Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


BBP (Butyl benzyl phthalate)


1,611 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Semen quality and insulin-like factor 3: Associations with urinary and seminal levels of phthalate metabolites in adult males : Supplementary materials

Authors: Chang, WH; Wu, MH; Pan, HA; Guo, PL; Lee, CC (2017) Chemosphere 173. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 4135242

Abstract: Supplemental materials

Technical Report
Technical Report

Substance information: Carbon tetrachloride

Author: ECHA (2017) Helsinki, Finland: European Chemicals Agency. HERO ID: 3839957


Data/Software
Data/ Software

Substance information: Benzyl butyl phthalate

Author: ECHA (2017) HERO ID: 3663960


Data/Software
Data/ Software

Substance information: 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone

Author: ECHA (2017) HERO ID: 3827462


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Solid phase extraction using molecular imprinted polymers for phthalate determination in water and wine samples by HPLC-ESI-MS

Authors: Carmen Barciela-Alonso, M; Otero-Lavandeira, N; Bermejo-Barrera, P (2017) Microchemical Journal 132:233-237. HERO ID: 3859181

[Less] A method for the determination of four phthalates in water and wine samples by liquid chromatography-mass . . . [More] A method for the determination of four phthalates in water and wine samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed. The four phthalates studied were dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP). A preconcentration step was necessary due to the low levels of these compounds in the samples studied. Solid phase extraction (SPE) using a Molecularly Imprinting Polymer (MIP) was selected as a preconcentration technique. The MIP was prepared via precipitation polymerization using DBP as template, methacrylic acid (MAA) as a monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as crosslinking agent, acetonitrile as porogen, and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator. The preconcentration factors obtained were 6.25 and 25 for water and wine samples, respectively. The SPE procedure coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry provides high sensitivity and good precision. The method was used for the determination of these phthalates in water samples (bottled in plastic bottles) and wine samples (bottled in Tetra brik packages). (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights teserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Maternal phthalate exposure promotes allergic airway inflammation over 2 generations through epigenetic modifications

Authors: Jahreis, S; Trump, S; Bauer, M; Bauer, T; Thürmann, L; Feltens, R; Wang, Q; Gu, L; Grützmann, K; Röder, S; Averbeck, M; Weichenhan, D; Plass, C; Sack, U; Borte, M; Dubourg, V; Schüürmann, G; Simon, JC; von Bergen, M; Hackermüller, J; Eils, R; Lehmann, I; Polte, T (2017) Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 141:741-753. HERO ID: 3859067

[Less] BACKGROUND: Prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors are considered . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors are considered responsible for the increasing prevalence of allergic diseases. Although there is some evidence for allergy-promoting effects in children because of exposure to plasticizers, such as phthalates, findings of previous studies are inconsistent and lack mechanistic information.

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of maternal phthalate exposure on asthma development in subsequent generations and their underlying mechanisms, including epigenetic alterations.

METHODS: Phthalate metabolites were measured within the prospective mother-child cohort Lifestyle and Environmental Factors and Their Influence on Newborns Allergy Risk (LINA) and correlated with asthma development in the children. A murine transgenerational asthma model was used to identify involved pathways.

RESULTS: In LINA maternal urinary concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate, a metabolite of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), were associated with an increased asthma risk in the children. Using a murine transgenerational asthma model, we demonstrate a direct effect of BBP on asthma severity in the offspring with a persistently increased airway inflammation up to the F2 generation. This disease-promoting effect was mediated by BBP-induced global DNA hypermethylation in CD4(+) T cells of the offspring because treatment with a DNA-demethylating agent alleviated exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation. Thirteen transcriptionally downregulated genes linked to promoter or enhancer hypermethylation were identified. Among these, the GATA-3 repressor zinc finger protein 1 (Zfpm1) emerged as a potential mediator of the enhanced susceptibility for TH2-driven allergic asthma.

CONCLUSION: These data provide strong evidence that maternal BBP exposure increases the risk for allergic airway inflammation in the offspring by modulating the expression of genes involved in TH2 differentiation through epigenetic alterations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Two-Dimensional Description of Absorption in Humans after Dermal Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds

Authors: Simon, L; Ospina, J (2017) Chemical Engineering Communications 204:698-704. HERO ID: 3860097

[Less] A two-dimensional diffusion model was developed to predict the absorption of chemicals in humans following . . . [More] A two-dimensional diffusion model was developed to predict the absorption of chemicals in humans following dermal contact. A first-order evaporation rate equation was applied to the skin surface while a perfect-sink boundary condition was imposed at the stratum corneum/viable epidermis interface. Initially, there was a certain amount of the substance present within the stratum corneum at the end of the exposure period. Laplace transform techniques were implemented to solve the governing equations and to derive an expression for the time elapsed before reaching 90% of the final amount of chemical absorbed by the body. This index was 0.43, 2.67, 6.91, and 36.9 h for ethanol, diphenylamine, p-nitroaniline, and benzyl butyl-phthalate, respectively. Simulations show that surface evaporation is important for highly volatile compounds. A large fraction of the amount of poorly volatile compounds, available in the skin after exposure, was absorbed into the bloodstream.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The plasticizer BBP selectively inhibits epigenetic regulator sirtuin during differentiation of C3H10T1/2 stem cell line

Authors: Zhang, J; Choudhury, M (2017) Toxicology In Vitro 39:75-83. HERO ID: 3519887

[Less] Exposure to environmental chemicals can perturb an individual's metabolic set point, especially during . . . [More] Exposure to environmental chemicals can perturb an individual's metabolic set point, especially during critical periods of development, and as a result increase his or her propensity towards obesity that is manifested later in life and possibly in successive generations. We hypothesized that benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), a widespread endocrine disruptor, may impair one important epigenetic regulator, sirtuin, in mesenchymal stem cells and induce adipogenesis. Our results showed that gene expression of two well-known adipogenic markers, aP2 and PPARγ, were significantly increased from day 2 to day 8 under 50μM BBP exposure when compared to control in C3H10T1/2 stem cells (p<0.05) and induced adipogenesis. Sirt1 gene expression was also significantly decreased at day 2, 4, 6, and 8 (p<0.05). However, Sirt7 gene expression was decreased only at day 2 and 8 (p<0.05) while other sirtuin transcriptional levels remained unaltered throughout. Furthermore, Sirt1 and Sirt3 protein expression was decreased (p<0.05) and overall protein hyperacetylation was observed at day 8. Furthermore, FOXO1 and β-catenin, Sirt1 targets and adipogenesis regulators, were hyperacetylated at day 8. PGC1α, NRF1, NRF2, and Tfam, were also significantly decreased (p<0.05). In conclusion, our study suggests for the first time that BBP, a potential epigenetic disruptor, can lead to increased adipogenesis and metabolic dysregulation by impairing vital epigenetic regulators.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate metabolites in 24-h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) from 1988 to 2015 and a comparison with US NHANES data from 1999 to 2012

Authors: Koch, HM; Rüther, M; Schütze, A; Conrad, A; Pälmke, C; Apel, P; Brüning, T; Kolossa-Gehring, M (2017) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220:130-141. HERO ID: 3469204

[Less] The German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) continuously collects 24-h urine samples since the early . . . [More] The German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) continuously collects 24-h urine samples since the early 1980s in Germany. In this study we analyzed 300 urine samples from the years 2007 to 2015 for 21 phthalate metabolites (representing exposure to 11 parent phthalates) and combined the data with two previous retrospective measurement campaigns (1988 to 2003 and 2002 to 2008). The combined dataset comprised 1162 24-h urine samples spanning the years 1988 to 2015. With this detailed set of human biomonitoring data we describe the time course of phthalate exposure in Germany over a time frame of 27 years. For the metabolites of the endocrine disrupting phthalates di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) we observed a roughly ten-fold decline in median metabolite levels from their peak levels in the late 1980s/early 1990s compared to most recent levels from 2015. Probably, bans (first enacted in 1999) and classifications/labelings (enacted in 2001 and 2004) in the European Union lead to this drop. A decline in di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) metabolite levels set in only quite recently, possibly due to its later classification as a reproductive toxicant in the EU in 2009. In a considerable number of samples collected before 2002 health based guidance values (BE, HBM I) have been exceeded for DnBP (27.2%) and DEHP (2.3%) but also in recent samples some individual exceedances can still be observed (DEHP 1.0%). A decrease in concentration for all low molecular weight phthalates, labelled or not, was seen in the most recent years of sampling. For the high molecular weight phthalates, DEHP seems to have been substituted in part by di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP), but DiNP metabolite levels have also been declining in the last years. Probably, non-phthalate alternatives increasingly take over for the phthalates in Germany. A comparison with NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data from the United States covering the years 1999 to 2012 revealed both similarities and differences in phthalate exposure between Germany and the US. Exposure to critical phthalates has decreased in both countries with metabolite levels more and more aligning with each other, but high molecular weight phthalates substituting DEHP (such as DiNP) seem to become more important in the US than in Germany.