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Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of cooking at home on the levels of eight phthalates in foods

Authors: Fierens, T; Vanermen, G; Van Holderbeke, M; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I (In Press) Food and Chemical Toxicology 4428-4435. HERO ID: 1311695

[Less] Food products can be contaminated with toxic compounds via the environment. Another possibility of food . . . [More] Food products can be contaminated with toxic compounds via the environment. Another possibility of food contamination is that toxicants are generated in foods or that chemicals migrate from food contact materials into foods during processing. In this study, the effect of cooking at home on the levels of phthalates - world's most used group of plasticisers - in various food types (starchy products, vegetables and meat and fish) was examined. Eight compounds were considered, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). Food products were analysed before as well as after cooking (boiling, steaming, (deep-)frying or grilling). In general, phthalate concentrations in foods declined after cooking, except in vegetables, where almost no effect was seen. Several factors influenced the degree of this decline (e.g. weight difference, fat uptake, etc.). Of all phthalates, DEHP, DiBP and BBP were affected the most. In conclusion, cooking at home definitely affected phthalate concentrations in foods and thus needs to be considered in order to correctly assess humans' dietary exposure to these contaminants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Pathway modeling of microarray data: A case study of pathway activity changes in the testis following in utero exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP)

Authors: Ovacik, MA; Sen, B; Euling, SY; Gaido, KW; Ierapetritou, MG; Androulakis, IP (In Press) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. HERO ID: 1323127

[Less] Pathway activity level analysis, the approach pursued in this study, focuses on all genes that are known . . . [More] Pathway activity level analysis, the approach pursued in this study, focuses on all genes that are known to be members of metabolic and signaling pathways as defined by the KEGG database. The pathway activity level analysis entails singular value decomposition (SVD) of the expression data of the genes constituting a given pathway. We explore an extension of the pathway activity methodology for application to time-course microarray data. We show that pathway analysis enhances our ability to detect biologically relevant changes in pathway activity using synthetic data. As a case study, we apply the pathway activity level formulation coupled with significance analysis to microarray data from two different rat testes exposed in utero to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP). In utero DBP exposure in the rat results in developmental toxicity of a number of male reproductive organs, including the testes. One well-characterized mode of action for DBP and the male reproductive developmental effects is the repression of expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport, steroid biosynthesis and testosterone synthesis that lead to a decreased fetal testicular testosterone. Previous analyses of DBP testes microarray data focused on either individual gene expression changes or changes in the expression of specific genes that are hypothesized, or known, to be important in testicular development and testosterone synthesis. However, a pathway analysis may inform whether there are additional affected pathways that could inform additional modes of action linked to DBP developmental toxicity. We show that Pathway activity analysis may be considered for a more comprehensive analysis of microarray data.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Use of genomic data in risk assessment case study: I. Evaluation of the dibutyl phthalate male reproductive development toxicity data set

Authors: Makris, SL; Euling, SY; Gray, LE; Benson, R; Foster, PM (In Press) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. HERO ID: 1323128

[Less] A case study was conducted, using dibutyl phthalate (DBP), to explore an approach to using toxicogenomic . . . [More] A case study was conducted, using dibutyl phthalate (DBP), to explore an approach to using toxicogenomic data in risk assessment. The toxicity and toxicogenomic data sets relative to DBP-related male reproductive developmental outcomes were considered conjointly to derive information about mode and mechanism of action. In this manuscript, we describe the case study evaluation of the toxicological database for DBP, focusing on identifying the full spectrum of male reproductive developmental effects. The data were assessed to 1) evaluate low dose and low incidence findings and 2) identify male reproductive toxicity endpoints without well-established modes of action (MOAs). These efforts led to the characterization of data gaps and research needs for the toxicity and toxicogenomic studies in a risk assessment context. Further, the identification of endpoints with unexplained MOAs in the toxicity data set was useful in the subsequent evaluation of the mechanistic information that the toxicogenomic data set evaluation could provide. The extensive analysis of the toxicology data set within the MOA context provided a resource of information for DBP in attempts to hypothesize MOAs (for endpoints without a well-established MOA) and to phenotypically anchor toxicogenomic and other mechanistic data both to toxicity endpoints and to available toxicogenomic data. This case study serves as an example of the steps that can be taken to develop a toxicological data source for a risk assessment, both in general and especially for risk assessments that include toxicogenomic data.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of gestational exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate and mineral oil on testis development of the Mongolian gerbil

Authors: Christante, CM; Pinto-Fochi, ME; Negrin, AC; Taboga, SR; Góes, RM (In Press) Reproduction, Fertility and Development. HERO ID: 4828931

[Less] Phthalate esters are endocrine disrupters that can affect the development of the testis in a species-specific . . . [More] Phthalate esters are endocrine disrupters that can affect the development of the testis in a species-specific manner. However, their interference in the male gonads of the Mongolian gerbil is unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether gestational exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) interferes with the development of the gerbil testis during the first six weeks of life. Males were evaluated at 1, 7, 14, 28, 35 and 42 days of age in an untreated (control) group or groups exposed from 8 to 23 days gestation to DBP (100mgkg-1day-1 in mineral oil) or vehicle by maternal gavage. DBP exposure impaired cell proliferation within the seminiferous cords at birth, but increased proliferation at the end of the first week, when higher testosterone concentrations were observed. The vehicle (mineral oil) reduced the total number of gonocytes and attenuated the decrease in testosterone concentrations at 7 days. The vehicle also altered gonocyte relocation at 14 days and increased oestrogen concentrations at 28 days by approximately 112%. In summary, both DBP and oil interfered in gonadal development and testosterone plasma concentrations in the first week of postnatal life. However, the changes observed at the beginning of puberty were not seen after exposure to DBP, indicating a more harmful effect of mineral oil in this period.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nontargeted metabolomic analysis to unravel the impact of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate stress on root exudates of alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

Authors: Wang, Y; Ren, W; Li, Y; Xu, Y; Teng, Y; Christie, P; Luo, Y (2019) HERO ID: 4829302

[Less] Root exudates are the main media of information communication and energy transfer between plant roots . . . [More] Root exudates are the main media of information communication and energy transfer between plant roots and the soil. Understanding the response of root exudates to contamination stress is crucial in revealing the rhizoremediation mechanisms. Here, we investigate the response of alfalfa root exudates to bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) stress based on nontargeted metabolomic analysis. Alfalfa root exudates were collected using greenhouse hydroponic culture and analysed by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). A total of 314 compounds were identified in alfalfa root exudates of which carbohydrates, acids and lipids accounted for 28.6, 15.58 and 13.87%, respectively. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) shows that DEHP exerted an important influence on the composition and quantity of root exudates. Fifty metabolites were clearly changed even at lower concentrations of DEHP, including common carbohydrates, fatty acids and some special rhizosphere signal materials, such as 4',5-dihyrroxy-7-methoxyisoflavone. DEHP stress significantly suppressed carbohydrate metabolism but promoted fatty acid metabolism. However, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle showed little change in response to DEHP stress.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Influence of aromatic structure and substitution of carboxyl groups of aromatic acids on their sorption to biochars

Authors: Wu, L; Li, B; Liu, M (2018) HERO ID: 4829345

[Less] In order to clarify the influence of aromatic structure and COOH substitution of aromatic acids on their . . . [More] In order to clarify the influence of aromatic structure and COOH substitution of aromatic acids on their sorption to biochars, benzoic acid (BA), phthalic acid (PA), hemimellitic acid (HA), 2-biphenylcarboxylic acid (2-BA), 1-naphthoic acid (1-NA) and naphthalene were selected as model sorbates. Batch experiments on sorption of them to wheat straw-derived biochars at 300 °C (WS300) and 700 °C (WS700) were conducted. Results showed that WS700 with higher specific surface area and pore volume had faster and higher sorption of aromatic acids than WS300. Sorption affinity of aromatic acids decreased with increasing number of aromatic rings (BA > 1-NA > 2-BA), and was weakened by COOH substitution (BA > PA > HA). This was likely due to the π-electron delocalization into additional ring, reduced contact area of nonplanar aromatic structure on biochar surfaces, size exclusion of larger molecules in smaller pores of biochars and decreased hydrophobicity of aromatic acids by COOH substitution that abated the sorption. Dissociation of COOH substitution of aromatic acids also weakened their sorption to biochars due to the lower hydrophobicity of anionic species, and electrostatic repulsion between anionic species and negatively charged surface of biochars.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impact of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites on male reproductive function: A systematic review of human evidence

Authors: Høyer, BB; Lenters, V; Giwercman, A; Jönsson, BAG; Toft, G; Hougaard, KS; Bonde, JPE; Specht, IO (2018) Current Environmental Health Reports 2018. [Review] HERO ID: 4235834

[Less] PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to systematically review the literature . . . [More] PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to systematically review the literature linking di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) exposure with effects on reproductive health in adult males.

RECENT FINDINGS: Thirty-three papers were included of which 28 were cross-sectional. Twenty-one papers investigated semen samples, 18 investigated reproductive hormones, and three studies investigated time to pregnancy. Studies revealed some but inconsistent indications that higher urinary DEHP metabolite levels are associated with an increase in the proportion of spermatozoa with damaged DNA and to a decrease in sperm concentration and motility. A negative association between DEHP metabolites and testosterone levels was more consistent. DEHP metabolites do not seem to be associated with a delay in time to pregnancy, but data are sparse. The studies on DEHP exposure and reproductive biomarkers in men converge to support the hypothesis that DEHP exposure is related to impaired male reproductive function. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish if the observed associations are causal.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposure to a combination of formaldehyde and DINP aggravated asthma-like pathology through oxidative stress and NF-κB activation

Authors: Kang, J; Duan, J; Song, J; Luo, C; Liu, H; Li, B; Yang, X; Yu, W; Chen, M (2018) HERO ID: 4728463

[Less] Several epidemiological and experimental studies indicate a positive association between exposure to . . . [More] Several epidemiological and experimental studies indicate a positive association between exposure to formaldehyde or phthalates and allergic asthma. However, nothing is yet known about the effects of exposure to formaldehyde and phthalates together, nor the role of each on allergic asthma. Here, we investigated the effects of a combined exposure to formaldehyde and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) on asthma-like pathology in mice, and determined the underlying mechanisms implicated in NF-κB and ROS. Mice were exposed to formaldehyde and/or DINP and sensitization with OVA. The results showed that exposure to 1.0 mg/m3 formaldehyde or 20 mg/kg·d DINP slightly aggravated the airway wall remodeling, promoted the production of IgE and IgG1, and induced the occurrence of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). However, these pathological responses and AHR were greatly exacerbated by the combined exposure to formaldehyde and DINP. Administering melatonin to block oxidative stress, alleviated the pathological responses and AHR induced by formaldehyde and DINP, and inhibited the activation of the NF-κB and the secretion of TSLP. Blocking NF-κB with Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinimicin, inhibited the elevation of TSLP expression and Th2/Th17 cytokine secretion, and effectively alleviated the allergic asthma-like symptoms. The results suggested that exposure to both formaldehyde and DINP aggravated hypersensitivity asthma symptoms by promoting oxidative stress and activating NF-κB. These findings expand our understanding of how formaldehyde and DINP exposure affect the development of allergic asthma.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The effect of maternal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate on fetal cardiac development in mice

Authors: Tang, C; Deng, Y; Duan, H; Zhang, Y; Li, Y; Qiu, D; Zhou, K; Hua, Y; Wang, C (2018) HERO ID: 4728734

[Less] Accumulating evidence has suggested a link between maternal di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) exposure . . . [More] Accumulating evidence has suggested a link between maternal di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) exposure and various developmental abnormalities. However, the evidence regarding the effect of maternal DEHP exposure on fetal cardiac development is scarce. The present study aimed to determine the effect of maternal DEHP exposure on fetal cardiac development in mice and explore the possible involved mechanism preliminarily. The C57BL mice were randomly divided into four groups: the vehicle group (corn oil, n = 10), 250 mg kg-1 DEHP group (n = 15), 500 mg kg-1 DEHP group (n = 20) and 1 g kg-1 DEHP group (n = 20). Pregnant dams in different group received respective intervention by gavage once daily from embryonic day (E)6.5 to E14.5. Maternal weights were monitored every day and samples were collected at E15.5. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to examine fetal cardiac malformations. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot were applied to detect peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α/PPARγ/Nkx2.5/Gata4/Tbx5/Mef2c/Chf1 mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Maternal DEHP exposure significantly decreased maternal body weight, fetal weight and placental weight, and remarkably elevated fetal cardiac malformations rate. The phenotypes of cardiac anomalies mainly include septal defects, ventricular myocardium noncompaction and cardiac hypoplasia. Higher doses DEHP (500 mg kg-1 and 1 g kg-1 ) could significantly decreased fetal cardiac Gata4/Mef2c/Chf1 expression, while PPARγ expression was upregulated. Maternal exposure to higher doses of DEHP could result in fetal cardiac development malformations in mice and it might have resulted from the inhibition of cardiac GATA4/Mef2c/Chf1 expression via PPARγ activation.