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Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Influence of aromatic structure and substitution of carboxyl groups of aromatic acids on their sorption to biochars

Authors: Wu, L; Li, B; Liu, M (2018) HERO ID: 4829345

[Less] In order to clarify the influence of aromatic structure and COOH substitution of aromatic acids on their . . . [More] In order to clarify the influence of aromatic structure and COOH substitution of aromatic acids on their sorption to biochars, benzoic acid (BA), phthalic acid (PA), hemimellitic acid (HA), 2-biphenylcarboxylic acid (2-BA), 1-naphthoic acid (1-NA) and naphthalene were selected as model sorbates. Batch experiments on sorption of them to wheat straw-derived biochars at 300 °C (WS300) and 700 °C (WS700) were conducted. Results showed that WS700 with higher specific surface area and pore volume had faster and higher sorption of aromatic acids than WS300. Sorption affinity of aromatic acids decreased with increasing number of aromatic rings (BA > 1-NA > 2-BA), and was weakened by COOH substitution (BA > PA > HA). This was likely due to the π-electron delocalization into additional ring, reduced contact area of nonplanar aromatic structure on biochar surfaces, size exclusion of larger molecules in smaller pores of biochars and decreased hydrophobicity of aromatic acids by COOH substitution that abated the sorption. Dissociation of COOH substitution of aromatic acids also weakened their sorption to biochars due to the lower hydrophobicity of anionic species, and electrostatic repulsion between anionic species and negatively charged surface of biochars.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cost-effectiveness of hydrophilic-coated intermittent catheters compared with uncoated catheters in Canada: a public payer perspective

Authors: Welk, B; Isaranuwatchai, W; Krassioukov, A; Husted Torp, L; Elterman, D (2018) HERO ID: 4728798

[Less] STUDY DESIGN: A Markov model was used to analyze cost-effectiveness over a lifetime . . . [More] STUDY DESIGN: A Markov model was used to analyze cost-effectiveness over a lifetime horizon.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cost-effectiveness of hydrophilic-coated intermittent catheters (HCICs) compared with uncoated catheters (UCs) among individuals with neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NB) due to spinal cord injury (SCI).

SETTING: A Canadian public payer perspective based on data from Ontario; including a scenario analysis from the societal perspective.

METHODS: A previously published Markov decision model was modified to compare the lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for the two interventions. Three renal function and three urinary tract infection (UTI) health states as well as other catheter-related events were included. Scenario analyses, including utility gain from compact catheter and phthalate free catheter use, were performed. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the model.

RESULTS: The model predicted that a 50-year-old patient with SCI would gain an additional 0.72 QALYs if HCICs were used instead of UCs at an incremental cost of $48,016, leading to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $66,634/QALY. Moreover, using HCICs could reduce the lifetime number of UTI events by 11%. From the societal perspective, HCICs cost less than UCs, while providing superior outcomes in terms of QALYs, life years gained (LYG), and UTIs. The cost per QALY further decreased when health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) gains associated with compact HCICs or catheters not containing phthalates were included.

CONCLUSION: In general, ICERs in the range of CAD$50-100,000 could be considered cost-effective. The ICERs for the base case and sensitivity analyses suggest that HCICs could be cost-effective. From the societal perspective, HCICs were associated with potential cost savings in our model. The results suggest that reimbursement of HCICs should be considered in these settings.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impact of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites on male reproductive function: A systematic review of human evidence. Supplemental materials

Authors: Høyer, BB; Lenters, V; Giwercman, A; Jönsson, BAG; Toft, G; Hougaard, KS; Bonde, JPE; Specht, IO (2018) Current Environmental Health Reports 5. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 4332908

Abstract: Supplemental materials

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Application of a novel reference material in an international round robin test on material emissions testing

Authors: Horn, W; Richter, M; Nohr, M; Wilke, O; Jann, O (2018) Indoor Air 28:181-187. HERO ID: 4220366

[Less] Emission testing of products is currently a rapidly increasing field of measurement activity. Labeling . . . [More] Emission testing of products is currently a rapidly increasing field of measurement activity. Labeling procedures for construction products are based on such emission test chamber measurements, and hence, measurement performance should be verified. One possible route is to conduct testing of one material in different laboratories within a round robin test (RRT), ideally using homogeneous reference materials, which can be used within interlaboratory studies or as part of the quality management system to ensure comparable results. The applicability of a lacquer system with nine added VOCs (hexanal, styrene, n-decane, limonene, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, N-methyl-α-pyrrolidone, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, dimethyl phthalate, and n-hexadecane) was evaluated in an international RRT with 55 participating laboratories. An intralaboratory quality check confirmed the homogeneity and reproducibility of the lacquer material for most of the compounds (RSD 5%-6%), which was confirmed in the RRT. However, emissions varied for the polar compound N-methyl-α-pyrrolidone and the higher boiling compounds 1,2-dimethyl phthalate, and n-hexadecane which could be traced back to analytical issues. In the RRT, the interlaboratory relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 30% to 65% for all participants but for reference laboratories the range was between 20% and 45%.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Photochemical transformation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) with N(iii)(H2ONO+/HONO/NO2-) in the atmospheric aqueous environment

Authors: Lei, Y; Zhu, C; Lu, J; Chen, R; Xiao, J; Peng, S (2018) HERO ID: 4320321

[Less] The photochemical transformation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) with N(iii)(NO2-/HONO/H2ONO+) was investigated . . . [More] The photochemical transformation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) with N(iii)(NO2-/HONO/H2ONO+) was investigated using 365 nm steady-state irradiation and 355 nm laser flash photolysis (LFP) techniques. The results showed that N(iii) concentration, DMP initial concentration and pH values all strongly affected the oxidation efficiency of DMP. The primary step of the reaction was the attack of ˙OH radicals on the aromatic ring to form a DMP-OH adduct, and the bimolecular rate constant was determined to be (5.5 ± 0.4) × 109 M-1 s-1. The DMP-OH adduct not only underwent monomolecular self-decay with a rate constant of (1.6 ± 0.3) × 104 s-1 but also interacted with HONO, H2ONO+ and O2 with rate constants of (6.4 ± 0.4) × 106 M-1 s-1, (8.8 ± 0.5) × 106 M-1 s-1 and (1.6 ± 0.1) × 108 M-1 s-1, respectively. Major transformation products including methyl salicylate, monomethyl phthalate, dimethyl 4-hydroxyphthalate and dimethyl 4-nitrophthalate were identified by GC-MS and characteristics of these secondary contaminants required extra attention.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Self-Catalyzing Chemiluminescence of Luminol-Diazonium Ion and Its Application for Catalyst-Free Hydrogen Peroxide Detection and Rat Arthritis Imaging

Authors: Zhao, C; Cui, H; Duan, J; Zhang, S; Lv, J (2018) HERO ID: 4351816

[Less] We report the unique self-catalyzing chemiluminescence (CL) of luminol-diazonium ion (N2+-luminol) and . . . [More] We report the unique self-catalyzing chemiluminescence (CL) of luminol-diazonium ion (N2+-luminol) and its analytical potential. Visual CL emission was initially observed when N2+-luminol was subjected to alkaline aqueous H2O2 without the aid of any catalysts. Further experimental investigations found peroxidase-like activity of N2+-luminol on the cleavage of H2O2 into OH• radical. Together with other experimental evidence, the CL mechanism is suggested as the activation of N2+-luminol and its dediazotization product 3-hydroxyl luminol by OH• radical into corresponding intermediate radicals, and then further oxidation to excited-state 3-N2+-phthalic acid and 3-hydroxyphthalic acid, which finally produce 415 nm CL. The self-catalyzing CL of N2+-luminol provides us an opportunity to achieve the attractive catalyst-free CL detection of H2O2. Experiments demonstrated the 10-8 M level detection sensitivity to H2O2 as well as to glucose or uric acid if presubjected to glucose oxidase or uricase. With the exampled determination of serum glucose and uric acid, N2+-luminol shows its analytical potential for other analytes linking the production or consumption of H2O2. Under physiological condition, N2+-luminol exhibits highly selective and sensitive CL toward 1O2 among the common reactive oxygen species. This capacity supports the significant application of N2+-luminol for detecting 1O2 in live animals. By imaging the arthritis in LEW rats, N2+-luminol CL is demonstrated as a potential tool for mapping the inflammation-relevant biological events in a live body.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Melt-based screening method with improved predictability regarding polymer selection for amorphous solid dispersions

Authors: Auch, C; Harms, M; Mäder, K (2018) HERO ID: 4829244

[Less] The predictability of preformulation screening tools for polymer selection in amorphous solid dispersions . . . [More] The predictability of preformulation screening tools for polymer selection in amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) regarding supersaturation and precipitation was systematically examined. The API-polymer combinations were scaled up by means of hot-melt extrusion and spray-drying to verify the predictions. As there were discrepancies between a solvent-based screening and performance of ASD, a new screening tool with improved predictability at minimal investments of time and material is presented. The method refinement resulted in a better correlation between the screening and ASD prototypes. So far, a purely solvent-based screening was used which consisted of film casting by rapid solvent evaporation. This approach was improved by applying a heating step after film casting. Four representative polymers were tested with two different model active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) under non-sink dissolution conditions. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) based polymers showed no benefit towards pure API in the solvent-based screening but good supersaturation as ASD formulations. The extrudates with cellulose derivatives hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) and cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) showed lower supersaturation than predicted by the solvent-based screening but performed especially well as spray-dried dispersions (SDD). False negative results for PVP-co-vinyl acetate (PVP-VA64) could be avoided by using the new melt-based screening. Furthermore, comparing the results from the two different screening methods allowed predicting the performance of extrudates vs. SDD with cellulose derivatives as polymeric excipients.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Endocrine disruptors in artificial nutrition]

Authors: Badia Tahull, MB; Leiva Badosa, E; Colls González, M; Llop Talaverón, J (2018) HERO ID: 4829397

[Less] Phthalates are chemical compounds classified as endocrine disruptors which are present in practically . . . [More] Phthalates are chemical compounds classified as endocrine disruptors which are present in practically every environment of daily life. In the field of artificial nutrition, they are relevant because they are found as plasticizers in infusion lines made with PVC. They are lipophilic molecules which weakly pair with PVC and, therefore, they are easily extracted by the fatty compounds that are part of both the parenteral and enteral nutrition, as various studies show. As endocrine disruptors, they directly affect the reproductive organs because of their antiandrogenic and estrogenic effects. They promote inflammation and oxidative stress and they are also related to the development of obesity, asthma, neurological and ophthalmic disorders, cholestasis and other gastrointestinal disorders. The legislation establishes the highest recommended exposure level for daily exposure; however, in the medical environment the exposure follows a different pattern, more occasional with very high peaks, for which there are no established thresholds, that is why it is recommended to avoid exposure whenever possible. The industry is working on the development of alternative plasticizers, for which the use experience is still limited. Currently, in the field of artificial nutrition it is recommended to use phthalate-free intravenous and enteral infusion lines.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Improving the Back Surface Field on an Amorphous Silicon Carbide Thin-Film Photocathode for Solar Water Splitting

Authors: Perez-Rodriguez, P; Cardenas-Morcoso, D; Digdaya, IA; Raventos, AM; Procel, P; Isabella, O; Gimenez, S; Zeman, M; Smith, WA; Smets, AHM (2018) HERO ID: 4829406

[Less] Amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) is a promising material for photoelectrochemical water splitting . . . [More] Amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) is a promising material for photoelectrochemical water splitting owing to its relatively small band-gap energy and high chemical and optoelectrical stability. This work studies the interplay between charge-carrier separation and collection, and their injection into the electrolyte, when modifying the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. By introducing an n-doped nanocrystaline silicon oxide layer into a p-doped/intrinsic a-SiC:H photocathode, the photovoltage and photocurrent of the device can be significantly improved, reaching values higher than 0.8 V. This results from enhancing the internal electric field of the photocathode, reducing the Shockley-Read-Hall recombination at the crucial interfaces because of better charge-carrier separation. In addition, the charge-carrier injection into the electrolyte is enhanced by introducing a TiO2 protective layer owing to better band alignment at the interface. Finally, the photocurrent was further enhanced by tuning the absorber layer thickness, arriving at a thickness of 150 nm, after which the current saturates to 10 mA cm-2 at 0 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode in a 0.2 m aqueous potassium hydrogen phthalate (KPH) electrolyte at pH 4.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Tailoring supersaturation from amorphous solid dispersions

Authors: Li, N; Taylor, LS (2018) HERO ID: 4829419

[Less] The maximum achievable concentration of a drug in solution is dictated by the chemical potential of . . . [More] The maximum achievable concentration of a drug in solution is dictated by the chemical potential of the solid form. Because an amorphous solid has a higher chemical potential than the corresponding crystal form, in the absence of phase transformations, a higher transient solubility is expected. However, the chemical potential of an amorphous drug can be reduced by mixing with another component. Therefore, upon mixing with a polymer to form an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD), the maximum solution concentration achieved can be potentially altered, in particular if the polymer is poorly soluble in the dissolution medium. Such changes in the chemical potential of the drug may be a critical factor in determining the maximum achievable solution concentration, and could alter the crystallization driving force of the drug. Therefore, the aim of this study was to gain insights into the impact of poorly soluble polymers on the "amorphous solubility" of drugs formulated as amorphous solid dispersions. Lopinavir was selected as a model drug with a low crystallization tendency, enabling determination of the amorphous solubility as a function of ASD composition. Model polymers included cellulose acetate (CA), CA phthalate (CAP), ethylcellulose (EC), Eudragit® RL PO (EUD), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), HPMC acetate succinate (HPMCAS), and HPMC phthalate (HPMCP). The "amorphous solubility" of the drug alone was determined and then the changes in maximum achievable concentration were measured as a function of drug loading. Drug-polymer interactions were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and moisture sorption analysis. The results showed that the maximum achievable concentration ("amorphous solubility") of lopinavir varied with the extent of drug-polymer interactions, as well as the drug weight fraction in the ASD. This information is of great value when evaluating the maximum achievable concentration of amorphous systems formulated with pH responsive polymers, and should contribute to a broader understanding of drug phase behavior in the context of ASDs.