Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


MSA-Multipollutant Exposure Metric Review


2,989 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impact of haze and air pollution-related hazards on hospital admissions in Guangzhou, China

Authors: Zhang, Z; Wang, J; Chen, L; Chen, X; Sun, G; Zhong, N; Kan, H; Lu, W (2014) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21:4236-4244. HERO ID: 2214248

[Less] Guangzhou is a metropolitan in south China with unique pollutants and geographic location. Unlike those . . . [More] Guangzhou is a metropolitan in south China with unique pollutants and geographic location. Unlike those in western countries and the rest of China, the appearance of haze in Guangzhou is often (about 278 days per year on average of 4 years). Little is known about the influence of these hazes on health. In this study, we investigated whether short-term exposures to haze and air pollution are associated with hospital admissions in Guangzhou. The relationships between haze, air pollution, and daily hospital admissions during 2008-2011 were assessed using generalized additive model. Studies were categorized by gender, age, season, lag, and disease category. In haze episodes, an increase in air pollutant emissions corresponded to 3.46 (95 % CI, 1.67, 5.27) increase in excessive risk (ER) of total hospital admissions at lag 1, 11.42 (95 % CI, 4.32, 18.99) and 11.57 (95 % CI, 4.38, 19.26) increases in ERs of cardiovascular illnesses at lags 2 and 4 days, respectively. As to total hospital admissions, an increase in NO2 was associated with a 0.73 (95 % CI, 0.11, 1.35) and a 0.28 (95 % CI, 0.11, 0.46) increases in ERs at lag 5 and lag 05, respectively. For respiratory illnesses, increases in NO2 was associated with a 1.94 (95 % CI, 0.50, 3.40) increase in ER at lag 0, especially among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Haze (at lag1) and air pollution (for NO2 at lag 5 and for SO2 at lag3) both presented more drastic effects on the 19 to 64 years old and in the females. Together, we demonstrated that haze pollution was associated with total and cardiovascular illnesses. NO2 was the sole pollutant with the largest risk of hospital admissions for total and respiratory diseases in both single- and multi-pollutant models.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Particulate pollution from brick kiln clusters in the Greater Dhaka region, Bangladesh

Authors: Guttikunda, SK; Begum, BA; Wadud, Zia (2013) Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health 6:357-365. HERO ID: 1652897

[Less] Brick manufacturing is the fastest-growing industrial sector in Bangladesh and among the top three sectors, . . . [More] Brick manufacturing is the fastest-growing industrial sector in Bangladesh and among the top three sectors, along with vehicle exhaust and resuspended road dust, contributing to the air pollution and health problems in Dhaka. The brick manufacturing in the Greater Dhaka region, from similar to 1,000 brick kilns spread across six districts, is confined to the winter season (October to March) as current technologies do not allow production during the monsoon. The total emissions are estimated at 23,300 t of PM2.5, 15,500 t of sulfur dioxide (SO2), 302,000 t of carbon monoxide (CO), 6,000 t of black carbon, and 1.8 million tons of CO2 emissions from these clusters, to produce 3.5 billion bricks per year, using energy-inefficient fixed chimney bull trench kiln technology and predominantly using coal and agricultural waste as fuel. The associated health impacts largely fall on the densely populated districts of Dhaka Metropolitan Area (DMA), Gazipur, and Narayanganj. Using the Atmospheric Transport Modeling System dispersion model, the impact of brick kiln emissions was estimated over DMA-ranging from 7 to 99 mu g/m(3) (5th and 95th percentile concentration per model grid) at an average of 38 mu g/m(3); and spatial contributions from the surrounding clusters-with 27 % originating from Narayanganj (to the south with the highest kiln density), 30 % from Gazipur (to the north with equally large cluster spread along the river and canals), and 23 % from Savar. The modeling results are validated using evidence from receptor modeling studies conducted in DMA. An introduction of emerging vertical shaft combustion technology can provide faster benefits for public health in DMA and reduce climate precursor emissions by selecting the most influential clusters discussed in this paper.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Development and characterization of an exposure generation system to investigate the health effects of particles from fresh and aged traffic emissions

Authors: Papapostolou, V; Lawrence, J; Ferguson, ST; Wolfson, JM; Diaz, EA; Godleski, JJ; Koutrakis, P (2013) Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health 6:419-429. HERO ID: 1662990

[Less] Atmospheric photochemical reactions of vehicular primary emissions result in the formation of secondary . . . [More] Atmospheric photochemical reactions of vehicular primary emissions result in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). This is the first study that has investigated the toxicity of secondary particles based on fleet vehicular emissions. We developed methods for photochemical oxidation of traffic primary emissions to produce mixtures of primary and/or secondary particles suitable for animal exposures. The exposure generation system produced test atmospheres of primary (P), aged primary plus SOA (P + SOA), or SOA particles suitable for animal exposures. The system consists of (1) a sampling system to extract the traffic emissions from the plenum of a highway tunnel ventilation stack, (2) a photochemical chamber to simulate atmospheric aging, and (3) a nonselective diffusion denuder to remove gaseous pollutants prior to exposure. In the presence of traffic primary particles (P + SOA), a longer mean residence time resulted in a higher SOA yield. Higher baseline plenum primary particle mass concentration resulted in lower SOA yield. In the absence of primary particles (SOA), higher plenum gas concentrations resulted in higher SOA yield. Secondary aerosol was largely organic but contained some nitrate and sulfate. Formation of secondary aerosol is influenced significantly by reaction of primary gases with center dot OH. The system (1) provides adequate flow and stable chamber output of P, P + SOA, and SOA for characterization and animal exposures and (2) generates reproducible exposure atmospheres of P, P + SOA, and SOA, all at consistent mass concentrations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Chemical speciation of trace metals emitted from Indonesian peat fires for health risk assessment

Authors: Betha, R; Pradani, M; Lestari, P; Joshi, U; Reid, JS; Balasubramanian, R (2013) Atmospheric Research 122:571-578. HERO ID: 2082725

[Less] Regional smoke-induced haze in Southeast Asia, caused by uncontrolled forest and peat fires in Indonesia, . . . [More] Regional smoke-induced haze in Southeast Asia, caused by uncontrolled forest and peat fires in Indonesia, is of major environmental and health concern. In this study, we estimated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk due to exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) as emitted from peat fires at Kalimantan, Indonesia. For the health risk analysis, chemical speciation (exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fractions) of 12 trace metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn) in PM2.5 was studied. Results indicate that Al, Fe and Ti together accounted for a major fraction of total metal concentrations (similar to 83%) in PM2.5 emissions in the immediate vicinity of peat fires. Chemical speciation reveals that a major proportion of most of the metals, with the exception of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni and Cd, was present in the residual fraction. The exchangeable fraction of metals, which represents their bioavailability, could play a major role in inducing human health effects of PM2.5. This fraction contained carcinogenic metals such as Cd (39.2 ng m(-3)) and Ni (249.3 ng m(-3)) that exceeded their WHO guideline values by several factors. Health risk estimates suggest that exposure to PM2.5 emissions in the vicinity of peat fires poses serious health threats. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sources of ultrafine particles and chemical species along a traffic corridor: comparison of the results from two receptor models

Authors: Friend, AJ; Ayoko, GA; Jager, D; Wust, M; Jayaratne, ER; Jamriska, M; Morawska, L (2013) Environmental Chemistry 10:54-63. HERO ID: 2094317

[Less] Particulate matter is common in our environment and has been linked to human health problems particularly . . . [More] Particulate matter is common in our environment and has been linked to human health problems particularly in the ultrafine size range. In this investigation, the sources of particles measured at two sites in Brisbane, Australia, were identified by analysing particle number size distribution data, chemical species concentrations and meteorological data with two source apportionment models. The source apportionment results obtained by positive matrix factorisation (PMF) and principal component analysis-absolute principal component scores (PCA-APCS) were compared with information from the gaseous chemical composition analysis. Although PCA-APCS resolved more sources, the results of the PMF analysis appear to be more reliable. Six common sources were identified by both methods and these include: traffic 1, traffic 2, local traffic, biomass burning and two unassigned factors. Thus motor vehicle related activities had the greatest effect on the data with the average contribution from nearly all sources to the measured concentrations being higher during peak traffic hours and weekdays. Further analyses incorporated the meteorological measurements into the PMF results to determine the direction of the sources relative to the measurement sites, and this indicated that traffic on the nearby road and intersection was responsible for most of the factors. The described methodology that utilised a combination of three types of data related to particulate matter to determine the sources and combination of two receptor models could assist future development of particle emission control and reduction strategies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Responses of lung cells to realistic exposure of primary and aged carbonaceous aerosols

Authors: Kuenzi, L; Mertes, P; Schneider, S; Jeannet, N; Menzi, C; Dommen, J; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, ASH; Salathe, M; Kalberer, M; Geiser, M (2013) Atmospheric Environment 68:143-150. HERO ID: 2205697

[Less] Diesel exhaust and wood burning are important sources of ambient atmospheric particles due to increasing . . . [More] Diesel exhaust and wood burning are important sources of ambient atmospheric particles due to increasing numbers of diesel cars and the importance of wood as a source of renewable energy. Inhalation is the predominant route of entry and uptake for fine and ultrafine particles into the body. Health effects of atmospheric particles are still not completely understood. There is consistent evidence from epidemiology that particle exposure contributes to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.

This study aimed at examining acute responses of airway epithelial cells and luminal macrophages after exposure to freshly emitted and photochemically aged carbonaceous aerosols under realistic atmospheric conditions. In addition to a bronchial epithelial cell line advanced cell cultures namely fully differentiated respiratory epithelia and primary surface macrophages were used.

Our results demonstrate that a single exposure of the cells to realistic particle doses of 0.3-3 ng diesel or 3-9 ng wood aerosol per cm(2) cell surface induces small, particle-specific responses. The release of interleukin-6 and -8 was found to be decreased in differentiated airway epithelia but not in the other cell models studied. Aerosol exposure decreased macrophage phagocytic activity by 45-90%. Cell and tissue integrity remained unaffected. Overall, primary and aged particles from the same combustion induced similar responses in the cell models tested, whereby particles from diesel exhaust affected the cells more than those from wood combustion. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Metallic species in ambient air particles of Canary Islands. Soluble fraction in total suspended matter

Authors: Lopez Cancio, J; Deniz Sanchez, A; Santana Aleman, P (2013) Afinidad 70:33-40. HERO ID: 2214112

[Less] At the present work total and water-soluble fractions of metallic species present in total suspended . . . [More] At the present work total and water-soluble fractions of metallic species present in total suspended particulates (TSP) in an urban area of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) were quantified. Experimental measurements were made from October 2004 to September 2005 on a total of 53 samples (4 or 5 per month). Particulate matter (TSP) was collected in fiber filters and high volume samplers. Average concentration was 68.5 +/- 35.5 mu g/m(3). TSP was determined gravimetrically. Water soluble fraction was extracted by sonication. Concentrations of metallic elements were analized by atomic emission spectrophotometry using an ICP-OES. According to their concentration levels, two categories of elements were found: "abundant" and "scarce" elements. In water soluble, "abundant" fraction consisted mainly of Na, Ca, K and Zn; among "scarce" Cu and Ti predomine. Availability of all soluble elements was stablished. High coefficients for all of them (specially for Mn with 99,9%) were found. In order to identify sources of metallic species factor analysis was used. The result show that Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na and K come from natural sources; Ni, Co, V, Mo, Pt, Zn, Cu, Sb and Cr from anthropogenic.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparison of emissions and toxicological properties of fine particles from wood and oil boilers in small (20-25 kW) and medium (5-10 MW) scale

Authors: Kaivosoja, T; Jalava, PI; Lamberg, H; Viren, A; Tapanainen, M; Torvela, T; Tapper, U; Sippula, O; Tissari, J; Hillamo, R; Hirvonen, MR; Jokiniemi, J (2013) Atmospheric Environment 77:193-201. HERO ID: 2214707

[Less] The aim of this study was to compare four alternatives for providing decentralized energy production . . . [More] The aim of this study was to compare four alternatives for providing decentralized energy production in small communities in terms of their flue gas emissions and toxicological properties of the emissions. In this study, two different size classes of boilers were examined and the use of fossil fuel oils was compared against wood fuels. The lowest PM1 emission, 0.1 mg MJ(-1), was observed from small-scale light fuel oil combustion. In medium-scale wood combustion, PM1 emission values from a grate fired wood combustion boiler (10 MW) without particulate filtration were the highest (264 mg MJ(-1)) but were substantially reduced down to 0.6 mg MJ(-1) due to the usage of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The wood combustion particles were mainly formed of potassium salts. In light fuel oil combustion, one of the main components in the particles was sulphate whereas in heavy fuel oil combustion also significant amounts of V and Ni were emitted. Pellet combustion produced the lowest PAH emissions. Overall, oil combustion produced higher amount of PAHs than wood combustion. This was indicated also as a higher cytotoxicity of the oil combustion samples when compared to those from wood combustion in the corresponding scale of boilers. However, when calculated on an equal mass basis, the particles collected after ESP were even more cytotoxic which can be explained by the altered chemical characteristics of the emissions in the ESP. Due to the variation in the emissions and in the toxicity of the emissions, we propose that in the long term, not only the emission levels but also the toxicity of the emissions should be taken into account in the regulations of the emission limits of the combustion plants. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ischaemic heart disease mortality and years of work in trucking industry workers

Authors: Hart, JE; Garshick, E; Smith, TJ; Davis, ME; Laden, F (2013) Occupational and Environmental Medicine 70:523-528. HERO ID: 2080682

[Less] OBJECTIVES: Evidence from general population-based studies and occupational cohorts . . . [More] OBJECTIVES: Evidence from general population-based studies and occupational cohorts has identified air pollution from mobile sources as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In a cohort of US trucking industry workers, with regular exposure to vehicle exhaust, the authors previously observed elevated standardised mortality ratios for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) compared with members of the general US population. Therefore, the authors examined the association of increasing years of work in jobs with vehicle exhaust exposure and IHD mortality within the cohort.

METHODS: The authors calculated years of work in eight job groups for 30,758 workers using work records from four nationwide companies. Proportional hazard regression was used to examine relationships between IHD mortality, 1985-2000, and employment duration in each job group.

RESULTS: HRs for at least 1 year of work in each job were elevated for dockworkers, long haul drivers, pick-up and delivery drivers, combination workers, hostlers, and shop workers. There was a suggestion of an increased risk of IHD mortality with increasing years of work as a long haul driver, pick-up and delivery driver, combination worker, and dockworker.

CONCLUSION: These results suggest an elevated risk of IHD mortality in workers with a previous history of regular exposure to vehicle exhaust.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ecological Nanotoxicology: Integrating Nanomaterial Hazard Considerations Across the Subcellular, Population, Community, and Ecosystems Levels

Authors: Holden, PA; Nisbet, RM; Lenihan, HS; Miller, RJ; Cherr, GN; Schimel, JP; Gardea-Torresdey, JL; Univ California (2013) Accounts of Chemical Research 46:813-822. HERO ID: 2214131

[Less] Research into the health and environmental safety of nanotechnology has seriously lagged behind its . . . [More] Research into the health and environmental safety of nanotechnology has seriously lagged behind its emergence in industry. While humans have often adopted synthetic chemicals without considering ancillary consequences, the lessons learned from worldwide pollution should motivate making nanotechnology compatible with environmental concerns. Researchers and policymakers need to understand exposure and harm of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), currently nanotechnology's main products, to influence the ENM industry toward sustainable growth. Yet, how should research proceed? Standard toxicity testing anchored in single-organism, dose-response characterizations does not adequately represent real-world exposure and receptor scenarios and their complexities. Our approach is different: it derives from ecology, the study of organisms' interactions with each other and their environments. Our approach involves the characterization of ENMs and the mechanistic assessment of their property-based effects. Using high throughput/content screening (HTS/HCS) with cells or environmentally-relevant organisms, we measure the effects of ENMs on a subcellular or population level. We then relate those effects to mechanisms within dynamic energy budget (DEB) models of growth and reproduction. We reconcile DEB model predictions with experimental data on organism and population responses. Finally, we use microcosm studies to measure the potential for community- or ecosystem-level effects by ENMs that are likely to be produced in large quantities and for which either HTS/HCS or DEB modeling suggest their potential to harm populations and ecosystems. Our approach accounts for ecological interactions across scales, from within organisms to whole ecosystems. Organismal ENM effects, if propagated through populations, can alter communities comprising multiple populations (e.g., plant, fish, bacteria) within food webs. Altered communities can change ecosystem services: processes that cycle carbon, nutrients, and energy, and regulate Earth's waters and atmosphere. We have shown ENM effects on populations, communities, and ecosystems, including transfer and concentration of ENMs through food chains, for a range of exposure scenarios; in many cases, we have identified subcellular ENM effects mechanisms. To keep pace with ENM development, rapid assessment of the mechanisms of ENM effects and modeling are needed. DEB models provide a method for mathematically representing effects such as the generation of reactive oxygen species and their associated damage. These models account for organism-level effects on metabolism and reproduction and can predict outcomes of ENM-organism combinations on populations; those predictions can then suggest ENM characteristics to be avoided. HTS/HCS provides a rapid assessment tool of the ENM chemical characteristics that affect biological systems; such results guide and expand DEB model expressions of hazard. Our approach addresses ecological processes in both natural and managed ecosystems (agriculture) and has the potential to deliver timely and meaningful understanding towards environmentally sustainable nanotechnology.