Exposures in 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published proposed guidelines in the Federal Register for public review and comment. The purpose of the guidelines is to provide a general approach and framework for carrying out human and nonhuman exposure assessments for specific pollutants. The purpose of the document is to present criteria that provide a means for selecting the most appropriate mathematical model(s) for conducting an exposure assessment related to ground-water contamination. General guidelines and principles for model selection criteria are presented followed by a step-by-step approach to identifying the appropriate model(s) for use in a specific application. Two site-specific example problems are provided to demonstrate the procedure for selecting the appropriate mathematical model for a particular application.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Superfund exposure assessment manual: OSWER Directive 9285.5-1

Author: U.S. EPA (1988) HERO ID: 1064987


Technical Report
Technical Report

Review of studies related to uncertainty in risk analysis

Authors: Rish, WR; Marnicio, RJ (1988) (ORNL/TM 10776). Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. HERO ID: 1065447

[Less] The Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) is responsible for regulating . . . [More] The Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) is responsible for regulating on a national level the risks associated with technological sources of ionizing radiation in the environment. A critical activity of the ORP is analyzing and evaluating risk. The ORP believes that the analysis of uncertainty should be an integral part of any risk assessment; therefore, the ORP has initiated a project to develop framework for the treatment of uncertainty in risk analysis. Summaries of recent studies done in five areas of study are presented. (ERA citation 13:049624)

Technical Report
Technical Report

Approach to uncertainty in risk analysis

Author: Rish, WR (1988) (ORNL/TM-10746; EPA No. DW89930177-01-2). Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. HERO ID: 1065606

[Less] In the Fall of 1985 EPA's Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) initiated a project to develop a formal . . . [More] In the Fall of 1985 EPA's Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) initiated a project to develop a formal approach to dealing with uncertainties encountered when estimating and evaluating risks to human health and the environment. Based on a literature review of modeling uncertainty, interviews with ORP technical and management staff, and input from experts on uncertainty analysis, a comprehensive approach was developed. This approach recognizes by design the constraints on budget, time, manpower, expertise, and availability of information often encountered in ''real world'' modeling. It is based on the observation that in practice risk modeling is usually done to support a decision process. As such, the approach focuses on how to frame a given risk modeling problem, how to use that framing to select an appropriate mixture of uncertainty analyses techniques, and how to integrate the techniques into an uncertainty assessment that effectively communicates important information and insight to decision-makers. The approach is presented in this report. Practical guidance on characterizing and analyzing uncertainties about model form and quantities and on effectively communicating uncertainty analysis results is included. Examples from actual applications are presented. (ERA citation 13:047344)

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

An investigation of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques for computer models

Authors: Iman, RL; Helton, JC (1988) Risk Analysis 8:71-90. HERO ID: 1060853

[Less] Many different techniques have been proposed for performing uncertainty and sensitivity analyses on . . . [More] Many different techniques have been proposed for performing uncertainty and sensitivity analyses on computer models for complex processes. The objective of the present study is to investigate the applicability of three widely used techniques to three computer models having large uncertainties and varying degrees of complexity in order to highlight some of the problem areas that must be addressed in actual applications. The following approaches to uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are considered: (1) response surface methodology based on input determined from a fractional factorial design; (2) Latin hypercube sampling with and without regression analysis; and (3) differential analysis. These techniques are investigated with respect to (1) ease of implementation, (2) flexibility, (3) estimation of the cumulative distribution function of the output, and (4) adaptability to different methods of sensitivity analysis. With respect to these criteria, the technique using Latin hypercube sampling and regression analysis had the best overall performance. The models used in the investigation are well documented, thus making it possible for researchers to make comparisons of other techniques with the results in this study.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Progress toward a general analytical method for predicting indoor air pollution in buildings: Indoor air quality modeling phase III report

Author: Axley, JW (1988) (NBSIR 88-3814). Gaitherberg, MD: National Bureau of Standards. HERO ID: 1061250

[Less] The interim report presents the results of Phase III of the National Bureau of Standards General Indoor . . . [More] The interim report presents the results of Phase III of the National Bureau of Standards General Indoor Air Pollution Concentration Model Project. It describes: (a) a general element-assembly formulation of multi-zone contaminant dispersal analysis theory that provides a general framework for the development of detailed (element) models of mass transport phenomena that may affect contaminant dispersal in buildings; (b) an approach to modeling the dispersal of interactive contaminants involving contaminant mass transport phenomena; (c) an approach to modeling the details of contaminant dispersal driven by convection-diffusion processes in one-dimensional flow situations (e.g., HVAC ductwork); and (d) the features and use of CONTAM87, a program that provides a computational implementation of the theory and methods discussed. Equations governing contaminant dispersal in the whole building air flow system due to air flow and reaction or sorption mass transport phenomena are formulated by assembling element equations, that characterize a specific instance of mass transport in the building air flow system.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Preliminary experiments in a research house to investigate contaminant migration in indoor air

Authors: Koontz, MD; Rector, HE; Fortmann, RC; Nagda, NL (1988) EPA 560/5-88/004. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. HERO ID: 1061883