Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


BBP (Butyl benzyl phthalate)


1,611 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ionic Liquid-Based Surfactant Extraction Coupled with Magnetic Dispersive mu-Solid Phase Extraction for the Determination of Phthalate Esters in Packaging Milk Samples by HPLC

Authors: Wang, M; Yang, Fan; Liu, Le; Cheng, C; Yang, Y (2017) Food Analytical Methods 10:1745-1754. HERO ID: 3860098

[Less] A highly selective sample cleanup procedure combining ionic liquid-based surfactant extraction (ILSE) . . . [More] A highly selective sample cleanup procedure combining ionic liquid-based surfactant extraction (ILSE) and magnetic dispersive mu-solid phase extraction (MD-mu-SPE) was triumphantly developed for the synchronously extraction of four phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in packaging milk samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD). In this ionic liquid (IL)-based surfactant method, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C8MIM] [PF6]) was used as extraction solvent, anionic surfactant sodium linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) was used as auxiliary extraction solvent, and then sodium chloride (NaCl) was mixed to drive phase separation. The synthesized hydrophobic diatomaceous earth-supported Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (DSMNPs) were applied as an efficient adsorbent to retrieve the analyte-containing IL and LAS. Under the optimal extraction situations, good linearity of the approach was obtained in the concentration range from 10 to 1000 ng/mL for target analytes, and the preconcentration process was rapidly accomplished in 5 min. The limits of detection (LODs) based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N = 3) were ranged from 1.42 to 3.57 ng/mL with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) over the range of 1.84-3.56% (n = 5). The above-mentioned method was applied to the trace analysis of four PAEs including benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) in packaging milk samples, and recoveries were between 89.8 and 99.7%.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate Esters on Hands of Office Workers: Estimating the Influence of Touching Surfaces

Authors: Shi, Wei; Guo, J; Zhou, Y; Deng, D; Han, Z; Zhang, X; Yu, H; Giesy, JP (2017) Environmental Science & Technology Letters 4:1-5. HERO ID: 3520009

[Less] Phthalate esters (PAEs) are known to be transferred to hands by contact with surfaces, however, little . . . [More] Phthalate esters (PAEs) are known to be transferred to hands by contact with surfaces, however, little is known about the associations between masses on hand wipes and the frequency or duration of touching surfaces, especially surfaces in office environments. Relationships between PAEs on hands and multiple surfaces in offices were investigated. Wipes of hands, computers, and mobile phones as well as dust on furniture were collected from SS offices in China. Positive associations were found between masses of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DnBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) on wipes of hands and wipes of keyboards of computers. When workers used keyboards with polymer covers (dust covers), masses of these lipophilic PAEs on hands were significantly correlated with masses on keyboards rather than dust on furniture, For workers who used keyboards without polymer covers, masses on hands were related to masses in dust on furniture. Use of polymer covers containing PAEs and less washing of hands could increase the extent of exposure via hand to body of office workers, which could further result in as much as 10-fold greater hazard. Thus, more hand washing and less use of polymer products containing PAEs were recommended for office workers to reduce exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Alkylphenol and phthalate contamination of all sources of greywater from French households

Authors: Deshayes, S; Eudes, V; Bigourie, M; Droguet, C; Moilleron, R (2017) Science of the Total Environment 599-600:883-890. HERO ID: 3859072

[Less] Despite the importance of domestic wastewater, the contribution of greywater to both alkylphenol and . . . [More] Despite the importance of domestic wastewater, the contribution of greywater to both alkylphenol and phthalate pollution is not yet well documented. Likewise, the detailed emissions of phthalates and alkylphenols by greywater have been insufficiently studied, this work aims to fill this gap. The levels of four phthalates (DEP, DnBP, BBP and DEHP) and two alkylphenols (nonylphenol isomers and octylphenol) were quantified in six different types of greywater, namely that from washing machines, manual dishwashing, dishwashers, bathroom water (from showers and sinks) and floor cleaning. This paper presents the methodology used to characterize all sources of greywater and provides their levels of contamination. The highest concentrations were found in greywater produced by the washing machine and floor cleaning, while washing machine and shower greywater have the highest phthalate and alkylphenol loads because of the volume associated with these two sources of greywater.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of six priority controlled phthalate esters with long-term low-dose integrated exposure on male reproductive toxicity in rats

Authors: Gao, HT; Xu, R; Cao, WX; Qian, LL; Wang, M; Lu, L; Xu, Q; Yu, SQ (2017) Food and Chemical Toxicology 101:94-104. HERO ID: 3494369

[Less] Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PEs) surroundings. The purposes . . . [More] Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PEs) surroundings. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of long-term low-dose exposure to the mixture of six priority controlled phthalate esters (MIXPs): dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethyhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), on male rat reproductive system and further to explore the underlying mechanisms of the reproductive toxicity. The male rats were orally exposed to either sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as controls or MIXPs at three different low-doses by gavage for 15 weeks. Testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) in serum were analyzed, and pathological examinations were performed for toxicity evaluation. Steroidogenic proteins (StAR, P450scc, CYP17A1 and 17β-HSD), cell cycle and apoptosis-related proteins (p53, Chk1, Cdc2, CDK6, Bcl-2 and Bax) were measured for mechanisms exploration. MIXPs with long-term low-dose exposure could cause male reproductive toxicity to the rats, including the decrease of both serum and testicular testosterone, and the constructional damage of testis. These effects were related to down-regulated steroidogenic proteins, arresting cell cycle progression and promoting apoptosis in rat testicular cells. The results indicate that MIXPs with long-term low-dose exposure may pose male reproductive toxicity in human.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Comparative study on the degradation of dibutyl phthalate by two newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. V21b and Comamonas sp. 51F

Authors: Kumar, V; Sharma, N; Maitra, SS (2017) 15:1-10. HERO ID: 3859063

[Less] Dibutyl phthalate is (DBP) the top priority toxicant responsible for carcinogenicity, teratogenicity . . . [More] Dibutyl phthalate is (DBP) the top priority toxicant responsible for carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and endocrine disruption. This study demonstrates the DBP degradation capability of the two newly isolated bacteria from municipal solid waste leachate samples. The isolated bacteria were designated as Pseudomonas sp. V21b and Comamonas sp. 51F after scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Gram-staining, antibiotic sensitivity tests, biochemical characterization, 16S-rRNA gene identification and phylogenetic studies. They were able to grow on DBP, benzyl butyl phthalate, monobutyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate, dioctyl phthalate, and protocatechuate. It was observed that Pseudomonas sp. V21b was more efficient in DBP degradation when compared with Comamonas sp. 51F. It degraded 57% and 76% of the initial DBP in minimal salt medium and in DBP contaminated samples respectively. Kinetics for the effects of DBP concentration on Pseudomonas sp. V21b and Comamonas sp. 51F growth was also evaluated. Stoichiometry for DBP degradation and biomass formation were compared for both the isolates. Two major metabolites diethyl phthalate and monobutyl phthalates were identified using GC-MS in the extracts. Key genes were amplified from the genomes of Pseudomonas sp. V21b and Comamonas sp. 51F. DBP degradation pathway was also proposed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A review of human biomonitoring data used in regulatory risk assessment under Canada's Chemicals Management Program

Authors: Zidek, A; Macey, K; Mackinnon, L; Patel, M; Poddalgoda, D; Zhang, Y (2017) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220:167-178. [Review] HERO ID: 3469257

[Less] As a part of the Chemicals Management Plan launched in 2006, the Government of Canada is assessing and . . . [More] As a part of the Chemicals Management Plan launched in 2006, the Government of Canada is assessing and managing, where appropriate, the potential health and ecological risks associated with approximately 4300 substances under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (1999). Since that time, nearly 3000 substances have been assessed, with human biomonitoring (HBM) data playing an increasingly important role for some substances. Case studies are presented, including both inorganic and organic substances (i.e., selenium, triclosan, phthalates), which highlight the impact and overall role HBM has had in regulatory decision making in Canada for these three substances as well as criteria used in the application of HBM data in human health risk assessment. An overview of its limitations in terms of how and when HBM data can be applied, when assessing human health in a regulatory setting, is discussed as well as the role HBM data can play in priority setting.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalates and thyroid function in preschool age children: Sex specific associations

Authors: Morgenstern, R; Whyatt, RM; Insel, BJ; Calafat, AM; Liu, X; Rauh, VA; Herbstman, J; Bradwin, G; Factor-Litvak, P (2017) Environment International 106:11-18. HERO ID: 3859039

[Less] BACKGROUND: Research relating either prenatal or concurrent measures of phthalate exposure . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Research relating either prenatal or concurrent measures of phthalate exposure to thyroid function in preschool children is inconclusive.

METHODS: In a study of inner-city mothers and their children, metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate, di-isobutyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diethyl phthalate were measured in a spot urine sample collected from women in late pregnancy and from their children at age 3years. We measured children's serum free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) at age 3. Linear regression models were used to investigate the associations between phthalate metabolites, measured in maternal urine during late pregnancy and measured in child urine at age 3 and thyroid function measured at age 3.

RESULTS: Mean concentrations (ranges) were 1.42ng/dL (1.02-2.24) for FT4, and 2.62uIU/mL (0.61-11.67) for TSH. In the children at age 3, among girls, FT4 decreased with increasing loge mono-n-butyl phthalate [estimated b=-0.06; 95% CI: (-0.09, -0.02)], loge mono-isobutyl phthalate [b=-0.05; 95% CI: (-0.09, -0.01)], loge monoethyl phthalate [b=-0.04; 95% CI: (-0.07, -0.01)], and loge mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate [b=-0.04; 95% CI: (-0.07, -0.003)] and loge mono(2-ethyl-5-oxy-hexyl) phthalate [b=-0.04; 95% CI: (-0.07, -0.004)]. In contrast, among boys, we observed no associations between FT4 and child phthalate metabolites at age 3. On the other hand, in late gestation, FT4 increased with increasing loge mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [estimated b=0.04; 95% CI: (0.02, 0.06)] and no sex difference was observed. We found no associations between phthalate biomarkers measured in either the child or prenatal samples and TSH at age 3.

CONCLUSIONS: The data show inverse and sex specific associations between specific phthalate metabolites measured in children at age 3 and thyroid function in preschool children. These results may provide evidence for the hypothesis that reductions in thyroid hormones mediate associations between early life phthalate exposure and child cognitive outcomes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Safety evaluation of dermal exposure to phthalates: Metabolism-dependent percutaneous absorption

Authors: Sugino, M; Hatanaka, T; Todo, H; Mashimo, Y; Suzuki, T; Kobayashi, M; Hosoya, O; Jinno, H; Juni, K; Sugibayashi, K (2017) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 328:10-17. HERO ID: 3859042

[Less] Phthalates, known as reproductive toxicants and endocrine disruptors, are widely used as plasticizers . . . [More] Phthalates, known as reproductive toxicants and endocrine disruptors, are widely used as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride products. The present study was conducted for risk identification of dermal exposure to phthalates. When dibutyl phthalate was applied to the skin of hairless rats and humans, only monobutyl phthalate appeared through the skin, and the permeability of the skin was higher than that after the application of the monoester directly. The inhibition of skin esterases made the skin impermeable to the metabolite following dermal exposure to dibutyl ester, whereas removal of the stratum corneum from the skin did not change the skin permeation behavior. Similar phenomena were observed for benzyl butyl phthalate. The skin permeability of monobenzyl phthalate was higher than that of monobutyl phthalate in humans, although the reverse was observed in rats. Species difference in skin permeation profile corresponded to the esterase activity of the skin homogenate. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, which was not metabolized by esterases in the skin, was not transported across the skin. These results suggest that highly lipophilic phthalates may be transported easily across the stratum corneum lipids. The water-rich viable layer may become permeable to these phthalates by their metabolism into monoesters, which are relatively hydrophilic. Skin metabolism is essential to the percutaneous absorption of phthalates. Because esterase activity has large inter-individual differences, further study will be needed for individual risk identification of dermal exposure to phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Non-target analysis of household dust and laundry dryer lint using comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry

Authors: Ouyang, X; Weiss, JM; de Boer, J; Lamoree, MH; Leonards, PE (2017) Chemosphere 166:431-437. HERO ID: 3455857

[Less] Household dust and laundry dryer lint are important indoor environmental matrices that may have notable . . . [More] Household dust and laundry dryer lint are important indoor environmental matrices that may have notable health effects on humans due to chronic exposure. However, due to the sample complexity the studies conducted on these sample matrices until now were almost exclusively on the basis of target analysis. In this study, comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC × LC-ToF MS) was applied, to enable non-target analysis of household dust as well as laundry dryer lint for the first time. The higher peak capacity and good orthogonality of LC × LC, together with reduced ion suppression in the MS enabled rapid identification of environmental contaminants in these complex sample matrices. A number of environmental contaminants were tentatively identified based on their accurate masses and isotopic patterns, including plasticizers, flame retardants, pesticides, drug metabolites, etc. The identity of seven compounds: tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate, tris(2-chloropropyl) phosphate, n-benzyl butyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, tributyl phosphate, triethyl phosphate and N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide was confirmed using two-dimensional retention alignment and their concentrations in the samples were semi-quantitatively determined.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Predicting the gas-phase concentration of semi-volatile organic compounds from airborne particles: Application to a French nationwide survey

Authors: Wei, W; Mandin, C; Blanchard, O; Mercier, F; Pelletier, M; Le Bot, B; Glorennec, P; Ramalho, O (2017) Science of the Total Environment 576:319-325. HERO ID: 3454652

[Less] Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) partition indoors between the gas phase, airborne particles, . . . [More] Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) partition indoors between the gas phase, airborne particles, settled dust, and other surfaces. Unknown concentrations of SVOCs in the gas phase (Cg) can be predicted from their measured concentrations in airborne particles. In previous studies, the prediction of Cg depended largely on choosing a specific equation for the calculation of the particle/gas partition coefficient. Moreover, the prediction of Cg is frequently performed at a reference temperature rather than the real indoor temperature. In this paper, a probabilistic approach based on Monte Carlo simulation was developed to predict the distribution of SVOCs' Cg from their concentrations in airborne particles at the target indoor temperature. Moreover, the distribution of the particle/gas partition coefficient of each SVOC at the target temperature was used. The approach was validated using two measured datasets in the literature: the predicted Cg from concentrations measured in airborne particles and the measured Cg were generally of the same order of magnitude. The distributions of the Cg of 66 SVOCs in the French housing stock were then predicted. The SVOCs with the highest median Cg, ranging from 1ng/m(3) to >100ng/m(3), included 8 phthalates (DEP, DiBP, DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMP, DiNP, and DMEP), 4 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene), 2 alkylphenols (4-tert-butylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol), 2 synthetic musks (galaxolide and tonalide), tributyl phosphate, and heptachlor. The nationwide, representative, predicted Cg values of SVOCs are frequently of the same order of magnitude in Europe and North America, whereas these Cg values in Chinese and Indian dwellings and the Cg of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in U.S. dwellings are generally higher.