Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


ISA NOxSOxPM Ecology (2018)

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3,321 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Coal combustion related fine particulate matter (PM2.5) induces toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans by dysregulating microRNA expression

Authors: Wu, Q; Han, X; Wang, Di; Zhao, F; Wang, D (2017) HERO ID: 3873282

[Less] We employed an in vivo assay system of Caenorhabditis elegans to determine if and which microRNAs (miRNAs) . . . [More] We employed an in vivo assay system of Caenorhabditis elegans to determine if and which microRNAs (miRNAs) were dysregulated upon exposure to coal combustion related fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by profiling the miRNAs using SOLiD sequencing. From this, expression of 25 miRNAs was discovered to become dysregulated by exposure to PM2.5. Using the corresponding C. elegans deletion mutants, 5 miRNAs (mir-231, mir-232, mir-230, mir-251 and mir-35) were found to be involved in the control of PM2.5 toxicity. Furthermore, mutation of mir-231 or mir-232 induced a resistance to PM2.5 toxicity, whereas mutation of mir-230, mir-251, or mir-35 induced a susceptibility to PM2.5 toxicity. SMK-1, an ortholog of the mammalian SMEK protein, was identified as a molecular target for mir-231 in the regulation of PM2.5 toxicity. In addition, the genes of sod-3, sod-4 and ctl-3, which are necessary for protection against oxidative stress, were determined to be important downstream targets of smk-1 in the regulation of PM2.5 toxicity. The triggering of this mir-231-SMK-1-SOD-3/SOD-4/CTL-3 signaling pathway may be a critical molecular basis for the role of oxidative stress in the induction of coal combustion related PM2.5 toxicity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Native brook trout and invasive rainbow trout respond differently to seasonal weather variation: Spawning timing matters

Authors: Kanno, Y; Kulp, MA; Moore, SE; Grossman, GD (2017) HERO ID: 4170688

[Less] 1. Salmonids have been introduced globally, and native and invasive salmonids co-exist in many regions. . . . [More] 1. Salmonids have been introduced globally, and native and invasive salmonids co-exist in many regions. However, their responses to seasonal weather variation and global climate change are poorly known.

2. The aim of this study was to compare effects of inter-annual variation in seasonal weather patterns on native brook trout (BKT) (Salvelinus fontinalis) versus invasive rainbow trout (RBT) (Oncorhynchus mykiss) abundance using summer electrofishing data (May through September) spanning 28 years in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, U.S.A. (c. 200 stream sites per species). In particular, we tested if different spawning timing between BKT (autumn) and RBT (late winter) would result in heterogeneous population responses to high seasonal precipitation, which would negatively affect early life stages with impaired swimming ability.

3. As predicted, young-of-the-year (YOY) abundance of autumn-spawning BKT was most strongly impacted by total precipitation between February and March, and RBT YOY abundance was most strongly impacted by peak precipitation between April and May. Despite the presence of these different key seasonal drivers, inter-annual variation in YOY density of these two species was positively correlated because precipitation in April and May also impacted the abundance of BKT YOY.

4. Adult abundance was less responsive to weather variation than YOY abundance, and was most strongly correlated with YOY abundance in the previous year, indicating the importance of flow-driven population control influences on early life stages affecting population sizes into subsequent years. Adult BKT densities were not affected by any weather covariate, whereas adult RBT densities were correlated with four weather covariates in competing models. As a result, there was no correlation in the inter-annual variation in adult density in these two species.

5. The differing responses of BKT and RBT to long-term seasonal weather patterns suggest that they will likely respond differently to global climate change. In particular, winter precipitation will likely be the key environmental driver of differences in their population responses.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of PnET-BGC to inform the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of acidity in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park

Authors: Fakhraei, HK; Driscoll, CT; Kulp, MA; Renfro, JR; Blett, TF; Brewer, PF; Schwartz, JS (2017) Environmental Modelling and Software 95:156-167. HERO ID: 4170700

[Less] The biogeochemical model, PnET-BGC, has been used to evaluate the long-term acid-base response of surface . . . [More] The biogeochemical model, PnET-BGC, has been used to evaluate the long-term acid-base response of surface waters to changes in atmospheric acid deposition. We propose a methodology to identify the input factors of greatest model sensitivity and propagate uncertainty of input factors to model outputs. The quantified model uncertainty enabled application of an "exceedance probability" approach to determine allowable atmospheric deposition in the form of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for twelve acid-impaired streams in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Results indicate that acidification of surface water resulting from acidic deposition has been substantial. Even if current atmospheric deposition is reduced to pre-industrial levels, only one of the twelve impaired streams might be recovered to its site-specific standard by 2050. Our sensitivity analysis indicates that the model is most sensitive to precipitation quantity, air temperature and calcium weathering rate, and suggests further research to improve characterization of these inputs. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Particulate matter accumulation - further differences between native Prunus padus and non-native P.serotina

Authors: Popek, R; Lukowski, A; Karolewski, P (2017) HERO ID: 4172395

[Less] Particulate matter (PM) is one of the most harmful inhaled pollutants. Where pollutants have been emitted . . . [More] Particulate matter (PM) is one of the most harmful inhaled pollutants. Where pollutants have been emitted into the atmosphere, the most effective method for cleaning the air is through phytoremediation, whereby plants act as biological filters. PM has a negative impact on plants, but knowledge of PM effects on the photosynthetic apparatus is limited. In European forests, species of the genus Prunus L. play a key role in the composition of the forest understory and urban as well as industrial plantings. Shrubs of the native P. padus L. and closely-related invasive alien P. serotina Ehrh. are particularly widespread. Thus, both are good model species in which to study the impact of PM pollution.

The aim of this study was to assess the accumulation of PM in the context of leaf morphology and amount of epicuticular waxes on foliage, and the efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus of P. padus and P. serotina. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using two variants of dust, cement and roadside PM. In addition, we analyzed the absorption of dust by leaves dividing it into three fractions by size (10-100 mu m, 2.5-10 mu m and 0.2-2.5 mu m). Results showed that both P. padus and P. serotina accumulate PM mostly on the surface of their leaves (SPM), rather than in the wax layer (WPM). P. padus accumulated higher amounts of PM than did P. serotina. The higher presence of PM on leaves of P. padus resulted in a reduction of the efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus, manifested by lower rates of photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, coinciding with an increased stomatal resistance. A strong negative correlation was found between the amount of PM accumulation and the efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus in P. padus, but not in P. serotina. We have concluded that alien P. serotina is more tolerant to the conditions of stress caused by PM pollution than is the native P. padus, which may partly explain its success in the invasion in Europe.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of PnET-BGC to inform the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of acidity in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park: Supplementary materials

Authors: Fakhraei, HK; Driscoll, CT; Kulp, MA; Renfro, JR; Blett, TF; Brewer, PF; Schwartz, JS (2017) Environmental Modelling and Software 95. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 4176879

Abstract: Supplementary materials

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Terrestrial acidification and ecosystem services: effects of acid rain on bunnies, baseball, and Christmas trees

Authors: Irvine, IC; Greaver, T; Phelan, J; Sabo, RD; Van Houtven, G (2017) Ecosphere 8. HERO ID: 3941223

[Less] Often termed "acid rain," combined nitrogen and sulfur deposition can directly and indirectly impact . . . [More] Often termed "acid rain," combined nitrogen and sulfur deposition can directly and indirectly impact the condition and health of forest ecosystems. Researchers use critical loads (CLs) to describe response thresholds, and recent studies on acid-sensitive biological indicators show that forests continue to be at risk from terrestrial acidification. However, rarely are impacts translated into changes in "ecosystem services" that impact human well-being. Further, the relevance of this research to the general public is seldom communicated in terms that can motivate action to protect valuable resources. To understand how changes in biological indicators affect human well-being, we used the STEPS (Stressor-Ecological Production function-final ecosystem Services) Framework to quantitatively and qualitatively link CL exceedances to ecosystem service impacts. We specified the cause-and-effect ecological processes linking changes in biological indicators to final ecosystem services. The Final Ecosystem Goods and Services Classification System (FEGS-CS) was used within the STEPS Framework to classify the ecosystem component and the beneficiary class that uses or values the component. We analyzed two acid-sensitive tree species, balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and white ash (Fraxinus americana), that are common in northeastern USA. These well-known species provide habitat for animals and popular forest products that are relatable to a broad audience. We identified 160 chains with 10 classes of human beneficiaries for balsam fir and white ash combined, concluding that there are resources at risk that the public may value. Two stories resulting from these explorations into the cascading effects of acid rain on terrestrial resources are ideal for effective science communication: the relationship between (1) balsam fir as a popular Christmas tree and habitat for the snowshoe hare, a favorite of wildlife viewers, and (2) white ash because it is used for half of all baseball bats, fine wood products, and musical instruments. Thus, rather than focusing on biological indicators that may only be understood or appreciated by specific stakeholders or experts, this approach extends the analysis to include impacts on FEGS and humans. It also lays the foundation for developing stakeholder-specific narratives, quantitative measures of endpoints, and for conducting demand-based valuations of affected ecosystem services.

Data/Software
Data/ Software

Northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone

Author: U.S. EPA (2017) Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. HERO ID: 4121236


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nitrogen subsidies in glacial meltwaters have altered planktonic diatom communities in lakes of the US Rocky Mountains for at least a century

Authors: Slemmons, KEH; Rodgers, ML; Stone, JR; Saros, JE (2017) HERO ID: 4123292

[Less] We examined sedimentary diatom profiles from alpine lakes in the US Rocky Mountains to assess when glacially . . . [More] We examined sedimentary diatom profiles from alpine lakes in the US Rocky Mountains to assess when glacially fed lakes started receiving nitrogen subsidies and whether that timing varies across regions. We focused on lake sediment cores from Glacier National Park and compared them to previously published work from the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. The only contemporary feature of these glacially fed lakes that differs from snowmelt-fed lakes is nitrate concentration, with glacially fed lakes having about 40 times higher nitrogen than snow-fed lakes; lake thermal structure and temperatures do not differ between lake types. Increases in Asterionella formosa, a strong indicator of nitrogen enrichment, occurred much earlier in glacially fed compared to snow-fed lakes across both regions. Responses to nitrogen enrichment in glacially fed lakes started at least a century ago, and in some cases, many centuries ago, whereas they occurred after 1970 in the snow-fed lakes. Furthermore, diatom assemblages in glacially fed lakes showed declines in species richness over time and greater community turnover compared to snow-fed lakes. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that throughout the late Holocene glacially fed lakes in both regions of the Rocky Mountains have followed different ecological trajectories than snow-fed lakes as a result of increasing nitrogen concentrations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Beech bark disease in North America: Over a century of research revisited

Authors: Cale, JA; Garrison-Johnston, MT; Teale, SA; Castello, JD (2017) Forest Ecology and Management 394:86-103. HERO ID: 3843378

[Less] American beech (Fagus grandifolia) in the eastern United States and Canada has experienced more than . . . [More] American beech (Fagus grandifolia) in the eastern United States and Canada has experienced more than a century of mortality under a steady expansion of disease agents collectively causing beech bark disease (BBD). In North America, BBD consists of insect (e.g., Cryptococcus fagisuga [beech scale] and Xylococculus betulae) and phytopathogenic fungal (Neonectria faginata and N. ditissima) components that can variously interact with host and environment to cause extensive aboveground mortality of beech (i.e., killing front stage). This heavy mortality causes cascading impacts on forest ecosystems, resulting in altered biotic and abiotic conditions in which BBD-inducted mortality persists at reduced levels (i.e., aftermath stage). New evidence suggests that in aftermath conditions, disease agents interact with each other and their environment in ways neither observed nor anticipated from earlier studies of initial disease onset. Previously unrecognized factors such as atmospheric pollution and nutrient imbalances may exacerbate tree susceptibility to this disease. A clearer understanding of BBD-related organisms and their behavior, disease progression and impacts, and interactions between biotic and abiotic factors is needed to support the development of management options aimed at ameliorating economic and ecological consequences of disease-induced forest change. We comprehensively review over a century of literature in order to clarify these aspects in forests newly- and chronically-affected by BBD. Furthermore, we discuss new concerns of a reemergence of heavy mortality in some aftermath forests and present critical knowledge gaps and key considerations to help inform future BBD research and management programs. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Integrated review plan for the secondary national ambient air quality standards for ecological effects of oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur and particulate matter

Author: U.S. EPA (2017) (EPA-452/R-17-002). Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 4144170

[Less] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently reviewing the air quality criteria and associated . . . [More] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently reviewing the air quality criteria and associated secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur, and particulate matter (PM). In any such review, the purpose of the Integrated Review Plan (IRP) document is to communicate the current plan for the review, the process for conducting the review and key policy-relevant scientific and technical issues that will guide the review. In the context of the secondary standards for oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur and PM, the scope for this IRP pertains to the protection of the public welfare from adverse effects related to ecological effects.