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Chromium VI

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16,635 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterizing toxic Cr(VI) contamination in chromite mine overburden dump and its bacterial remediation

Authors: Dhal, B; Das, NN; Thatoi, HN; Pandey, BD (In Press) Journal of Hazardous Materials. HERO ID: 1786195

[Less] Cr(VI) generated due to natural oxidation of chromite mineral present in chromite mine overburden (COB) . . . [More] Cr(VI) generated due to natural oxidation of chromite mineral present in chromite mine overburden (COB) dumps of Sukinda, India, has been characterized by different physico-chemical methods. The Cr(VI) was found to be associated with goethite matrix at a contamination level of 500mgCr(VI)kg(-1) of COB. Bacillus sp. isolated from the overburden sample exhibiting high tolerance to the hexavalent chromium, was used for the remediation of Cr(VI) in the overburden. The process was optimized while varying the parameters such as pH (2-9), pulp density (10-60%) and temperature (25-40°C). Optimal reduction of more than 98% of Cr(VI) in the COB sample was achieved in 16h at pH~7.0 and 60% pulp density with the Bacillus sp. (4.05×10(7)cellsmL(-1)) in absence of media. The exponential rate equation yielded rate constant value of 2.14×10(-1)h(-1) at 60% pulp density. The mode of bio-reduction of Cr(VI) in the overburden sample was established by FT-IR, XRD, EPMA and SEM-EDS studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

On the simultaneous adsorption of a reactive dye and hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions onto grafted chitosan

Authors: Kyzas, GZ; Lazaridis, NK; Kostoglou, M (In Press) Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. HERO ID: 1786221

[Less] In the present work, the simultaneous adsorption of Remazol Red 3BS (reactive dye) and Cr(VI) onto chitosan . . . [More] In the present work, the simultaneous adsorption of Remazol Red 3BS (reactive dye) and Cr(VI) onto chitosan powder grafted with poly(ethylene imine) and cross-linked with epichlorohydrin is experimentally studied. Such a combination of a dye molecule and a heavy metal can be found in real/practical conditions of environmental pollutants' removal, so their mutual interaction on the adsorption efficiencies is very important. The experimental data revealed a competitive type of interaction between the dye molecule and heavy metal ion. An attempt is made to quantitatively describe the data through appropriate isotherms and kinetic equations. The data demonstrated that the common thermodynamic equilibrium is not obtained for the present problem and the final composition of the adsorbed phase depends also on the kinetics. A new scenario of irreversible kinetic-based equilibrium was introduced and examined in detail. None of the scenarios considered here is fully able to cover the whole data, so semi-empirical equations are introduced for their description. It is shown that further development of phenomenological models requires more complicated experimental protocols than simple simultaneous adsorption of the species.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Toxicity testing with luminescent bacteria - Characterization of an automated method for the combined assessment of acute and chronic effects

Authors: Menz, J; Schneider, M; Kümmerer, K (In Press) Chemosphere. HERO ID: 1786231

[Less] The luminescent bacteria test according to EN ISO 11348 is frequently applied in (eco) toxicity testing . . . [More] The luminescent bacteria test according to EN ISO 11348 is frequently applied in (eco) toxicity testing and is applicable for a huge variety of environmental and industrial samples. A big disadvantage of this method is the very short exposure time, which is expressed in a low sensitivity in regard to substances with a delayed effect. Chronic effects, i.e. interference with cell growth, cannot be assessed with this conventional standard method. The goal of this research was to develop an automated testing system for long term toxicity towards the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri by implementing microtitration-based instrumentation. The optimized method, hereinafter referred to as "kinetic luminescent bacteria test", can be described as a miniaturized combination of the conventional short-term luminescence inhibition test according to EN ISO 11348 and the Photobacterium phosphoreum growth inhibition test (DIN 38412-37). The validation procedure included the evaluation of six reference compounds (3,4-Dichloroaniline, 3,5-Dichlorophenol, Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin sulfate, Potassium dichromate, Zinc sulfate heptahydrate) and three different endpoints that are acute luminescence inhibition (acute LI) after 30min, chronic luminescence inhibition (chronic LI) after 24h and growth inhibition (GI) after 14h. The optimized method allows the assessment of acute and chronic effects within one test, by what a misinterpretation of the toxicity of substances with delayed bacterial toxicity can be prevented, without abandoning most of the advantages of the conventional short-term test. Therefore, the kinetic luminescent bacteria test is exceptional as an initial screening test for environmental samples or substances with unknown (eco) toxicological characteristics.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Bioadsorption and bioaccumulation of chromium trivalent in Cr(III)-tolerant microalgae: A mechanisms for chromium resistance

Authors: Pereira, M; Bartolomé, MC; Sánchez-Fortún, S (In Press) Chemosphere. HERO ID: 1786243

[Less] Anthropogenic activity constantly releases heavy metals into the environment. The heavy metal chromium . . . [More] Anthropogenic activity constantly releases heavy metals into the environment. The heavy metal chromium has a wide industrial use and exists in two stable oxidation states: trivalent and hexavalent. While hexavalent chromium uptake in plant cells has been reported that an active process by carrying essential anions, the cation Cr(III) appears to be taken up inactively. Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides (Dc1M), an unicellular green alga is a well-studied cell biological model organism. The present study was carried out to investigate the toxic effect of chromium exposures on wild-type Cr(III)-sensitive (Dc1M(wt)) and Cr(III)-tolerant (Dc1M(Cr(III)R30)) strains of these green algae, and to determine the potential mechanism of chromium resistance. Using cell growth as endpoint to determine Cr(III)-sensitivity, the IC50(72) values obtained show significant differences of sensitivity between wild type and Cr(III)-tolerant cells. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed significant morphological differences between both strains, such as decrease in cell size or reducing the coefficient of form; and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed ultrastructural changes such as increased vacuolization and cell wall thickening in the Cr(III)-tolerant strain with respect to the wild-type strain. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/XEDS) revealed that Cr(III)-tolerant D. chlorelloides cells are able to accumulate considerable amounts of chromium distributed in cell wall (bioadsorption) as well as in cytoplasm, vacuoles, and chloroplast (bio-accumulation). Morphological changes of Cr(III)-tolerant D. chlorelloides cells and the presence of these electron-dense bodies in their cell structures can be understood as a Cr(III) detoxification mechanism.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Use of activated dry flowers (ADF) of Alstonia Scholaris for chromium (Vl) removal: equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics studies

Authors: Sharma, S; Kothiyal, NC (In Press) Environmental Science and Pollution Research. HERO ID: 1786254

[Less] In this study, a natural adsorbent (activated dry flowers (ADF)) was prepared from plant-derived waste . . . [More] In this study, a natural adsorbent (activated dry flowers (ADF)) was prepared from plant-derived waste biomass by chemical activation and employed for chromium (VI) removal from aqueous medium using experimental batch technique. Experiments were carried out as function of adsorbent dosage, pH, and contact time. The maximum chromium (Vl) removal was observed at initial pH 3 (~94 % removal). The equilibrium data was fitted well to Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption capacity of ADF was found to be 4.40 (mg chromium (Vl)/g) which was comparable to the adsorption capacity of some other adsorbents documented. Among various kinetic models applied, pseudo second-order model was found to explain the kinetics of chromium (VI) adsorption most effectively (R (2) >0.99). Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG, ΔS, and ΔH shows that adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic at all the concentration ranges studied. Desorption of chromium (Vl) with 2 N NaOH was effective (~71 %) and, hence, there exists the possibility of recycling the ADF. The major advantages of using ADF as an adsorbent are due to its effectiveness in reducing the concentration of chromium (Vl) to very low levels. It requires little processing and is reversible as well as eco-friendly in contrast to traditional methods.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In silico Protein Structure Modeling and Conservation Analysis of ChrR, a Class-I Chromate Reducing Flavoenzyme from Pseudomonas putida

Authors: Viradia, SH; Vala, AK (In Press) Protein and peptide letters. HERO ID: 1786266

[Less] Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a widespread environmental pollutant, arising as a by-product of numerous . . . [More] Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a widespread environmental pollutant, arising as a by-product of numerous industrial processes. Bacteria can reduce toxic and carcinogenic Cr(VI) to insoluble and less toxic Cr(III), offering promise for an environmental friendly and affordable solution to chromate pollution. ChrR, a class I chromate-reducing flavoenzyme from Pseudomonas putida is an efficient chromate reducer. The crystal structure of ChrR is yet unknown to the scientific community, hence a three-dimensional (3D) structure is very essential for structural studies, protein - ligand interaction simulations and designing novel bioremediation strategies. The 3D model of the P. putida ChrR protein was predicted using in silico approach. Due to low percentage of sequence identity for homology modeling, I-TASSER was used for structure prediction which combines the methods of threading, ab initio modeling and structural refinement. The stereo chemical quality of the best model was validated with 90.6% residues under favored region from Ramachandran plot. The modeled protein was submitted to Protein Model Database and can be downloaded with the ID PM0077375. The degree of conservation was mapped onto the predicted model and ligand binding sites were found. The results of conservation analysis and binding site prediction were combined to show several highly conserved binding sites. Altogether, the structure for ChrR has been predicted. The work reveals novel universally conserved residues. These residues could be candidates for binding interactions and provide the basis for designing advanced chromium bioremediation strategies.

Journal Article
Journal Article

High resolution micro arthrography of hard and soft tissues in a murine model

Authors: Gu, XI; Palacio-Mancheno, PE; Leong, DJ; Borisov, YA; Williams, E; Maldonado, N; Laudier, D; Majeska, RJ; Schaffler, MB; Sun, HB; Cardoso, L (In Press) . HERO ID: 1234051

[Less] OBJECTIVE: Recent developments on high resolution micro computed tomography (μCT) allow imaging of soft . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: Recent developments on high resolution micro computed tomography (μCT) allow imaging of soft tissues in small animal joints. Nevertheless, μCT images cannot distinguish soft tissues from synovial fluid due to their similar mass density, limiting the 3D assessment of soft tissues volume and thickness. This study aimed to evaluate a lead chromate contrast agent for μCΤ arthrography of rat knee joints ex vivo. DESIGN: Intact tibiofemoral rat joints were injected with the contrast agent at different concentrations and imaged using a μCT at 2.7 μm isotropic voxel size. Cartilage thickness was measured using an automated procedure, validated against histological measurements, and analyzed as a function of μCT image resolution. Changes in hard and soft tissues were also analyzed in tibiofemoral joints 4 weeks after surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). RESULTS: The contrast agent diffused well throughout the whole knee cavity without penetrating the tissues, therefore providing high contrast at the boundaries between soft tissues and synovial fluid space. Thickness analysis of cartilage demonstrated a high similarity between histology and μ-arthrography approaches (R(2) = 0.90). Four weeks after surgical DMM, the development of osteophytes (Oph) and cartilage ulcerations was recognizable with μCT, as well as a slight increase in trabecular bone porosity, and decrease in trabecular thickness. CONCLUSIONS: A lead chromate-based contrast agent allowed discriminating the synovial fluid from soft tissues of intact knee joints, and thus made possible both qualitative and quantitative assessment of hard and soft tissues in both intact and DMM tibiofemoral joints using high resolution μCT.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and patch test results of leather workers at two Indonesian tanneries

Authors: Febriana, SA; Jungbauer, F; Soebono, H; Coenraads, PJ (In Press) Contact Dermatitis. HERO ID: 1234053

[Less] Background. Tannery workers are at considerable risk of developing occupational contact dermatitis. . . . [More] Background. Tannery workers are at considerable risk of developing occupational contact dermatitis. Occupational skin diseases in tannery workers in newly industrialized countries have been reported, but neither the prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis nor the skin-sensitizing agents were specifically examined in those studies. Objectives. To assess the prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesian tanneries, identify the causative allergens, and propose a tannery work series of patch test allergens. Patients/methods A cross-sectional study in all workers at two Indonesian tanneries was performed to assess the prevalence of occupational contact dermatitis via a questionnaire-based interview and skin examination. Workers with occupational contact dermatitis were patch tested to identify the causative allergens. Results. Occupational contact dermatitis was suspected in 77 (16%) of the 472 workers. Thirteen (3%) of these 472 workers were confirmed to have occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Potassium dichromate (9.2%), N,N-diphenylguanidine (5.3%), benzidine (3.9%) and sodium metabisulfite (2.6%) were found to be the occupationally relevant sensitizers. Conclusions. The sensitization pattern showed some differences from the data in studies reported from other newly industrial countries. We compiled a 'tannery work series' of allergens for patch testing. A number of these allergens may also be considered for patch testing in patients with (leather) shoe dermatitis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Zinc PVA versus potassium dichromate for preservation of microsporidian spores of human origin

Authors: El-Taweel, HA; Tolba, MM; Sadaka, HA; El-Zawawy, LA; Osman, MM (In Press) Parasitology Research. HERO ID: 1234059

[Less] Microsporidia are emerging opportunistic parasites. Preservation of the biological properties of microsporidian . . . [More] Microsporidia are emerging opportunistic parasites. Preservation of the biological properties of microsporidian spores is often required in research work. The present study compared two preservatives; zinc polyvinyl alcohol (zinc PVA) and potassium dichromate solutions for preservation of microsporidian spores separated from human faecal samples. After 0, 1, 2 and 4 months of storage, morphological features and staining characters of the spores were assessed by light microscopy in modified trichrome-stained smears and their viability percentages were calculated using acridine orange/ethidium bromide mixture. Also, spore infectivity was evaluated by faecal spore shedding and intestinal spore load in mice orally inoculated with the preserved spores. Results revealed that morphological features, staining characters and viability of the spores were maintained in both solutions throughout the study period. Spore infectivity was completely preserved in zinc PVA solution but showed significant reduction in potassium dichromate solution at the fourth month of the preservation duration.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Caffeic Acid Inhibits Chromium(VI)-Induced Oxidative Stress and Changes in Brush Border Membrane Enzymes in Rat Intestine

Authors: Arivarasu, NA; Priyamvada, S; Mahmood, R (In Press) Biological Trace Element Research. HERO ID: 1234067

[Less] We have previously shown that a single oral dose of potassium dichromate results in a decrease in the . . . [More] We have previously shown that a single oral dose of potassium dichromate results in a decrease in the activities of several brush border membrane enzymes, produces oxidative stress, and alters the activities of several antioxidant enzymes in the small intestine of rats. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of treatment with the dietary antioxidant caffeic acid on potassium dichromate-induced biochemical changes in the rat intestine. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, potassium dichromate alone, caffeic acid alone, and potassium dichromate + caffeic acid. Administration of a single oral dose of potassium dichromate alone (100 mg/kg body mass) led to a decrease in the activities of brush border membrane enzymes, increase in lipid peroxidation, decrease in sulfhydryl groups, and changes in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes. Two oral doses of caffeic acid (each of 250 mg/kg body mass) greatly attenuated the potassium dichromate-induced changes in all these parameters, but the administration of caffeic acid alone had no effect. Thus, caffeic acid is an effective agent in reducing the effects of potassium dichromate on the intestine and could prove to be useful in alleviating the toxicity of chromium(VI) compounds.