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Diisononyl Phthalate (DINP)

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1,073 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers and bisphenols in Swedish preschool dust in relation to children's exposure

Authors: Larsson, K; Lindh, CH; Jönsson, BA; Giovanoulis, G; Bibi, M; Bottai, M; Bergström, A; Berglund, M (2017) Environment International 102:114-124. HERO ID: 3860236

[Less] Children are exposed to a wide range of chemicals in their everyday environments, including the preschool. . . . [More] Children are exposed to a wide range of chemicals in their everyday environments, including the preschool. In this study, we evaluated the levels of phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers and bisphenols in dust from 100 Swedish preschools and identified important exposure factors in the indoor environment. In addition, children's total exposure to these chemicals was determined by urine analysis to investigate their relation with dust exposure, and to explore the time trends by comparing with children who provided urine fifteen years earlier. The most abundant plasticizers in preschool dust were the phthalates di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) with geometric mean levels of 450 and 266μg/g dust, respectively, and the non-phthalate plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT) and diisononylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DiNCH) found at 105 and 73μg/g dust, respectively. The levels of several substitute plasticizers were higher in newer preschools, whereas the levels of the strictly regulated phthalate di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) were higher in older preschools. The presence of foam mattresses and PVC flooring in the sampling room were associated with higher levels of DiNP in dust. Children's exposure from preschool dust ingestion was below established health based reference values and the estimated exposure to different phthalates and BPA via preschool dust ingestion accounted for 2-27% of the total exposure. We found significantly lower urinary levels of BPA and metabolites of strictly regulated phthalates, but higher levels of DiNP metabolites, in urine from the children in this study compared to the children who provided urine samples fifteen years earlier.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture on cultured mouse antral follicles

Authors: Zhou, C; Flaws, JA (2017) Toxicological Sciences 156:217-229. HERO ID: 3466573

[Less] Phthalates are used in building materials, medical devices, and personal care products. Most studies . . . [More] Phthalates are used in building materials, medical devices, and personal care products. Most studies on phthalates have focused on single phthalates, but it is important to study mixtures of phthalates because humans are exposed to such mixtures daily. We tested the hypothesis that phthalate mixture exposure decreases antral follicle growth, compromises steroidogenic capacity, and induces atresia. Antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or phthalate mixture (1–500 µg/ml) for 96 h. The mixture was made of 35% diethyl phthalate, 21% di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 15% dibutyl phthalate, 15% diisononyl phthalate, 8% diisobutyl phthalate, and 5% benzylbutyl phthalate. During culture, antral follicle diameters were measured every 24 h to monitor growth. After culture, media were subjected to measurements of sex steroid hormones and follicles were subjected to evaluation of gene expression and atresia. The phthalate mixture (100 and 500 µg/ml) decreased antral follicle growth starting at 24 h compared to controls. The mixture at 10, 100, and 500 µg/ml also decreased androstenedione, testosterone, estrone, and estradiol levels compared to control. The mixture (10, 100, and 500 µg/ml) reduced atresia rating, but it induced more oocyte fragmentation compared to control. The phthalate mixture at different doses adversely affected cell cycle regulators, antioxidant enzymes, apoptotic factors, steroidogenic enzymes, and receptors. Collectively, these data indicate that exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture reduces antral follicle growth, induces oocyte fragmentation, and decreases hormone production by adversely affecting the expression of cell cycle regulators, apoptotic factors, steroidogenic enzymes, and receptors.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate metabolites in 24-h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) from 1988 to 2015 and a comparison with US NHANES data from 1999 to 2012

Authors: Koch, HM; Rüther, M; Schütze, A; Conrad, A; Pälmke, C; Apel, P; Brüning, T; Kolossa-Gehring, M (2017) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220:130-141. HERO ID: 3469204

[Less] The German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) continuously collects 24-h urine samples since the early . . . [More] The German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) continuously collects 24-h urine samples since the early 1980s in Germany. In this study we analyzed 300 urine samples from the years 2007 to 2015 for 21 phthalate metabolites (representing exposure to 11 parent phthalates) and combined the data with two previous retrospective measurement campaigns (1988 to 2003 and 2002 to 2008). The combined dataset comprised 1162 24-h urine samples spanning the years 1988 to 2015. With this detailed set of human biomonitoring data we describe the time course of phthalate exposure in Germany over a time frame of 27 years. For the metabolites of the endocrine disrupting phthalates di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) we observed a roughly ten-fold decline in median metabolite levels from their peak levels in the late 1980s/early 1990s compared to most recent levels from 2015. Probably, bans (first enacted in 1999) and classifications/labelings (enacted in 2001 and 2004) in the European Union lead to this drop. A decline in di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) metabolite levels set in only quite recently, possibly due to its later classification as a reproductive toxicant in the EU in 2009. In a considerable number of samples collected before 2002 health based guidance values (BE, HBM I) have been exceeded for DnBP (27.2%) and DEHP (2.3%) but also in recent samples some individual exceedances can still be observed (DEHP 1.0%). A decrease in concentration for all low molecular weight phthalates, labelled or not, was seen in the most recent years of sampling. For the high molecular weight phthalates, DEHP seems to have been substituted in part by di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP), but DiNP metabolite levels have also been declining in the last years. Probably, non-phthalate alternatives increasingly take over for the phthalates in Germany. A comparison with NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data from the United States covering the years 1999 to 2012 revealed both similarities and differences in phthalate exposure between Germany and the US. Exposure to critical phthalates has decreased in both countries with metabolite levels more and more aligning with each other, but high molecular weight phthalates substituting DEHP (such as DiNP) seem to become more important in the US than in Germany.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence, spatial distribution, historical trend and ecological risk of phthalate esters in the Jiulong River, Southeast China

Authors: Li, R; Liang, J; Gong, Z; Zhang, N; Duan, H (2017) Science of the Total Environment 580:388-397. HERO ID: 3483279

[Less] The occurrence and spatial distribution of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the Jiulong River of southeast . . . [More] The occurrence and spatial distribution of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the Jiulong River of southeast China were investigated in water and sediment samples collected from 35 stations along the river in Mar. 2014. The historical trend of the past 26years was reconstructed with a sediment core collected in Dec. 2012 via a 210Pb dating technique. The potential ecological risk of PAEs was assessed using the risk quotient (RQ) method. Of the 16 PAE congeners analyzed, only 6 PAEs, including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP), were identified and quantified; the remaining 10 PAEs were below their respective limits of quantification (LOQs) for the analytical methods used here. The cumulative concentration of 6 PAEs (∑6PAEs) found in the samples spanned a range of 3.48-17.7μg/L in water and 0.046-1.65mg/kg in sediment. The most abundant PAEs in the water-phase were DEHP and DIBP, together accounting for 84.9% of ∑6PAEs in the North River, 82.8% of ∑6PAEs in the West River and 91.6% of ∑6PAEs in the estuary. DEHP and DINP were the richest congeners in the sediment-phase, with proportions of 84.9% in the North River, 81.0% in the West River and 65.4% in the estuary. The spatial distribution of ∑6PAEs in water and sediment phases showed that the riverside environment had influence on the distribution pattern. The reconstruction profile of the PAE congeners and the ∑6PAEs vs the depth of the sediment core indicated that PAEs became increasingly present pollutants around 2006 in the Jiulong River. The results of the potential ecological risk assessment of the RQ method revealed that DIBP and DEHP posed a high risk because of their relatively higher concentrations, while DBP and DINP posed a medium risk to the aquatic system. The baseline data of PAEs in this river will be benefits to the regulatory attention and future strategies of the pollutants control along the river network.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture disrupts reproduction in F1 female mice

Authors: Zhou, C; Gao, L; Flaws, JA (2017) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 318:49-57. HERO ID: 3494367

[Less] Phthalates are used in a large variety of products, such as building materials, medical devices, and . . . [More] Phthalates are used in a large variety of products, such as building materials, medical devices, and personal care products. Most previous studies on the toxicity of phthalates have focused on single phthalates, but it is also important to study the effects of phthalate mixtures because humans are exposed to phthalate mixtures. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture adversely affects female reproduction in mice. To test this hypothesis, pregnant CD-1 dams were orally dosed with vehicle (tocopherol-stripped corn oil) or a phthalate mixture (20 and 200μg/kg/day, 200 and 500mg/kg/day) daily from gestational day 10 to birth. The mixture was based on the composition of phthalates detected in urine samples from pregnant women in Illinois. The mixture included 35% diethyl phthalate, 21% di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 15% dibutyl phthalate, 15% diisononyl phthalate, 8% diisobutyl phthalate, and 5% benzylbutyl phthalate. Female mice born to the exposed dams were subjected to tissue collections and fertility tests at different ages. Our results indicate that prenatal exposure to the phthalate mixture significantly increased uterine weight and decreased anogenital distance on postnatal days 8 and 60, induced cystic ovaries at 13months, disrupted estrous cyclicity, reduced fertility-related indices, and caused some breeding complications at 3, 6, and 9months of age. Collectively, our data suggest that prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture disrupts aspects of female reproduction in mice.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In vitro cytotoxic effects of DEHP-alternative plasticizers and their primary metabolites on a L929 cell line

Authors: Eljezi, T; Pinta, P; Richard, D; Pinguet, J; Chezal, JM; Chagnon, MC; Sautou, V; Grimandi, G; Moreau, E (2017) Chemosphere 173:452-459. HERO ID: 3540853

[Less] Phthalic acid esters have been widely used to improve the plasticity of PVC medical devices. They carry . . . [More] Phthalic acid esters have been widely used to improve the plasticity of PVC medical devices. They carry a high exposure risk for both humans and the environment in clinical situations. Our study focuses on the cytotoxicity of alternative plasticizers. Postulated primary metabolites were synthesized, not being commercially available. Cytotoxicity assays were performed on L929 murine cells according to the ISO-EN 10993-5 standard design for the biocompatibility of medical devices. The tested concentrations of plasticizers (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/ml) covered the range likely to be found in biological fluids coming into direct contact with the medical devices. DEHP, DINP and DINCH were cytotoxic at the highest concentration (0.1 mg/ml) for 7 days of exposure. Their corresponding metabolites were found to be more cytotoxic, for the same concentration. By contrast, TOTM and its corresponding metabolite MOTM were not found to be cytotoxic. DEHA showed no cytotoxicity, but its corresponding monoester (MEHA) produced a cytotoxic effect at 0.05 mg/ml. In clinical situations, medical devices can release plasticizers, which can come into contact with patients. In vivo, the plasticizers are quickly transformed into primary metabolites. It is therefore important to measure the effects of both the plasticizers and their corresponding metabolites. Standard first-line cytotoxicity assays should be performed to ensure biocompatibility.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Production of Antimicrobial Metabolites by Streptomyces lavendulocolor VHB-9 Isolated from Granite Mines

Authors: Bindu, HBSSN; Muvva, V; Munaganti, RK; Naragani, K; Konda, S; Dorigondla, KR (2017) HERO ID: 3860238

[Less] The actinobacterial strain Streptomyces lavendulocolor VHB-9 was isolated from granite mine soil samples . . . [More] The actinobacterial strain Streptomyces lavendulocolor VHB-9 was isolated from granite mine soil samples of Khammam district, Telangana state, India. The strain was identified based on detailed microorphological, cultural and phylogenetic analysis. Bioactive guided isolation of the secondary metabolites of the strain was carried out by growing the strain in optimized medium (0.5% lactose, 0.5% peptone, 0.05% K2HPO4, 0.2% CaCO3 with pH adjusted to 7.0). Separation and purification of the active fractions from the crude ethyl acetate extract was carried out by silica gel column chromatography and resulted in the isolation of two active fractions. Structural elucidation of the two (B2 and B3) active compounds was carried out by FT-IR, Mass and NMR spectroscopy and were identified as Bis (7-methyloctyl) phthalate and (Z)-3-aminoacrylic acid. The antimicrobial activity of the bioactive compounds produced by S. lavendulocolor VHB-9 was expressed in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration against opportunistic pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Both fractions exhibited good antimicrobial potential against the bacteria and fungi tested.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Influence of Plasticizers on the Electromechanical Behavior of a P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) Terpolymer: Toward a High Performance of Electrostrictive Blends

Authors: Della Schiava, N; Minh-Quyen Le; Galineau, J; Dos Santos, FD; Cottinet, PJ; Capsal, JF (2017) HERO ID: 3860239

[Less] This work aims at providing a complete analysis of the effect of plasticizers on the electrostrictive . . . [More] This work aims at providing a complete analysis of the effect of plasticizers on the electrostrictive terpolymer performance. To achieve this, several plasticizing agents such as 2-ethylhexyl phtalate (DEHP), diisononyl phtalate (DINP), and palamoll 652 have been incorporated in the polymer matrix. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed novel materials exhibited excellent electromechanical enhancement in terms of transverse strain and mechanical energy density under a moderate electric field, which is definitively critical in recent microscale actuation. Another objective of this article was to explore material characteristics as a function of the DINP content, and it was found that the plasticizer weigh fraction was the key parameter determining performance of the modified fluorinate terpolymer blends. Accordingly, it was revealed that high performance flexible actuators can be achieved merely by employing a simple and cheap plasticizer, thus making it possible to overcome the current technological barrier of conventional electroactive polymers that suffer from the high applied electric field usually required to reach sufficient strain. (C) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Memory formation and evolution of the vortex configuration associated with random organization

Authors: Dobroka, M; Kawamura, Y; Ienaga, K; Kaneko, S; Okuma, S (2017) HERO ID: 3860240

[Less] We study the general phenomenon of random organization using a vortex system. When a periodic shear . . . [More] We study the general phenomenon of random organization using a vortex system. When a periodic shear with a small shear amplitude d(inp) is applied to many-particle (vortex) assemblies with a random distribution, the particles (vortices) gradually self-organize to avoid future collisions and transform into an organized configuration. This is detected from the time-evolution of the voltage V (t) (average velocity) that increases towards a steady-state value. From the subsequent readout measurements of V (t) using various shear amplitudes, we find that the information of the input shear amplitude dinp is memorized in the configuration of the vortex distributions in the transient as well as the steady state, and that it is readable. We also find that the transient vortex configuration formed during random organization is not microscopically homogeneous but consists of disordered and organized regions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Reduced mutation rate and increased transformability of transposon-free Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1-ISx

Authors: Suárez, GA; Renda, BA; Dasgupta, A; Barrick, JE (2017) HERO ID: 3860233

[Less] The genomes of most bacteria contain mobile DNA elements that can contribute to undesirable genetic . . . [More] The genomes of most bacteria contain mobile DNA elements that can contribute to undesirable genetic instability in engineered cells. In particular, transposable insertion sequence (IS) elements can rapidly inactivate genes that are important for a designed function. We deleted all six copies of IS1236 from the genome of the naturally transformable bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. The natural competence of ADP1 made it possible to rapidly repair deleterious point mutations that arose during strain construction. In the resulting ADP1-ISx strain, the rates of mutations inactivating a reporter gene were reduced by 7- to 21-fold. This reduction was higher than expected from the incidence of new IS1236 insertions found during a 300-day mutation accumulation experiment with wild-type ADP1 that was used to estimate spontaneous mutation rates in this strain. The extra improvement appears to be due in part to eliminating large deletions caused by IS1236 activity, as the point mutation rate was unchanged in ADP1-ISx. Deletion of an error prone polymerase (dinP) and a DNA damage response regulator (umuDAb) from the ADP1-ISx genome did not further reduce mutation rates. Surprisingly, ADP1-ISx exhibited increased transformability. This improvement may be due to less autolysis and aggregation of the engineered cells compared to wild type. Thus, deleting IS elements from the ADP1 genome led to a greater than expected increase in evolutionary reliability and unexpectedly enhanced other key strain properties, as has been observed for other clean-genome bacterial strains. ADP1-ISx is an improved chassis for metabolic engineering and other applications.IMPORTANCEAcinetobacter baylyi ADP1 has been proposed as a next-generation bacterial host for synthetic biology and genome engineering due to its ability to efficiently uptake DNA from its environment during normal growth. We deleted transposable elements from the ADP1 genome that are capable of copying themselves, inserting into other genes, and thereby inactivating them. The resulting 'clean-genome' ADP1-ISx strain exhibited larger reductions in the rates of inactivating mutations than expected from spontaneous mutation rates measured via whole-genome sequencing of lineages evolved under relaxed selection. Surprisingly, we also found that IS element activity reduces transformability and is a major cause of cell aggregation and death in wild-type ADP1 grown under normal laboratory conditions. More generally, our results demonstrate that domesticating a bacterial genome by removing mobile DNA elements that have accumulated during evolution in the wild can have unanticipated benefits.