Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


BBP (Butyl benzyl phthalate)


1,592 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Transfer of phthalates from c-polyvinyl chloride and cross-linked polyethylene pipe (PEX-b) into drinking water

Authors: Faust, DR; Wooten, KJ; Smith, PN (2017) Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 17:588-596. HERO ID: 3859182

[Less] Several different materials have been used for production of domestic water pipes throughout history. . . . [More] Several different materials have been used for production of domestic water pipes throughout history. In recent years, the use of cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe has increased dramatically, yet the potential for leaching of phthalates, which are endocrine disrupting compounds associated with adverse reproductive effects in humans, has not been examined. In this study, the potential of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (cPVC) and red, blue, and heat PEX piping to leach phthalates into static hot and cold water after 2, 8, and 48 hours was evaluated. Concentrations of six phthalates, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di(n-octyl) phthalate (DNOP), were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pipe type (F-3,F-71 = 15.6, P = 0.001) contributed significantly to phthalate concentrations in water, while temperature (F-4,F-71 = 1.74, P = 0.106) and time (F-4,F-71 = 1.02, P = 0.427) were not significant factors. Significantly higher concentrations of DEP, DBP, and BBP were observed in cPVC pipe (< method detection limits (MDL) to 466 ng L-1, 252-4,219 ng L-1, 473-18,400 ng L-1, respectively) compared to blue PEX (T-2 = 12.2, P< 0.001; < MDL, < MDL-140 ng L-1, < MDL-459 ng L-1, respectively), red PEX (T-2 = 19.3, P< 0.001; < MDL, < MDL-188 ng L-1, < MDL - 881 ng L-1, respectively), and heat PEX (T-2 = 19.9, P< 0.001; < MDL, < MDL-162 ng L-1, < MDL - 169 ng L-1, respectively). Phthalate exposure from drinking water via cPVC or PEX is low when compared to other dietary sources. Nonetheless, a shift from cPVC to PEX pipes in households would decrease potential exposure to phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Selection of Group-Specific Phthalic Acid Esters Binding DNA Aptamers via Rationally Designed Target Immobilization and Applications for Ultrasensitive and Highly Selective Detection of Phthalic Acid Esters

Authors: Han, Y; Diao, D; Lu, Z; Li, X; Guo, Q; Huo, Y; Xu, Q; Li, Y; Cao, S; Wang, J; Wang, Y; Zhao, J; Li, Z; He, M; Luo, Z; Lou, X (2017) Analytical Chemistry 89:5270-5277. HERO ID: 3859183

[Less] Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are ubiquitous in the environment, and some of them are recognized as endocrine . . . [More] Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are ubiquitous in the environment, and some of them are recognized as endocrine disruptors that cause concerns on ecosystem functioning and public health. Due to the diversity of PAEs in the environment, there is a vital need to detect the total concentration of PAEs in a timely and low-cost way. To fulfill this requirement, it is highly desired to obtain group-specific PAE binders that are specific to the basic PAE skeleton. In this study, for the first time we have identified the group-specific PAE-binding aptamers via rationally designed target immobilization. The two target immobilization strategies were adopted to display either the phthalic ester group or the alkyl chain, respectively, at the surface of the immobilization matrix. The former enabled the rapid enrichment of aptamers after four rounds of selection. The top 100 sequences are cytosine-rich (44.7%) and differentiate from each other by only 1-4 nucleotides at limited locations. The top two aptamers all display the nanomolar dissociation constants to both the immobilized target and the free PAEs [dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)]. We further demonstrate the applications of the aptamers in the development of high-throughput PAE assays and DEHP electrochemical biosensors with exceptional sensitivity [limit of detection (LOD), 10 pM] and selectivity (>10(5)-fold). PAE aptamers targeting one of the most sought for targets thus offer the promise of convenient, low-cost detection of total PAEs. Our study also provides insights on the aptamer selection and sensor development of highly hydrophobic small molecules.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Semen quality and insulin-like factor 3: Associations with urinary and seminal levels of phthalate metabolites in adult males : Supplementary materials

Authors: Chang, WH; Wu, MH; Pan, HA; Guo, PL; Lee, CC (2017) Chemosphere 173. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 4135242

Abstract: Supplemental materials

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In Tube Ultrasonic and Air Assisted Liquid-Liquid Microextraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Determination: a Novel Method for the Determination of Phthalate Esters in Aqueous Samples

Authors: Farahani, A; Ramezani, M; Hassan, J; Niazi, Ali (2017) HERO ID: 3860094

[Less] In this study, a highly sensitive and reliable microextraction method, known as in tube ultrasonic and . . . [More] In this study, a highly sensitive and reliable microextraction method, known as in tube ultrasonic and air assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (IT-UAA-LLME), was developed for the preconcentration of some phthalate esters, such as dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-butyl-phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), and di n-octyl-phthalate (DNOP), prior to their determination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this technique, the extraction solvent was dispersed into the aqueous sample solution using an ultrasonic bath. The effects of solvent type, aeration time and salt concentration were investigated. After extraction, an organic solvent was injected into the GC-MS instrument for quantification. Under optimum conditions, the enrichment factors ranged from 100 to 330. The calibration curves showed good linearity (r(2) > 0.99) and limit of detections were obtained in the range of 0.1-2.1 ng mL(-1) in the working concentration ranges. The method was successfully applied for determination of six phthalate esters in real samples with complex matrices with relative standard deviation less than 8%, recovery 88-112% and thus, satisfactory results were obtained.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate metabolites in 24-h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) from 1988 to 2015 and a comparison with US NHANES data from 1999 to 2012

Authors: Koch, HM; Rüther, M; Schütze, A; Conrad, A; Pälmke, C; Apel, P; Brüning, T; Kolossa-Gehring, M (2017) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220:130-141. HERO ID: 3469204

[Less] The German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) continuously collects 24-h urine samples since the early . . . [More] The German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) continuously collects 24-h urine samples since the early 1980s in Germany. In this study we analyzed 300 urine samples from the years 2007 to 2015 for 21 phthalate metabolites (representing exposure to 11 parent phthalates) and combined the data with two previous retrospective measurement campaigns (1988 to 2003 and 2002 to 2008). The combined dataset comprised 1162 24-h urine samples spanning the years 1988 to 2015. With this detailed set of human biomonitoring data we describe the time course of phthalate exposure in Germany over a time frame of 27 years. For the metabolites of the endocrine disrupting phthalates di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) we observed a roughly ten-fold decline in median metabolite levels from their peak levels in the late 1980s/early 1990s compared to most recent levels from 2015. Probably, bans (first enacted in 1999) and classifications/labelings (enacted in 2001 and 2004) in the European Union lead to this drop. A decline in di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) metabolite levels set in only quite recently, possibly due to its later classification as a reproductive toxicant in the EU in 2009. In a considerable number of samples collected before 2002 health based guidance values (BE, HBM I) have been exceeded for DnBP (27.2%) and DEHP (2.3%) but also in recent samples some individual exceedances can still be observed (DEHP 1.0%). A decrease in concentration for all low molecular weight phthalates, labelled or not, was seen in the most recent years of sampling. For the high molecular weight phthalates, DEHP seems to have been substituted in part by di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP), but DiNP metabolite levels have also been declining in the last years. Probably, non-phthalate alternatives increasingly take over for the phthalates in Germany. A comparison with NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data from the United States covering the years 1999 to 2012 revealed both similarities and differences in phthalate exposure between Germany and the US. Exposure to critical phthalates has decreased in both countries with metabolite levels more and more aligning with each other, but high molecular weight phthalates substituting DEHP (such as DiNP) seem to become more important in the US than in Germany.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A levels, and serum thyroid hormones among the Korean adult population - Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014

Authors: Park, C; Choi, W; Hwang, M; Lee, Y; Kim, S; Yu, S; Lee, I; Paek, D; Choi, K (2017) Science of the Total Environment 584-585:950-957. HERO ID: 3515110

[Less] BACKGROUND: Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) have been used extensively in many consumer . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) have been used extensively in many consumer products, resulting in widespread exposure in the general population. Studies have suggested associations between exposure to phthalates and BPA, and serum thyroid hormone levels, but confirmation on larger human populations is warranted.

METHODS: Data obtained from nationally representative Korean adults (n=6003) recruited for the second round of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS), 2012-2014, were employed. Three di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites, along with benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolites, and BPA were measured in subjects' urine. Thyroxine (T4), total triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in serum. The associations between urinary phthalates or BPA and thyroid hormone levels were determined.

RESULTS: Urinary phthalate metabolites were generally associated with lowered total T4 or T3, or increased TSH levels in serum. Interquartile range (IQR) increases of mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) were associated with a 3.7% increase of TSH, and a 1.7% decrease of total T4 levels, respectively. When grouped by sex, urinary MEHHP levels were inversely associated with T4 only among males. Among females, mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) levels were inversely associated with TSH and T3, respectively. In addition, negative association between BPA and TSH was observed.

CONCLUSIONS: Several phthalates and BPA exposures were associated with altered circulatory thyroid hormone levels among general Korean adult population. Considering the importance of thyroid hormones, public health implications of such alteration warrant further studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate esters and childhood asthma: A systematic review and congener-specific meta-analysis

Authors: Li, MC; Chen, CH; Guo, YL (2017) Environmental Pollution 229:655-660. [Review] HERO ID: 3860090

[Less] Introduction: Exposure to phthalate esters (PAEs) has been associated with childhood asthma, but the . . . [More] Introduction: Exposure to phthalate esters (PAEs) has been associated with childhood asthma, but the congener-specific effects of PAEs on childhood asthma were unclear. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze observational studies on the associations between specific effects of PAEs and the risk of childhood asthma.

Material and methods: Relevant studies were identified by searching three databases up to October 20, 2016. The reference lists of the retrieved articles were also reviewed. We included observational studies that reported risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between phthalate exposure and the risk of childhood asthma. Fixed-effects models were generally applied to calculate pooled risk estimates. When heterogeneity was present, random-effects models were applied.

Results: A total of nine studies featuring 43 data points were included in our final meta-analyses. Results indicated that the benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP) exposure had a significant association with the risk of childhood asthma. The Odd Ratios (ORs) were from 1.39 to 1.41 for different combination strategies. Subgroup analyses by different exposure period or samples used showed that prenatal exposure to BBzP had a stronger association with the risk of childhood asthma (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.09–1.75), compared to those with postnatal exposure. Besides, the association was evident when the phthalate exposure was measured from dust samples. The OR for the associations between di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in dust and childhood asthma was 2.71 (95% CI = 1.39–5.28), and 2.08 (95% CI = 1.10–3.92) for BBzP.

Conclusions: Our study suggested a positive association between DEHP and BBzP exposure and childhood asthma. Future studies are warranted to identify the underlying mechanisms of the association.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Semen quality and insulin-like factor 3: Associations with urinary and seminal levels of phthalate metabolites in adult males

Authors: Chang, WH; Wu, MH; Pan, HA; Guo, PL; Lee, CC (2017) Chemosphere 173:594-602. HERO ID: 3519878

[Less] Certain phthalates have adverse effects on male reproductive functions in animals, and potentially affect . . . [More] Certain phthalates have adverse effects on male reproductive functions in animals, and potentially affect human testicular function and spermatogenesis, but little is known about the active mechanisms. We measured the urinary and seminal phthalate metabolites and explored their associations on insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) and semen quality. Urine, blood, and semen samples were collected from the male partners of subfertile (n = 253) and fertile (n = 37) couples in a reproductive center in southern Taiwan. INSL3, reproductive hormones, semen-quality, and 11 phthalate metabolites in urine and semen were measured. There were significant correlations in the distribution pattern of metabolites, such as the relative contribution of low or high molecular weight phthalate metabolites. The significantly monotonic trends in semen volume, sperm concentration and motility were associated with increasing quartiles of INSL3 (all p-trend < 0.001). In adjusted regression models, increases in urinary phthalate metabolites levels were adversely associated with sperm concentration (monobenzyl phthalate [MBzP], mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate [MEHP] and MEHP%), motility (MBzP and MEHP) and INSL3 (MBzP, MEHP and MEHP%) (all p < 0.01). Higher seminal phthalate metabolite levels were associated with decreases in sperm concentration (MEHP and mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate), motility (mono-ethyl phthalate [MEP] and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [DEHP] metabolites), normal morphology (MEP), and INSL3 (monomethyl phthalate and MEP) (all p < 0.05). Our data suggest that INSL3 secretion, reproductive hormone balance, and sperm production and quality might be simultaneously adversely affected for individuals excreting increasing levels of phthalates metabolites (especially di-ethyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate, and DEHP) in urine and semen samples.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for benzyl butyl phthalate and its active metabolites, mono benzyl phthalate and mono butyl phthalate, in rats

Authors: Kim, MG; Choi, HG; Lee, Y; Park, J; Park, S; Yoo, SD (2017) Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 32:S26-S26. [Abstract] HERO ID: 3860095


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Non-target analysis of household dust and laundry dryer lint using comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry

Authors: Ouyang, X; Weiss, JM; de Boer, J; Lamoree, MH; Leonards, PE (2017) Chemosphere 166:431-437. HERO ID: 3455857

[Less] Household dust and laundry dryer lint are important indoor environmental matrices that may have notable . . . [More] Household dust and laundry dryer lint are important indoor environmental matrices that may have notable health effects on humans due to chronic exposure. However, due to the sample complexity the studies conducted on these sample matrices until now were almost exclusively on the basis of target analysis. In this study, comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC × LC-ToF MS) was applied, to enable non-target analysis of household dust as well as laundry dryer lint for the first time. The higher peak capacity and good orthogonality of LC × LC, together with reduced ion suppression in the MS enabled rapid identification of environmental contaminants in these complex sample matrices. A number of environmental contaminants were tentatively identified based on their accurate masses and isotopic patterns, including plasticizers, flame retardants, pesticides, drug metabolites, etc. The identity of seven compounds: tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate, tris(2-chloropropyl) phosphate, n-benzyl butyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, tributyl phosphate, triethyl phosphate and N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide was confirmed using two-dimensional retention alignment and their concentrations in the samples were semi-quantitatively determined.