Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ramazzini Institute


140 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comment on "Evaluation of evidence for infection as the mode of action for induction of rat lymphoma" by Caldwell et al. [2008]

Authors: Goodman, JE; Beyer, LA; Beck, BD (2009) Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 50:4-5. [Letter] HERO ID: 625363


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Updated scientific opinion of the panel on food additives and nutrient sources added to food on a request from the European commission related to the 2nd ERF carcinogenicity study on aspartame, taking into consideration study data submitted by the Ramazzini foundation in February 2009

Author: EFSA (2009) European Food Safety Authority Journal 1015:1-18. HERO ID: 196103


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Author reply to comment on "Evaluation of evidence for infection as the mode of action for induction of rat lymphoma"

Authors: Caldwell, J; Jinot, J; Devoney, D; Gift, JS (2009) Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 50:6-9. [Letter] HERO ID: 196183


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the 2nd ERF carcinogenicity study on aspartame

Authors: Aguilar, F; Charrondiere, UR; Dusemund, B; Galtier, P; Gilbert, J; Gott, DM; Grilli, S; Guertler, R; Kass, GEN; Koenig, J; Lambré, C; Larsen, JC; Leblanc, JC; Mortensen, A; Parent-Massin, D; Pratt, I; Rietjens, IMCM; Stankovic, I; Tobback, P; Verguieva, T; Woutersen, R (2009) HERO ID: 625381

[Less] Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added . . . [More] Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the results of a long-term carcinogenicity study with prenatal exposure to the artificial sweetener aspartame, performed by The Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the European Ramazzini Foundation (ERF) and published in June 2007 by Soffritti et al. The authors concluded that the results of their study not only confirm, but also reinforce their first experimental demonstration (published in 2005 and 2006) of aspartame’s multipotential carcinogenicity at a dose level close to the human Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). Based on the results of this study, the authors further postulated that when lifespan exposure to aspartame begins during fetal life, its carcinogenic effects are increased.

During the 1980s, aspartame has been authorised for use in foods and as a table-top sweetener by several Member States, and European legislation harmonising its use in foodstuffs was introduced in 1994 following thorough safety evaluations by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) in 1984 and 1988. Further reviews of aspartame data were carried out by the SCF in 1997 and 2002. In 2006, the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC) assessed a long-term carcinogenicity study on aspartame performed by the ERF and published by Soffritti et al. in 2005 and 2006. Based on all the evidence available from the ERF study and other recent studies and previous evaluations, the AFC Panel concluded that there was no reason to revise the previously established ADI for aspartame of 40 mg/kg bw (EFSA, 2006).

In the second ERF study on aspartame in rats, published in 2007, dietary concentrations of 400 and 2000 mg aspartame/kg diet equivalent to doses of 20 and 100 mg aspartame/kg bw/day were used. The rats were exposed to aspartame from the 12th day of gestation until natural death. The group size was 95/sex in the control and 70/sex in the low- and high-dose groups. The authors reported a significant dose-related increase of malignant tumour-bearing males, particularly in the high-dose group (p<0.01, Cox regression model), a significant increase in incidence of lymphomas/leukaemias in males from the high-dose group (p<0.05), a significant dose-related increase in incidence of lymphomas/leukaemias in females (p<0.01), particularly in the high-dose group (p<0.01), and a significant dose-related increase in incidence of mammary carcinomas in females (p<0.05), particularly in the high-dose group (p<0.05).

The Panel’s assessment of the ERF carcinogenicity study with prenatal exposure on aspartame as reported by Soffritti et al. was directed towards establishing the relevance of the reported findings to human health. In carrying out its assessment the Panel only had access to the published paper, in which the presentation of pathological findings was restricted to the incidence of malignant tumours, total number of malignant tumours per group, incidence of lymphomas/leukaemias, and incidence of mammary carcinomas. Neither further data from this study nor an explanation on the analytical method used, were provided by the authors to EFSA by the time of the adoption of this opinion.
The Panel concluded that:


Evaluation of aggregated malignant tumour incidences as evidence of carcinogenic potential of the test compound can only be performed based on a thorough consideration of all tumour data including onset, and data on non-neoplastic, hyperplastic and preneoplastic lesions but these data were not provided by the authors.


In accordance with the previous view of the AFC Panel, the lymphomas and leukaemias might have developed in a population of rats suffering from chronic respiratory disease.


The increase in incidence of mammary carcinoma is not considered indicative of a carcinogenic potential of aspartame since the incidence of mammary tumours in female rats is rather high and varies considerably between carcinogenicity studies. The Panel also noted that an increased incidence of mammary carcinomas was not reported in the previous ERF study with aspartame which used much higher doses of the compound.

Overall, the Panel concluded, on the basis of all the evidence currently available from this ERF study and previous evaluations, that there is no indication of any genotoxic or carcinogenic potential of aspartame and that there is no reason to revise the previously established ADI for aspartame of 40 mg/kg bw.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Applications of the Poly-K Statistical Test to Life-Time Cancer Bioassay Studies

Authors: Gebregziabher, M; Hoel, D (2009) Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 15:858-875. HERO ID: 1597269

[Less] The statistical analysis of cancer bioassay data has historically depended on the pathological determination . . . [More] The statistical analysis of cancer bioassay data has historically depended on the pathological determination of the experimental animal's cause of death. The poly-k statistical test has provided a method of statistical analysis of animal bioassay data without the need for cause of death information. The test has been shown to have good statistical properties in the typical 2-year cancer bioassay. However, while the poly-k test has been applied to chronic lifetime animal studies, it has not been formally evaluated with respect to the operating characteristics of this statistical test when applied to such studies. Thus, our objective is to assess the performance of the poly-k test for lifetime studies and to make comparisons with other tests. We observed in one recent lifetime study of the gasoline additive MTBE that the application of the poly-k test was not statistically robust. Simulation studies were subsequently conducted for a limited number of scenarios of lifetime cancer bioassays. These simulations showed that the poly-k test is not statistically robust for testing effect of increasing dose in some lifetime cancer studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mycoplasma pulmonis and lymphoma in bioassays in rats

Authors: Schoeb, TR; Mcconnell, EE; Juliana, MM; Davis, JK; Davidson, MK; And Lindsey, , JR (2009) Veterinary Pathology 46:952-959. HERO ID: 196192

[Less] Lymphomas were reported to be induced in rats in bioassays of aspartame, methyl-tertiary-butyl ether . . . [More] Lymphomas were reported to be induced in rats in bioassays of aspartame, methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), and other chemicals conducted by a nonprofit cancer research organization. European regulatory authorities concluded that lymphomas in the aspartame study were caused by Mycoplasma pulmonis and suggested that this also was the case for the MTBE bioassay. To assess the role of M. pulmonis in these bioassays, we reviewed the tumor data for the aspartame and MTBE bioassays and, additionally, the organization's bioassay of methanol. For all 3 studies, the most frequently reported hematopoietic neoplasm was lympho-immunoblastic lymphoma, the most frequently affected organ was the lung, and, in almost half of the rats with this diagnosis, the lung was the only affected organ. Lesions diagnosed as lymphoma in published illustrations had pleomorphic cellular morphology and appeared to contain neutrophils. Information from these reports and other sources indicated that lesions typical of M. pulmonis disease were prevalent among the aspartame and MTBE study rats and that the rats were not specific-pathogen?free. Because the lymphoma type, cellular morphology, and organ distribution reported in these studies are atypical of lymphoma in rats, because lymphocyte and plasma cell accumulation in the lung is characteristic of M. pulmonis disease, and because M. pulmonis disease can be exacerbated by experimental manipulations, including chemical treatment, we suggest that a plausible alternative explanation for the reported results of these bioassays is that the studies were confounded by M. pulmonis disease and that lesions of the disease were interpreted as lymphoma.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A review of human carcinogens--part F: Chemical agents and related occupations

Authors: Baan, R; Grosse, Y; Straif, K; Secretan, B; El Ghissassi, F; Bouvard, V; Benbrahim-Tallaa, L; Guha, N; Freeman, C; Galichet, L; Cogliano, V (2009) The Lancet Oncology 10:1143-1144. HERO ID: 1011788


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A minute focus of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma arising in Hashimoto thyroiditis diagnosed with PCR after laser capture microdissection: a case report

Authors: D'Antonio, A; Caleo, A; Licci, S; Addesso, M; De Palma, M; Boscaino, A; Nappi, O (2009) 2:9. HERO ID: 1235755

[Less] BACKGROUND: Primary thyroid gland lymphomas are uncommon tumours that occur in the . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Primary thyroid gland lymphomas are uncommon tumours that occur in the setting of lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's disease in almost all cases. In this condition a distinction between an inflammatory lymphoid infiltrate and a low grade lymphoma may be extremely difficult and precise criteria are necessary for a correct diagnosis.

PATIENT AND METHODS: We report a case of a minute focus of primary extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZBCL), incidentally discovered in a 63-year-old man with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and diagnosed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after laser capture microdissection.The histological examination of surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of HT and showed a minute focus of dense lymphoid infiltrate (less than 4 mm in diameter), composed by centrocyte-like cells forming MALT balls. Immunoistochemistry was not useful. A microscopic focus of EMZBCL was suspected on the basis of morphological features. PCR assays revealed the rearrangement of the heavy chain of immunoglobulins only in the microdissected suspicious area, confirming the diagnosis of EMZBCL.

CONCLUSION: Our finding suggests that in cases of autoimmune thyroiditis a careful examination of the thyroid specimen is warranted, in order to disclose areas or small foci of lymphomatous transformation. Furthermore, in difficult cases with doubtful immunohistological findings, ancillary techniques, such as molecular studies, are necessary for a conclusive diagnosis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Quantitative RT-PCR gene expression analysis of laser microdissected tissue samples

Authors: Erickson, HS; Albert, PS; Gillespie, JW; Rodriguez-Canales, J; Marston Linehan, W; Pinto, PA; Chuaqui, RF; Emmert-Buck, MR (2009) Nature Protocols (Online) 4:902-922. HERO ID: 1235756

[Less] Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a valuable tool for measuring . . . [More] Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a valuable tool for measuring gene expression in biological samples. However, unique challenges are encountered when studies are performed on cells microdissected from tissues derived from animal models or the clinic, including specimen-related issues, variability of RNA template quality and quantity, and normalization. qRT-PCR using small amounts of mRNA derived from dissected cell populations requires adaptation of standard methods to allow meaningful comparisons across sample sets. The protocol described here presents the rationale, technical steps, normalization strategy and data analysis necessary to generate reliable gene expression measurements of transcripts from dissected samples. The entire protocol from tissue microdissection through qRT-PCR analysis requires approximately 16 h.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of the cancer potential of methanol

Author: Cruzan, G (2009) Critical Reviews in Toxicology 39:347-363. [Review] HERO ID: 196354

[Less] There are no published cancer studies of methanol-exposed cohorts. Genotoxicity studies do not suggest . . . [More] There are no published cancer studies of methanol-exposed cohorts. Genotoxicity studies do not suggest carcinogenic activity from methanol exposure. Oncogenicity studies of methanol were conducted by inhalation for approximately 20 hrs/day at up to 1000 ppm in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice (NEDO), and by incorporation into drinking water at up to 20,000 ppm in Sprague-Dawley rats (Ramazzini Foundation, by Soffritti et al.). No increased neoplasms were found in the NEDO rat and mouse inhalation studies, even at air levels (up to 1000 ppm for >19 hours/day, 7 days/week) that caused 10-fold increased blood methanol levels. The maximum dose level was 600 mg/kg/day. The breakdown of methanol to formaldehyde in rats is saturated at doses above 600 mg/kg according to Horton et al. Thus, higher inhalation exposure concentrations are not expected to lead to tumors in rats or mice. In the Soffritti et al. study there was excessive early mortality, and lung pathology (inflammation, dysplasia, or neoplasm) was present in 87-94% of those dying anytime in the study. Soffritti et al. reported lympho-immunoblastic lymphoma. There are no historical control data to which this study can be compared because this diagnosis is not used by any other pathologist in animal studies. Lung infections probably played a role in formation of the lesions called lympho-immunoblastic lymphoma in the Ramazzini methanol study. The data from genotoxicity studies, the inhalation and drinking water oncogenicity studies of methanol in rats and mice, and mode of action considerations support a conclusion that methanol is not likely to be carcinogenic in humans.