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RDX (121-82-4)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Trace explosives sensor testbed (TESTbed)

Authors: Collins, GE; Malito, MP; Tamanaha, CR; Hammond, MH; Giordano, BC; Lubrano, AL; Field, CR; Rogers, DA; Jeffries, RA; Colton, RJ; Rose-Pehrsson, SL (2017) Review of Scientific Instruments 88:034104. HERO ID: 3982780

[Less] A novel vapor delivery testbed, referred to as the Trace Explosives Sensor Testbed, or TESTbed, is demonstrated . . . [More] A novel vapor delivery testbed, referred to as the Trace Explosives Sensor Testbed, or TESTbed, is demonstrated that is amenable to both high- and low-volatility explosives vapors including nitromethane, nitroglycerine, ethylene glycol dinitrate, triacetone triperoxide, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine. The TESTbed incorporates a six-port dual-line manifold system allowing for rapid actuation between a dedicated clean air source and a trace explosives vapor source. Explosives and explosives-related vapors can be sourced through a number of means including gas cylinders, permeation tube ovens, dynamic headspace chambers, and a Pneumatically Modulated Liquid Delivery System coupled to a perfluoroalkoxy total-consumption microflow nebulizer. Key features of the TESTbed include continuous and pulseless control of trace vapor concentrations with wide dynamic range of concentration generation, six sampling ports with reproducible vapor profile outputs, limited low-volatility explosives adsorption to the manifold surface, temperature and humidity control of the vapor stream, and a graphical user interface for system operation and testing protocol implementation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Standoff Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of Explosives

Authors: Marcus, LS; Holthoff, EL; Pellegrino, PM (2017) Applied Spectroscopy 71:833-838. HERO ID: 3982791

[Less] Detection and identification of unknown and possibly hazardous materials is a vital area of research . . . [More] Detection and identification of unknown and possibly hazardous materials is a vital area of research to which infrared (IR) spectroscopy is ideally suited. Infrared absorption spectra can be measured with many sensing paradigms of which photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is a sensitive and flexible variant. The flexibility of PAS allows for the construction of narrowly tailored spectroscopic sensors that are designed for specific tasks. We discuss the evaluation of an interferometric PAS sensor by the measurement of common explosive hazards from a standoff distance of 1 m. Reproduction of IR absorption spectra for 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) demonstrate the capabilities of the interferometric sensor for standoff explosives detection.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Explosives on a Hand Grenade Range

Authors: Borden, RC; Won, J; Yuncu, B (2017) Journal of Environmental Quality 46:961-967. HERO ID: 4121709

[Less] 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (Royal Demolition Explosive, . . . [More] 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (Royal Demolition Explosive, or RDX) deposited on hand grenade training ranges can leach through the soil and impact shallow groundwater. A 27-mo field monitoring project was conducted to evaluate the transport and attenuation of high explosives in variably saturated soils at an active grenade range located at Fort Bragg, NC. Two approaches were evaluated: (i) natural attenuation in grenade Bay C; and (ii) enhanced attenuation in Grenade Bay T. There was no evidence of TNT accumulation or leaching in surface soils or pore water in either bay, consistent with parallel laboratory studies showing aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of TNT. In the untreated Bay C, the low saturated hydraulic conductivity () combined with high rainfall and warm summer temperatures resulted in reducing conditions (low oxidation-reduction potential), an increase in dissolved Mn, and a rapid decline in nitrate and RDX. In Bay T, the somewhat greater and lower soil organic C level resulted in more oxidizing conditions with greater RDX leaching. A single-spray application of glycerin and lignosulfonate to the soil surface in Bay T was effective in generating reducing conditions and stimulating RDX biodegradation for ∼1 yr.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Indirect Determination of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN) with a gold nanoparticles-based colorimetric sensor

Authors: Üzer, A; Yalçın, U; Can, Z; Erçağ, E; Apak, R (2017) Talanta 175:243-249. HERO ID: 4122216

[Less] Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is the nitrate ester of pentaerythritol, used as an energetic and . . . [More] Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is the nitrate ester of pentaerythritol, used as an energetic and filling material for military and civilian purposes and rarely for terrorist actions. As there is no reliable nano-colorimetric method for PETN assay, we developed an indirect method based on the determination of nitrite, obtained by reduction of nitrate derived from the alkaline hydrolysis of PETN with H2O2. We colorimetrically determined the final product, nitrite, by both conventional Griess reaction and a recently developed gold nanoparticle-4-aminothiophenol-N-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine (AuNP-4-ATP+NED) method. Nitramines (RDX and HMX), if present, could be degraded by alkaline hydrolysis, without affecting PETN. The analytical performance characteristics of the developed assays as molar absorptivity (ε), limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were: ɛ=1.06×10(5) L mol(-1) cm(-1), LOD=0.03mgL(-1) and LOQ=0.11mgL(-1) for indirect Griess method; ɛ=1.9×10(4)Lmol(-1) cm(-1); LOD=0.12mgL(-1) and LOQ=0.4mgL(-1) for AuNP-4-ATP+NED method. Both methods were applied to a 1:1 (w/w) mixture of PETN and TNT (corresponding to the composition of military explosive 'Pentolite'). In order to eliminate the interference from TNT, the Meisenheimer anion of TNT formed in alkaline medium was retained on a strongly basic anion exchange resin column. As PETN had a very low solubility in water, common soil ions could be eliminated by prewashing the sample with water, or in acetone-water mixtures, Ca(2+), K(+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and NO3(-) could be tolerated at equal (1:1) mass ratios. Soil nitrates and nitrites, at a mass ratio of 50:1, could be separated from PETN with the aid of their insolubilities in acetone and of their retention affinity toward a strongly basic anion-exchange resin. The developed method was statistically validated against a reference GC-MS method.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A Simple and Inexpensive Electrochemical Assay for the Identification of Nitrogen Containing Explosives in the Field

Authors: Erickson, JS; Shriver-Lake, LC; Zabetakis, D; Stenger, DA; Trammell, SA (2017) Sensors 17. HERO ID: 4122472

[Less] We report a simple and inexpensive electrochemical assay using a custom built hand-held potentiostat . . . [More] We report a simple and inexpensive electrochemical assay using a custom built hand-held potentiostat for the identification of explosives. The assay is based on a wipe test and is specifically designed for use in the field. The prototype instrument designed to run the assay is capable of performing time-resolved electrochemical measurements including cyclic square wave voltammetry using an embedded microcontroller with parts costing roughly $250 USD. We generated an example library of cyclic square wave voltammograms of 12 compounds including 10 nitroaromatics, a nitramine (RDX), and a nitrate ester (nitroglycine), and designed a simple discrimination algorithm based on this library data for identification.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Laboratory Column Evaluation of High Explosives Attenuation in Grenade Range Soils

Authors: Won, J; Borden, RC (2017) Journal of Environmental Quality 46:968-974. HERO ID: 4123135

[Less] High explosives (HEs) deposited on military ranges can leach through the soil and contaminate groundwater. . . . [More] High explosives (HEs) deposited on military ranges can leach through the soil and contaminate groundwater. We examined the transport and fate of HEs in laboratory columns containing soils from two hand grenade bays (Bays C and T) and the impact of organic amendments on biodegradation. Soil characteristics were similar; however, Bay C had somewhat higher clay and organic C. Experimental treatments included addition of crude glycerin and lignosulfonate, and parallel control columns. Experimental results showed extensive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) degradation with minimal leaching, consistent with prior batch microcosm results. Amendment addition enhanced TNT degradation in both Bays C and T compared with controls. Although hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (Royal Demolition Explosive, or RDX) did not biodegrade in prior aerobic batch microcosms, 64 to 77% of RDX biodegraded in untreated soil columns with O present in the mobile soil gas. The RDX biodegradation was likely associated with short-term anoxic conditions or anoxic micro-niches. In nearly saturated Bay C columns, RDX removal increased to >92%. Amendment addition to unsaturated Bay T columns increased RDX removal to >86%. In one column, the soil remained anoxic (O < 5% by volume) for about a year after amendment addition, significantly reducing RDX leaching. Nitroso degradation products were produced equivalent to 9 to 39% of the RDX degraded, with most retained in the soil (9-37%) and 0 to 3% in the effluent. These results demonstrate that RDX biodegradation can occur in soils with measurable O, and that amendment addition can reduce RDX leaching by stimulating anaerobic biodegradation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Synthesis and theoretical studies on nitrogen-rich salts of bis[4-nitraminofurazanyl-3-azoxy]azofurazan (ADNAAF)

Authors: Zheng, C; Chu, Y; Xu, L; Lei, W; Wang, F; Xia, M (2017) Journal of Molecular Modeling 23:12. HERO ID: 4123776

[Less] Multi-furazan compounds bis[4-nitramino- furazanyl-3-azoxy]azofurazan (ADNAAF) and its derivatives were . . . [More] Multi-furazan compounds bis[4-nitramino- furazanyl-3-azoxy]azofurazan (ADNAAF) and its derivatives were first synthesized by our research group, and their structures were characterized by IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR spectrums, and element analysis. ADNAAF was synthesized by nitration reaction of bis[4-aminofurazanyl-3-azoxy]azofurazan (ADAAF), and then reacted with ammonium hydroxide, hydrazine hydrate, and guanidine nitrate to obtain three salts marked as salt 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The thermal stabilities of the three salts were supported by the results of DSC analysis, which shows the decomposition temperatures are all above 190 °C. Their densities, enthalpies of formation, and detonation properties were studied by density functional theory (DFT) method. Salt 1 has the best detonation pressure (P), 37.42 GPa, and detonation velocity (D), 8.88 km/s, while salt 2 has the best nitrogen content and heat of detonation (Q), 1.27 kcal mol(-1). The detonation properties of salt 1 is similar to that of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazineane (RDX). It means that the ammonium cation can provide the better D and P than the cation of hydrazine and guanidine. The three cations offer the enthalpies of formations in the order of hydrazinium > guanidinium > ammonium. Graphical Abstract Nitrogen-rich salts of bis[4-nitraminofurazanyl-3-azoxy]azofurazan(ADNAAF).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biotransformation of RDX and HMX by Anaerobic Granular Sludge with Enriched Sulfate and Nitrate

Authors: An, C; Shi, Y; He, Y; Huang, G; Liu, Y; Yang, S (2017) Water Environment Research 89:472-479. HERO ID: 4123884

[Less]   RDX and HMX are widely used energetic materials and they are recognized as environmental contaminants . . . [More]   RDX and HMX are widely used energetic materials and they are recognized as environmental contaminants at numerous locations. The present study investigated the biotransformation of RDX and HMX by anaerobic granular sludge under sulfate- and nitrate-enriched conditions. The results showed that RDX and HMX could be transformed by anaerobic granular sludge when nitrate was present. However, the biotransformation of RDX and HMX was negatively influenced, especially with high nitrate concentrations. Sulfate-enriched conditions were more favorable for the removal of ammunition compounds by anaerobic granular sludge than nitrate-enriched conditions. The removal of RDX and HMX under both nitrate- and sulfate-enriched conditions was facilitated by the use of glucose as additional substrate. This knowledge may help identify factors required for rapid removal of RDX and HMX in high-rate bioreactors. These results can also be applied to devise an appropriate and practical biological treatment strategy for explosive contaminated wastewater.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Genome Shuffling of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia OK-5 for Improving the Degradation of Explosive RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)

Authors: Lee, BU; Choi, MS; Kim, DM; Oh, KH (2017) Current Microbiology 74:268-276. HERO ID: 4125017

[Less] A genome-shuffled Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain showing the enhanced ability of RDX degradation . . . [More] A genome-shuffled Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain showing the enhanced ability of RDX degradation was constructed, and its characteristics were compared with those of the wild-type one. The shuffled strain was able to completely degrade 25, 50, and 75 µM RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) within 10, 30, and 50 days, respectively. However, it took 30 and 70 days for the wild-type strain to degrade 25 and 50 µM RDX, respectively, and at day 70, the strain degraded only 67% of 75 µM RDX. The shuffled strain reached its maximum growth at 50-60 days and exhibited approximately 1.5-fold increased cell numbers. SEM revealed more severe damage on the surface of the wild-type cells compared to the genome-shuffled cells. The mRNA levels of dnaK and groEL encoding the heat shock proteins were increased by 2.5-fold and fourfold, and DnaK and GroEL proteins were more highly produced in the shuffled cells. In addition, the mRNA levels of pnrB encoding a TNT nitroreductase, and algA involved in exopolymer biosynthesis, were slightly higher in the shuffled strain, but not as high as those of dnaK and groEL. These results indicate that the genome shuffling rendered the shuffled cells more resistant to RDX stress. A proteomic comparison revealed changes in the production levels of certain proteins including nitrate and cell protection, particularly those involved in metabolism. These proteomic analyses provide clues for understanding the improved RDX degradation by the genome-shuffled S. maltophilia strain.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Iron-Dependent Enzyme Catalyzes the Initial Step in Biodegradation of N-Nitroglycine by Variovorax sp. Strain JS1663

Authors: Mahan, KM; Zheng, H; Fida, TT; Parry, RJ; Graham, DE; Spain, JC (2017) Applied and Environmental Microbiology 83. HERO ID: 4132425

[Less] Nitramines are key constituents of most of the explosives currently in use and consequently contaminate . . . [More] Nitramines are key constituents of most of the explosives currently in use and consequently contaminate soil and groundwater at many military facilities around the world. Toxicity from nitramine contamination poses a health risk to plants and animals. Thus, understanding how nitramines are biodegraded is critical to environmental remediation. The biodegradation of synthetic nitramine compounds such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) has been studied for decades, but little is known about the catabolism of naturally produced nitramine compounds. In this study, we report the isolation of a soil bacterium, Variovorax sp. strain JS1663, that degrades N-nitroglycine (NNG), a naturally produced nitramine, and the key enzyme involved in its catabolism. Variovorax sp. JS1663 is a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming motile bacterium isolated from activated sludge based on its ability to use NNG as a sole growth substrate under aerobic conditions. A single gene (nnlA) encodes an iron-dependent enzyme that releases nitrite from NNG through a proposed β-elimination reaction. Bioinformatics analysis of the amino acid sequence of NNG lyase identified a PAS (Per-Arnt-Sim) domain. PAS domains can be associated with heme cofactors and function as signal sensors in signaling proteins. This is the first instance of a PAS domain present in a denitration enzyme. The NNG biodegradation pathway should provide the basis for the identification of other enzymes that cleave the N-N bond and facilitate the development of enzymes to cleave similar bonds in RDX, nitroguanidine, and other nitramine explosives.IMPORTANCE The production of antibiotics and other allelopathic chemicals is a major aspect of chemical ecology. The biodegradation of such chemicals can play an important ecological role in mitigating or eliminating the effects of such compounds. N-Nitroglycine (NNG) is produced by the Gram-positive filamentous soil bacterium Streptomyces noursei This study reports the isolation of a Gram-negative soil bacterium, Variovorax sp. strain JS1663, that is able to use NNG as a sole growth substrate. The proposed degradation pathway occurs via a β-elimination reaction that releases nitrite from NNG. The novel NNG lyase requires iron(II) for activity. The identification of a novel enzyme and catabolic pathway provides evidence of a substantial and underappreciated flux of the antibiotic in natural ecosystems. Understanding the NNG biodegradation pathway will help identify other enzymes that cleave the N-N bond and facilitate the development of enzymes to cleave similar bonds in synthetic nitramine explosives.