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ISA NOxSOxPM Ecology (2018)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The reduction of summer sulfate and switch from summertime to wintertime PM2.5 concentration maxima in the United States

Authors: Chan, EAW; Gantt, B; McDow, S (2018) Atmospheric Environment 175:25-32. HERO ID: 4386275

[Less] Exposure to particulate matter air pollution with a nominal mean aerodynamic diameter less than or equal . . . [More] Exposure to particulate matter air pollution with a nominal mean aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 gm (PM(2.)5) has been associated with health effects including cardiovascular disease and death. Here, we add to the understanding of urban and rural PM2.5 concentrations over large spatial and temporal scales in recent years. We used high-quality, publicly-available air quality monitoring data to evaluate PM2.5 concentration patterns and changes during the years 2000-2015. Compiling and averaging measurements collected across the U.S. revealed that PM2.5 concentrations from urban sites experienced seasonal maxima in both winter and summer. Within each year from 2000 to 2008, the maxima of urban summer peaks were greater than winter peaks. However, from 2012 to 2015, the maxima of urban summertime PM2.5 peaks were smaller than the urban wintertime PM2.5 maxima, due to a decrease in the magnitude of summertime maxima with no corresponding decrease in the magnitude of winter maxima. PM2.5 measurements at rural sites displayed summer peaks with magnitudes relatively similar to those of urban sites, and negligible to no winter peaks through the time period analyzed. Seasonal variations of urban and rural PM2.5 sulfate, PM2.5 nitrate, and PM2.5 organic carbon (OC) were also assessed. Summer peaks in PM2.5 sulfate decreased dramatically between 2000 and 2015, whereas seasonal PM2.5 OC and winter PM2.5 nitrate concentration maxima remained fairly consistent. These findings demonstrate that PM2.5 concentrations, especially those occurring in the summertime, have declined in the U.S. from 2000 to 2015. In addition, reduction strategies targeting sulfate have been successful and the decrease in PM2.5 sulfate contributed to the decline in total PM2.5.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Integrated science assessment for oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur and particulate matter -Ecological criteria (2nd external review draft)

Author: U.S. EPA (2018) (EPA/600/R-18/097). Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment. HERO ID: 4591704

[Less] This draft Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the . . . [More] This draft Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and PM10 since the prior release of the final assessment. The draft ISA was prepared as part of the review of the secondary (welfare-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur, and particulate matter. The ISA, in conjunction with additional technical and policy assessments, provides the scientific basis for EPA’s decisions on the adequacy of the current NAAQS and the appropriateness of possible alternative standards.

Oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur, and particulate matter are three of six criteria pollutants for which EPA has established NAAQS. Periodically, EPA reviews the scientific basis for these standards by preparing an ISA (formerly called an Air Quality Criteria Document). The ISA, in conjunction with additional technical and policy assessments, provides the scientific basis for EPA’s decisions on the adequacy of the current NAAQS and the appropriateness of possible alternative standards. The intent of the ISA, as described in the Clean Air Act, is to 'accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air.' It includes scientific research from atmospheric sciences, exposure and deposition, biogeochemistry, hydrology, soil science, marine science, plant physiology, animal physiology, and ecology conducted at multiple scales (e.g., population, community, ecosystem, landscape levels).

Key information and judgments formerly found in the AQCDs for oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter for ecological effects are included; appendices provide additional details supporting the ISA. Together, the ISA and appendices serve to update and revise the last oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur ISA which was published in 2008 and the ecological portion of the last particulate matter ISA, which was published in 2009.

Additionally, the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) is an independent science advisory committee whose review and advisory functions are mandated by Section 109(d)(2) of the Clean Air Act, and charged (among other things) with performing an independent scientific review of all the EPA’s air quality criteria.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Microcystin in aquatic food webs of the Baltic and Chesapeake Bay regions

Authors: Bukaveckas, PA; Lesutiene, J; Gasiunaite, ZR; Lozys, L; Olenina, I; Pilkaityte, R; Putys, Z; Tassone, S; Wood, J (2017) Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 191:50-59. HERO ID: 3871775

[Less] We undertook a comparative study of the James River Estuary, a sub-estuary of Chesapeake Bay, and the . . . [More] We undertook a comparative study of the James River Estuary, a sub-estuary of Chesapeake Bay, and the Curonian Lagoon, a sub-estuary of the Baltic Sea, to better understand the factors that determine the presence and persistence of algal toxins in food webs. Over a 2-year period, we measured microcystin concentrations in water, sediment and biota (fish and shellfish) at both sites. Across both food webs we found highest levels of microcystin among consumers of suspended particulate matter, including planktivorous fishes and filter-feeding shellfish, and lower levels of toxin among piscivores, scavengers and benthic omnivores. Despite similar levels of microcystin in the water column at the two sites, we observed higher toxin levels in fish and sediments of the Curonian Lagoon. We attribute this difference to the legacy of prior toxic cyanobacteria blooms in the Curonian Lagoon and hydrologic factors that result in a predominance of autochthonously-derived organic matter in the sediments at this site. Our results suggest that a consideration of species-specific differences in feeding habits, and organic matter sources supporting food webs are important to understanding the accumulation and persistence of algal toxins in food webs and should therefore be considered in assessment of risks to aquatic biota and human health.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Influence of experimental, environmental, and geographic factors on nutrient-diffusing substrate experiments in running waters: Supplementary materials

Authors: Beck, WS; Rugenski, AT; Poff, NL; (2017) Freshwater Biology 62. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 4154294

Abstract: Supplementary materials

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Loss of ecosystem services due to chronic pollution of forests and surface waters in the Adirondack region (USA)

Authors: Beier, CM; Caputo, J; Lawrence, GB; Sullivan, TJ (2017) Journal of Environmental Management 191:19-27. HERO ID: 3604254

[Less] Sustaining recent progress in mitigating acid pollution could require lower emissions caps that will . . . [More] Sustaining recent progress in mitigating acid pollution could require lower emissions caps that will give rise to real or perceived tradeoffs between healthy ecosystems and inexpensive energy. Because most impacts of acid rain affect ecosystem functions that are poorly understood by policy-makers and the public, an ecosystem services (ES) framework can help to measure how pollution affects human well-being. Focused on the Adirondack region (USA), a global 'hot-spot' of acid pollution, we measured how the chronic acidification of the region's forests, lakes, and streams has affected the potential economic and cultural benefits they provide to society. We estimated that acid-impaired hardwood forests provide roughly half of the potential benefits of forests on moderate to well-buffered soils - an estimated loss of ∼ $10,000 ha(-1) in net present value of wood products, maple syrup, carbon sequestration, and visual quality. Acidic deposition has had only nominal impact - relative to the effects of surficial geology and till depth - on the capacity of Adirondack lakes and streams to provide water suitable for drinking. However, as pH declines in lakes, the estimated value of recreational fishing decreases significantly due to loss of desirable fish such as trout. Hatchery stocking programs have partially offset the pollution-mediated losses of fishery value, most effectively in the pH range 4.8-5.5, but are costly and limited in scope. Although any estimates of the monetary 'damages' of acid rain have significant uncertainties, our findings highlight some of the more tangible economic and cultural benefits of pollution mitigation efforts, which continue to face litigation and political opposition.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force 2017 report to congress

Author: EPA (2017) HERO ID: 4152338


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impacts of Acidification and Potential Recovery on the Expected Value of Recreational Fisheries in Adirondack Lakes (USA)

Authors: Caputo, J; Beier, CM; Fakhraei, H; Driscoll, CT (2017) HERO ID: 3546245

[Less] We estimated the potential economic value of recreational fisheries in lakes altered by acid pollution . . . [More] We estimated the potential economic value of recreational fisheries in lakes altered by acid pollution in the Adirondack Mountains (USA). We found that the expected value of recreational fisheries has been diminished because of acid deposition but may improve as lakes recover from acidification under low emissions scenarios combined with fish stocking. Fishery value increased with lake pH, from a low of $4.41 angler day(-1) in lakes with pH < 4.5, to a high of $38.40 angler day(-1) in lakes with pH > 6.5 that were stocked with trout species. Stocking increased the expected fishery value by an average of $11.50 angler day(-1) across the entire pH range of the lakes studied. Simulating the future long-term trajectory of a subset of lakes, we found that pH and expected fishery value increased over time in all future emissions scenarios. Differences in estimated value among pollution reduction scenarios were small (<$1 angler day(-1)) compared to fish stocking scenarios (>$4 angler day(-1)). Our work provides a basis for assessing the costs and benefits of emissions reductions and management efforts that can hasten recovery of the economic and cultural benefits of ecosystems degraded by chronic pollution.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Peatland plant communities under global change: negative feedback loops counteract shifts in species composition

Authors: Hedwall, PO; Brunet, J; Rydin, H (2017) HERO ID: 3546421

[Less] Mires (bogs and fens) are nutrient-limited peatland ecosystems, the vegetation of which is especially . . . [More] Mires (bogs and fens) are nutrient-limited peatland ecosystems, the vegetation of which is especially sensitive to nitrogen deposition and climate change. The role of mires in the global carbon cycle, and the delivery of different ecosystem services can be considerably altered by changes in the vegetation, which has a strong impact on peat-formation and hydrology. Mire ecosystems are commonly open with limited canopy cover but both nitrogen deposition and increased temperatures may increase the woody vegetation component. It has been predicted that such an increase in tree cover and the associated effects on light and water regimes would cause a positive feed-back loop with respect to the ground vegetation. None of these effects, however, have so far been confirmed in large-scale spatiotemporal studies. Here we analyzed data pertaining to mire vegetation from the Swedish National Forest Inventory collected from permanent sample plots over a period of 20 yr along a latitudinal gradient covering 14°. We hypothesized that the changes would be larger in the southern parts as a result of higher nitrogen deposition and warmer climate. Our results showed an increase in woody vegetation with increases in most ericaceous dwarf-shrubs and in the basal area of trees. These changes were, in contrast to our expectations, evenly distributed over most of the latitudinal gradient. While nitrogen deposition is elevated in the south, the increase in temperatures during recent decades has been larger in the north. Hence, we suggest that different processes in the north and south have produced similar vegetation changes along the latitudinal gradient. There was, however, a sharp increase in compositional change at high deposition, indicating a threshold effect in the response. Instead of a positive feed-back loop caused by the tree layer, an increase in canopy cover reduced the changes in composition of the ground vegetation, whereas a decrease in canopy cover lead to larger changes. Increased natural disturbances of the tree layer due to, for example, pathogens or climate is a predicted outcome of climate change. Hence, these results may have important implications for predictions of long-term effects of increased temperature on peatland vegetation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Light asymmetry explains the effect of nutrient enrichment on grassland diversity

Authors: Demalach, N; Zaady, E; Kadmon, R (2017) HERO ID: 3546864

[Less] One of the most ubiquitous patterns in plant ecology is species loss following nutrient enrichment. . . . [More] One of the most ubiquitous patterns in plant ecology is species loss following nutrient enrichment. A common explanation for this universal pattern is an increase in the size asymmetry of light partitioning (the degree to which large plants receive more light per unit biomass than smaller plants), which accelerates the rates of competitive exclusions. This 'light asymmetry hypothesis' has been confirmed by mathematical models, but has never been tested in natural communities due to the lack of appropriate methodology for measuring the size asymmetry of light partitioning in natural communities. Here, we use a novel approach for quantifying the asymmetry of light competition which is based on measurements of the vertical distribution of light below the canopy. Using our approach, we demonstrate that an increase in light asymmetry is the main mechanism behind the negative effect of nutrient enrichment on species richness. Our results provide a possible explanation for one of the main sources of contemporary species loss in terrestrial plant communities.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sensitivities to nitrogen and water addition vary among microbial groups within soil aggregates in a semiarid grassland

Authors: Wang, R; Dorodnikov, M; Dijkstra, FA; Yang, S; Xu, Z; Li, Hui; Jiang, Y (2017) Biology and Fertility of Soils 53:129-140. HERO ID: 3546916

[Less] We investigated whether enhanced nitrogen (N) and water inputs would redistribute the microbial community . . . [More] We investigated whether enhanced nitrogen (N) and water inputs would redistribute the microbial community within different soil aggregate size classes in a field manipulation experiment initiated in 2005. Distribution of microbial groups was monitored in large macroaggregates (> 2000 mu m), small macroaggregates (250-2000 mu m), and microaggregates (< 250 mu m) in a semiarid grassland. Both arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and saprophytic fungi were the most abundant in soil macroaggregates. The gram-negative bacteria were more abundant in soil microaggregates. Total phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentration in general and actinomycetes in particular decreased with N addition under ambient precipitation but was unaffected by combined additions of N and water within the three soil aggregate fractions as compared to control plots. In contrast, the abundance of saprophytic fungi decreased with combined N and water addition, but it was not affected by N addition under ambient precipitation. The abundance of gram-positive bacteria increased with N addition under both ambient and elevated water conditions for all soil aggregate fractions. In summary, the higher short-term nutrient and water availabilities provoked a shift in soil microbial community composition and increased total PLFA abundance irrespectively of the level of soil aggregation. In the long term, this could destabilize soil carbon pools and influence the nutrient limitation of soil biota within different soil aggregate size classes under future global change scenarios.