Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ramazzini Institute


139 References Were Found:

Technical Report
Technical Report

Test report: 18-month inhalation carcinogenicity study on methanol in B6C3F1 mice (test no. 4A-223)

Author: NEDO (1985) Tokyo, Japan: Mitsubishi Kasei Institute of Toxicology and Environmental Sciences. HERO ID: 196315


Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Preclinical studies of aspartame in nonprimate animals

Author: Molinary, VS (1984) In Aspartame: Physiology and biochemistry (pp. 289-306). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.. HERO ID: 198504


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Statistical issues in the design, analysis and interpretation of animal carcinogenicity studies

Author: Haseman, JK (1984) Environmental Health Perspectives 58:385-392. HERO ID: 782715

[Less] Statistical issues in the design, analysis and interpretation of animal carcinogenicity studies are . . . [More] Statistical issues in the design, analysis and interpretation of animal carcinogenicity studies are discussed. In the area of experimental design, issues that must be considered include randomization of animals, sample size considerations, dose selection and allocation of animals to experimental groups, and control of potentially confounding factors. In the analysis of tumor incidence data, survival differences among groups should be taken into account. It is important to try to distinguish between tumors that contribute to the death of the animal and "incidental" tumors discovered at autopsy in an animal dying of an unrelated cause. Life table analyses (appropriate for lethal tumors) and incidental tumor tests (appropriate for nonfatal tumors) are described, and the utilization of these procedures by the National Toxicology Program is discussed. Despite the fact that past interpretations of carcinogenicity data have tended to focus on pairwise comparisons in general and high-dose effects in particular, the importance of trend tests should not be overlooked, since these procedures are more sensitive than pairwise comparisons to the detection of carcinogenic effects. No rigid statistical "decision rule" should be employed in the interpretation of carcinogenicity data. Although the statistical significance of an observed tumor increase is perhaps the single most important piece of evidence used in the evaluation process, a number of biological factors must also be taken into account. The use of historical control data, the false-positive issue and the interpretation of negative trends are also discussed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Carcinogenicity of formaldehyde in rats and mice after long-term inhalation exposure

Authors: Kerns, WD; Pavkov, KL; Donofrio, DJ; Gralla, EJ; Swenberg, JA (1983) Cancer Research 43:4382-4392. HERO ID: 7031

[Less] Groups of approximately 120 male and 120 female Fischer 344 rats and C57BL/6 x C3H F1 mice were exposed . . . [More] Groups of approximately 120 male and 120 female Fischer 344 rats and C57BL/6 x C3H F1 mice were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2.0, 5.6, and 14.3 ppm of formaldehyde gas 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 24 months. This exposure period was followed by up to 6 months of nonexposure. Interim sacrifices were conducted at 6, 12, 18, 24, 27, and 30 months. Significant formaldehye-induced lesions were restricted to the nasal cavity and proximal trachea. The distribution and severity of these lesions were concentration dependent. Rhinitis, epithelial dysplasia, and squamous metaplasia occurred in all exposure groups of rats and in the intermediate and high exposure groups of mice. There was regression of rhinitis, dysplasia, and metaplasia at 27 months (3 months postexposure) in the 14.3- and 5.6-ppm groups of mice and in the 2.0- and 5.6-ppm groups of rats. Squamous cell carcinomas were observed in the nasal cavities of 103 rats (52 females and 51 males) and 2 male mice exposed to 14.3 ppm and in 2 rats (one male and one female) exposed to 5.6 ppm of formaldehyde gas. Formaldehyde inhalation was also weakly associated with an increase in the frequency of polypoid adenomas in the nasal cavity of male rats.

Technical Report
Technical Report

NTP technical report on the carcinogenesis bioassay of vinylidene chloride (CAS No. 75-35-4) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice (gavage study)

Author: NTP (1982) (NTP TR 228; NTP-80-82; NIH Pub. No. 82-1784). Research Triangle Park, NC: National Toxicology Program. [NTP] HERO ID: 1591999

[Less] A subchronic and a chronic carcinogenesis study of vinylidene chloride (99% pure), a widely used chemical . . . [More] A subchronic and a chronic carcinogenesis study of vinylidene chloride (99% pure), a widely used chemical intermediate and monomer, were conducted in F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice. In subchronic studies, groups of 10 rats and 10 mice of either sex were administered vinylidene chloride in corn oil by gavage five times per week at 0, 5, 15, 50, 100, or 250 mg/kg body weight for 13 weeks. At the end of this study, representative tissues from these animals were subjected to histopathological examination. The liver was identified as a target organ for vinylidene chloride toxicity. In the 104-week chronic exposure study, conducted primarily to determine possible carcinogenic potential of vinylidene chloride by the oral route, 50 F344/N rats and 50 B6C3F1/N mice of either sex were gavaged with vinylidene chloride suspended in corn oil at dose levels of 1 or 5 mg/kg (rats) and 2 or 10 mg/kg (mice). Groups of 50 rats and 50 mice of either sex received corn oil alone and served as vehicle controls. Throughout most of the study, mean body weights of the dosed rats of either sex and high-dose female mice were slightly lower than those of the controls. The absence of compound-related effects on survival or clinical signs suggests that the rats and mice of either sex could have tolerated higher doses. While no significant differences in survival were observed for any group of rats, 12 control and 10 low-dose males were killed accidentally during week 82; this may have compromised the sensitivity of the male rats study. The results of histopathological examination indicated an increased incidence of necrosis of the liver in high-dose male and low-dose female mice and chronic renal inflammation in high-dose rats of either sex. The only observed significant (P>0.05) increase in tumor incidence occurred in low-dose female mice: lymphoma (2/48, 9/49, 6/50) and lymphoma or leukemia (7/48, 15/49, 7/50). These increases were not considered to be related to vinylidene chloride administration because similar effects were not found in the high-dose female mice or in male mice or rats. Under the conditions of this bioassay, vinylidene chloride administered by gavage was not carcinogenic for F344/N rats or B6C3F1/N mice of either sex. However, since the use of a maximum tolerated dose in this study has not been clearly demonstrated and since previously reported studies have shown that carcinogenicity is associated with inhalation exposure to vinylidene chloride, this study should not be taken as proof that the chemical is not a carcinogen. Levels of Evidence of Carcinogenicity: Male Rats: Negative Female Rats: Negative Male Mice: Negative Female Mice: Negative Synonyms: 1,1-dichloroethylene; VDC; 1,1-DCE.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Final report on a chronic inhalation toxicology study in rats and mice exposed to formaldehyde to Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology: Volume 1

Author: Battelle (1981) Columbus, OH: Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology. HERO ID: 63831


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Incidence of brain tumors in rats fed aspartame

Author: Ishii, H (1981) Toxicology Letters 7:433-437. HERO ID: 196254

[Less] The brain tumorigenicity of aspartame (APM) and of its diketopiperazine (DKP) was studied in 860 SCL . . . [More] The brain tumorigenicity of aspartame (APM) and of its diketopiperazine (DKP) was studied in 860 SCL Wistar rats. APM at dietary levels of 1 g/kg, 2 gK/, 4 g/kg or APM + DKP (3:1) 4 g/kg was fed for 104 weeks. One atypical astrocytoma was found in a control rat and 2 astrocytomas, 2 oligodendrogliomas and 1 ependymoma were scattered among the 4 test groups. There was no significant difference in the incidence of brain tumors between control and test groups. It is concluded that neither AMP nor DKP caused brain tumors in rats in this study.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Toxicity of aspartame and its diketopiperazine for Wistar rats by dietary administration for 104 weeks

Authors: Ishii, H; Koshimizu, T; Usami, S; Fujimoto, T (1981) 21:91-94. HERO ID: 196255

[Less] Aspartame (APM) or L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine, and a 3 : 1 combination of APM with its decomposition . . . [More] Aspartame (APM) or L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine, and a 3 : 1 combination of APM with its decomposition product, 5-benzyl-3,6-dioxo-2-piperazine acetic acid (DKP), were incorporated at levels of up to 4 g/kg in the diet of male and female Wistar rats from 6 weeks to 104 weeks of age. There was a dose-dependent depression of body weight gain at 2 and 4 g/kg AMP and at 4 g/kg APM + DKP in males, and at all dose levels in females, correlated with decreased food consumption and attributed to liberation of amino acids from hydrolysis of APM. Increases in urinary specific gravity and pH, with increase of relative kidney weight, were attributed to the urinary excretion DKP and acidic metabolites of APM. A dose-related increase in urinary calcium probably reflected increased calcium absorption, as from high protein diets. A slight decrease in serum cholesterol and an increase in relative spleen weight appeared to be without adverse effect. It is concluded that the treatments were without toxic effect.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Evaluation of toxicity and carcinogenicity of malonaldehyde: An experimental study in Swiss mice. Acta Universitatis Ouluensis, Series D, Medica 55

Author: Apaja, M (1980) HERO ID: 191208