Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


BBP (Butyl benzyl phthalate)


1,611 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

THE EFFECT OF PHTHALATE ESTERS ON THE HEART RATE OF THE GOLDFISH

Authors: Pfuderer, P; Francis, AA; Doherty, DG (1973) Federation Proceedings 32. HERO ID: 1359363

[Less] HEEP COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. ABSTRACT BENZYLBUTYL PHTHALATE DI OCTYL PHTHALATE ATROPINE CARDIO VASC-D . . . [More] HEEP COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. ABSTRACT BENZYLBUTYL PHTHALATE DI OCTYL PHTHALATE ATROPINE CARDIO VASC-DRUG

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Variations in the pattern of pubertal changes in boys

Authors: Marshall, WA; Tanner, JM (1970) Archives of Disease in Childhood 45:13-23. HERO ID: 2441666


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

TERATOGENIC EFFECTS IN THE CHICK EMBRYO CAUSED BY ESTERS OF PHTHALIC ACID

Authors: Bower, RK; Haberman, S; Minton, PD (1970) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 171:314-324. HERO ID: 2048430


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Terotogenic effects in the chick embryo caused by esters of phthalic acid

Authors: Bower, RK; Haberman, S; Minton, PD (1970) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 171:314-324. HERO ID: 1316140

[Less] Eight commercially available phthalic acid esters were investigated to determine their effects on the . . . [More] Eight commercially available phthalic acid esters were investigated to determine their effects on the developing chick embryo. Dibutoxyethyl phthalate was capable of causing teratogenesis in these embryos. Congenital malformations such as crania bifida and anophthalmia were observed in newly hatched chicks receiving this phthalate ester into the yolk sac before the third day of embryonic life. Also, marked exophthalmia, resulting from an absence of bone tissue forming the orbit of the eye, and blindness, due to failure of the cornea to develop, were other malformations observable in chicks treated with this phthalate ester. The data suggested that dibutoxyethyl phthalate, di-2-methoxyethyl phthalate and octyl isodecyl phthalate are capable of causing damage to the central nervous system of the developing chick embryo. This was manifested after hatching by grossly abnormal behavior of chicks, such as tremor, nonpurposeful bodily movement and a total incapability of either standing or walking normally. These esters varied in their toxigenic properties for the chick embryo. Statistical analyses were conducted on the data. It was determined that differences in the numbers of deaths occurring in phthalate-treated groups compared with control groups of chick embryos were significant at less than the .01 level.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in girls

Authors: Marshall, WA; Tanner, JM (1969) Archives of Disease in Childhood 44:291-303. HERO ID: 2441665


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Toxicology of a series of phthalate esters

Authors: Calley, D; Autian, J; Guess, WL (1966) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 55:158-162. HERO ID: 698503

[Less] Certain types of plastic materials require the addition of appreciable quantities of plasticizers to . . . [More] Certain types of plastic materials require the addition of appreciable quantities of plasticizers to impart specific physical-chemical properties to the final item. Presently, many vinyl devices used with drug products may contain plasticizers of the phthalate type. For this reason, a series of phthalic acid esters were evaluated for parenteral toxicity including LD50 values and hexobarbital narcosis. Experiments utilized in the study also included i.p. injections in mice for acute toxicity profiles, i.v. administration in rabbits for blood pressure and respiration effects, and intradermal injections into rabbits for irritation effects. A further study was conducted to note what effects repeated i.p. doses of the phthalates would have on mice over a period of time, examining the effects on organs, weight gain, and the blood. Finally, tissue culture experiments were conducted to attempt to correlate certain of the toxicity manifestations. The most salient feature of the toxicity of these compounds was the central depression on the animals and the rather low order of toxicity by the parenteral route of administration.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The descent of the testis

Author: Scorer, CG (1964) Archives of Disease in Childhood 39:605-609. HERO ID: 1005763

[Less] This study is based on observations made on boys at birth, during infancy, and throughout early childhood. . . . [More] This study is based on observations made on boys at birth, during infancy, and throughout early childhood. Its purpose was to find out how often the testes were in the scrotum at birth and what happened
in later years to those that were not. An analysis of the position of the testes was made in over 3,500 infant boys at birth. Those in whom
one or both testes were not in the scrotum at the age of 1 month were followed up. To this number a further 40 cases of failure of descent in early infancy have been added in order to obtain, as nearly as
possible, a true incidence of the various types of failure.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Final report subacute feeding: Albino rats

Author: Hazleton Laboratories (1958) (878213590). Falls Church, VA: Hazelton Laboratories. HERO ID: 678609

[Less] Subchronic toxicity was evaluated in 2 groups of 20 Charles River albino rats (10 male and 10 female) . . . [More] Subchronic toxicity was evaluated in 2 groups of 20 Charles River albino rats (10 male and 10 female) ingesting Santicizer 160 (butyl benzyl phthalate) via the diet for 13 weeks. The first group ingested test article at a dietary concentration of 0.5% throughout the treatment period. The second group received weekly adjustments in dietary levels, starting at 0.5% and increasing incrementally by 0.5% until a concentration of 2.0% was reached; animals were then maintained at this level for the remainder of the test. Mortality was observed in 3 males in the control group, in one female in the 0.5% dose group, and in one male in the 2.0% dose group during the treatment period. A statistically significant (analysis of variance, p < 0.05) decrease in body weight gain was observed in males and females in the 2.0% dose group, but not in the 0.5% dose group. Liver to body weight, and kidney to body weight ratios were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in males and females in the 2.0% dose group; however, the investigators attributed this to the decreased (see above) body weight of these animals. Necropsy of animals that died or survived to the end of the 90 day treatment period did not reveal gross pathology that could be attributed to the effect of the test articl e. Additionally, microscopic analysis of the liver, spleen, kidneys, adrenals, stomach, and large and small intestines did not reveal test article induced pathology.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Studies on the toxicity and skin effects of compounds used in the rubber and plastics industries: II. Plasticizers

Authors: Mallette, FS; Von Haam, E (1952) AMA Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine 6:231-236. HERO ID: 675304

[Less] The toxicities and skin effects of plasticizers used in rubber and plastic industries were studied in . . . [More] The toxicities and skin effects of plasticizers used in rubber and plastic industries were studied in laboratory animals and humans. Twenty five compounds used as plasticizers of synthetic resins were investigated. Rats were administered the compounds by various routes, and mortality was recorded. All animals were necropsied. The compounds were tested for skin irritancy and sensitization in rabbits and humans. Five compounds dioctyl-phthalate (117817), butylbenzyl-phthalate, santicizer-140 (66770443), santicizer-141 (1241947), and flexol-8N8 (61461776) were moderately toxic in doses of 0.6 to 2.4 grams per kilogram (g/kg), generally as a result of intraperitoneal administration. Toxic effects were usually seen in the erythrocytes, blood capillaries, and the central nervous system. The other 20 compounds were essentially nontoxic. All animals supported intraperitoneal injections of 6g/kg or more with no signs of toxic effects. Five compounds showed no skin irritation or sensitization in humans and rabbits: di-2-ethylhexyl-adipate (103231), dibutoxyethyl-diglycol-carbonate, dibutoxyethyl-phthalate (117839), dioctyl-sebacate (122623), and dibutyl-sebacate (109433). Seventeen plasticizers were slight or moderate skin irritants, three were severe skin irritants, and five were moderate sensitizers.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Analytical Procedures for the Measurement and Characterization of Phthalate Esters

Authors: Banerjee, S; Dombrowski, AE; Scala, AJ; Howard, PH (1900) (1533-05). (NIOSH/00189527). BIO/DYNAMICS INC. HERO ID: 1316111

[Less] Analytical procedures for analyzing and characterizing phthalate esters were evaluated. Hexane solutions . . . [More] Analytical procedures for analyzing and characterizing phthalate esters were evaluated. Hexane solutions containing 1000 parts per million (ppm) dimethyl-phthalate (131113), diethyl-phthalate (84662), di-n-butyl-phthalate (84742), butyl-benzyl-phthalate (85687) (BBP), dihexyl-phthalate (84753), butyl-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (85698), a mixture of dihexyl-phthalate plus di-n-octyl-phthalate (117840), plus di-n-decyl-phthalate (84775), di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (117817), diisooctyl-phthalate (27554263), diisononyl-phthalate (28553120), a mixture of di-heptyl-phthalate (3648213) plus dinonyl-phthalate (84764) plus di-undecyl-phthalate (3648202), diisodecyl-phthalate (26761400), di-undecyl-phthalate, and ditridecyl-phthalate (119062) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) using a flame ionization detector or GC/mass spectrometry (GC). The mass spectrometer was operated in the chemical ionization mode with methane as the reagent gas and in the electron impact mode. Acetonitrile solutions containing 1000ppm of the compounds were also analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an ultraviolet detector set at 200 nanometers. Sample chromatograms and mass spectra of the compounds were given. HPLC was more sensitive than GC; however GC provided better resolution. A program to measure the solubility of the compounds in water at 25 degrees-C by HPLC was underway. Sample data for BBP indicated an aqueous solubility of 3.2ppm. The authors conclude that HPLC is probably the method of choice for making physical measurements on phthalate esters. GC or GC/MS is best suited for degradation studies where separation and identification of products are important./CHEMISTRY