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RDX (121-82-4)

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1,614 References Were Found:

Technical Report
Technical Report

Toxicity and Adverse Effects of RDX: an Annotated Bibliography

Author: Miller, KC (1973) (ORNL-TIRC-73-14). Oak Ridge, TN: Toxicology Information Response Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. HERO ID: 1508475


Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Toxic effects following ingestion of C-4 plastic explosive

Authors: Knepshield, JH; Stone, WJ (1972) In W Keup (Ed.), Drug abuse: Current concepts and research (pp. 296-300). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. HERO ID: 628773


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Toxic encephalopathy with seizures secondary to ingestion of composition C-4. A clinical and electroencephalographic study

Authors: Ketel, WB; Hughes, JR (1972) Neurology 22:871-876. HERO ID: 630096

[Less] Composition C-4 is a soft putty-like "plastic" explosive that is widely used throughout the Republic . . . [More] Composition C-4 is a soft putty-like "plastic" explosive that is widely used throughout the Republic of South Vietnam by the U.S. Armed Forces. This explosive is found in Claymore land mines and in standard demolition kits. A blasting cap is required to accomplish detonation. Composition C-4 burns easily and gives off intense heat without exploding and, therefore, is frequently used by soliders in the field or in base camps to heat food. It is often carelessly used for this purpose, resulting in accidental ingestion or prolonged exposure to its fumes while it burns.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Analysis of explosives in sea water

Authors: Hoffsommer, JC; Rosen, JM (1972) Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 7:177-181. HERO ID: 1466569

[Less] HEEP COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. A method is described which is used to measure TNT (trinitrotoluene) concentrations . . . [More] HEEP COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. A method is described which is used to measure TNT (trinitrotoluene) concentrations in the range 30 x 10--6 g/ml to 6.xx 10--11 g/ml in selected stream waters. The analysis of the explosives TNT RDX (cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine) and teryl in sea water, present in the parts per trillion range, using vapor phase chromatography and the nickel-63 electron capture detector method, is described. The limits of detection for TNT, RDX, and tetryl by this method are in the order of 2, 5 and 20 parts per trillion, respectively.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Modification of seizure activity by electrical stimulation. II. Motor seizure

Author: Racine, RJ (1972) Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 32:281-294. HERO ID: 3045345

[Less] Daily electrical stimulations of the amygdala and hippocampus at intensities sufficient to evoke after-discharges . . . [More] Daily electrical stimulations of the amygdala and hippocampus at intensities sufficient to evoke after-discharges (ADs) resulted in the development of motor seizures, which could not initially be evoked by these stimulations. The triggering of ADs was critical for this development, as well as for the development of permanent changes in the characteristics of the AD. The wave form of the AD “spikes” became more complex. The frequency of these spikes and the duration of AD increased. The amplitude of the AD spikes increased in the structure stimulated as well as in secondary structures to which the AD was “projected”. This increase in amplitude of “projected” spikes often correlated with the appearance of motor seizures. Other electrographic developments are discussed including the appearance of spontaneous “inter-ictal” spiking in the amygdala. It was found that the development of motor seizures by stimulation of the amygdala resulted in an increased ability of the contralateral amygdala, and the septal area, but not of the hippocampus, to drive motor seizures when stimulated (“transfer”). Motor seizure development in the hippocampus transferred to the contralateral hippocampus. These developments were shown, by means of control subjects, with lesions in the primary focus to involve changes outside the primary focus.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The thermal decomposition of RDX at temperatures below the melting point. IV. Catalysis of the decomposition by formaldehyde

Author: Batten, J (1971) Australian Journal of Chemistry 24:2025. HERO ID: 1485426

[Less] The effect of formaldehyde (50000) on the decomposition of RDX (121824) at temperatures below the melting . . . [More] The effect of formaldehyde (50000) on the decomposition of RDX (121824) at temperatures below the melting point was investigated in-vitro. The hypothesis was suggested that, if catalysis by formaldehyde exists, then the activation energy of the decomposition in the presence of added formaldehyde should be less than that obtained in the presence of nitrogen (7727379). In each experiment, the weight of dry paraformaldehyde (30525894) was adjusted so that the pressure of formaldehyde at the reaction temperature was approximately constant at about 130 millimeters mercury. The temperature range studied was 170 to 197 degrees-C. At constant temperature, the sample, in the presence of formaldehyde, underwent the liquefaction process at a lower percentage of decomposition than was observed for the decomposition in the presence of nitrogen. A significant increase was observed in the positive catalytic effect of the formaldehyde, associated with decreasing reaction temperature. The kinetics of the decomposition were not altered by formaldehyde. The activation energy with the sample spread in the presence of added formaldehyde was about 44 kilocalories per mole at all stages of the decomposition to the end of the maximum rate. There was a marked increase in the accelerating effect of formaldehyde as the reaction temperatures decreased. The author concludes that previous values of activation energy are less than the energy of the weakest bond in RDX because of catalysis of the reaction by the decomposition product formaldehyde.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Transverse wave instability in a solid explosive

Author: Dunne, BB (1970) Science 167:1124-1126. HERO ID: 1466348

[Less] By the use of a metal indentation techinque, microscopic transverse or side-running shock waves can . . . [More] By the use of a metal indentation techinque, microscopic transverse or side-running shock waves can be detected in composition C-4, an explosive consisting largely of cyclonite (RDX) with organic plasticizers. The minimum wave spacing observed is approximately 0.05 millimeters. with a lateral velocity of about 6.5 millimeters per microsecond. The instability was demnostrated in cylindrically divergent detonation waves.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Composition C-4 induced seizures: A report of five cases

Authors: Hollander, AI; Colbach, EM (1969) Military Medicine 134:1529-1530. HERO ID: 630092

[Less] Composition C-4 is a putty-like explosive material that is widely used in Vietnam by US forces. It is . . . [More] Composition C-4 is a putty-like explosive material that is widely used in Vietnam by US forces. It is found in Claymore mines and in standard demolition kits. Detonation is usually accomplished with a blasting cap. The main chemical component of Composition C-4 is RDX, which has been used as an explosive since World War I. The chemical structure of RDX is cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, which is similar to TNT. Although insoluble in water, in 80 per cent ethanol RDX is broken down to its constitutent parts of methylamine, nitrous acid, ammonia, and formaldehyde. Composition C-4 also contains small amounts of polyisobutylene, motor oil and sebacate.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Toxic effects following ingestion of C-4 plastic explosive

Authors: Stone, WJ; Paletta, TL; Heiman, EM; Bruce, JI; Knepshield, JH (1969) Archives of Internal Medicine 124:726-730. HERO ID: 630132

[Less] Composition C-4 is the most common plastic explosive employed by the military in Vietnam. Ingestion . . . [More] Composition C-4 is the most common plastic explosive employed by the military in Vietnam. Ingestion is followed in a few hours by multiple generalized seizures, hematuria, severe nausea and vomiting, muscle twitching, and mentation changes. Six patients requiring hospitalization were treated by gastric lavage, maintenance of airway, control of seizures, monitoring of urine volume, and maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance. No fatalities were observed.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Ingestion of an explosive material, composition C-4: A report of two cases

Author: Merrill, SL (1968) U.S. Army Vietnam Medical Bulletin 8:5-11. HERO ID: 628802

[Less] The accidental or intentional ingestion of toxic substances frequently results in life threatening complications . . . [More] The accidental or intentional ingestion of toxic substances frequently results in life threatening complications of various types. Frequently, the nature of the offending substance is unknown to the physician who must care for the critically ill or potentially critically ill patient. The following case reports describe two patients who, while intoxicated with ethanol, ingested unknown quantities of Composition C-4, a plastic-type explosive. This substance is widely available in Vietnam. Since there have been no previous reports in the literature of ingestion of this substance, the two cases are reported in some detail. Comments are made about the composition and chemical structure of C-4 together with a brief discussion of known toxic effects of some of its breakdown products.