Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


ISA NOxSOxPM Ecology (2018)

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3,321 References Were Found:

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Nitrogen oxides and the peroxyacyl nitrates

Authors: Taylor, OC; MacLean, DC (1970) HERO ID: 37102


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of continuous exposure of navel oranges to nitrogen dioxide

Authors: Thompson, CR; Hensel, EG; Kats, G; Taylor, OC (1970) Atmospheric Environment 4:349-355. HERO ID: 37103

[Less] The continuous exposure of navel orange trees to 0.5 and 1.0 ppm of nitrogen dioxide for 35 days caused . . . [More] The continuous exposure of navel orange trees to 0.5 and 1.0 ppm of nitrogen dioxide for 35 days caused severe defoliation and leaf chlorosis. Exposure of the trees to 0.25 ppm and lower levels caused increased leaf drop and reduced fruit yield. At present it seems unlikely that atmospheric concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in the test area are causing injury to citrus.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Air quality criteria for sulfur oxides

Author: HEW (1969) HERO ID: 16292


Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Eutrophication in North America

Author: Edmondson, WT (1969) In Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences, Correctives (Proceedings from a Symposium). Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. HERO ID: 91951


Technical Report
Technical Report

Air quality criteria for particulate matter

Author: NAPCA (1969) HERO ID: 14684

Abstract: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Transpiration and leaf temperature

Author: Gates, DM (1968) Annual Review of Plant Biology 19:211-238. HERO ID: 52792

[Less] No literature of plant science offers more confusion than the publications concerned with transpiration . . . [More] No literature of plant science offers more confusion than the publications concerned with transpiration and plant temperature. Transpiration rate and leaf temperature are the result of the interaction of several simultaneous environmental factors interacting with a leaf to a degree determined by several plant properties. Hence the dependent variables, transpiration rate and leaf temperature, depend upon many independent variables of climate and plant acting in various combinations at any single moment. The investigator either has not recognized this inherent difficulty, or complexity, or if he did recognize it, did not know what to do about it. Therefore many experiments which were thought to be definitive were indefinite because one or more variables were ignored in the context of the variables observed. Very often good quantitative measurements were made of transpiration rate, leaf temperature, air temperature, wind, and relative humidity and then the relationships between dependent and independent variables were not made quantitative for lack of a good analytical framework. In other words, to put it simply and bluntly, the science of transpiration and leaf temperature was not understood. It is hoped that this presentation will be a step toward increased understanding of the interaction between transpiration, leaf temperatures, and environment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Climatology of the low level jet

Author: Bonner, WD (1968) HERO ID: 71843

[Less] Geographical and diurnal variations in the frequency of occurrence of strong low level wind maxima are . . . [More] Geographical and diurnal variations in the frequency of occurrence of strong low level wind maxima are determined using 2 yr. of wind data from 47 rawinsonde stations in the United States. Maximum frequency of occurrence is found in the Great Plains at approximately 37°N. and 98°W. The vast majority of jets in this region occur with southerly flow. Southerly wind maxima appear on both morning and afternoon soundings but occur with much greater frequency, over a larger area, on the morning observations. Twenty-eight morning jet cases are used to determine average synoptic-scale wind and temperature patterns in the vicinity of the jet. Diurnal wind oscillations are examined by comparisons of jet frequencies, speeds, and altitudes on four-times-daily observations. The oscillation is similar to that described by Blackadar; however, there is no apparent tendency for the latitudinal variation in period of the oscillation which Blackadar's model implies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nutrient loss accelerated by clear-cutting of a forest ecosystem

Authors: Bormann, FH; Likens, GE; Fisher, DW; Pierce, RS (1968) HERO ID: 95631

[Less] The forest of a small watershed-ecosystem was cut in order to determine the effects of removal of vegetation . . . [More] The forest of a small watershed-ecosystem was cut in order to determine the effects of removal of vegetation on nutrient cycles. Relative to undisturbed ecosystems, the cut ecosystem exhibited accelerated loss of nutrients: nitrogen lost during the first year after cutting was equivalent to the amount annually turned over in an undisturbed system, and losses of cations were 3 to 20 times greater than from comparable undisturbed systems. Possible causes of the pattern of nutrient loss from the cut ecosystem are discussed.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Scientific fundamentals of the eutrophication of lakes and flowing waters, with particular reference to nitrogen and phosphorus as factors in eutrophication

Author: Vollenweider, RA (1968) (14-14). (DAS/CSI/62.27). Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. HERO ID: 37262

[Less] At the request of the O. E. C. D. Committee for Research Co-operation the author has provided a review . . . [More] At the request of the O. E. C. D. Committee for Research Co-operation the author has provided a review and assessment of studies on the eutrophication of surface waters, particularly lakes, with special regard to enrichment by phosphorus and nitrogen. Factors considered include the causes and extent of the problem; the physiology of algal growth, with regard to available forms and optimal concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus; the definition of trophic conditions according to plankton biomass and primary productivity; nutrient concentrations and loading in relation to trophic state, taking into account morphometric factors; estimations of the quantity of nutrients originating from various sources; the feasibility of controlling enrichment of surface waters; and processes for removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from sewage. It is concluded that the problem of eutrophication is of increasing urgency in highly developed countries. Undesirable conditions may develop in lakes if the assimilable phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen contents exceed 10 mg and 200-300 mg per m3, respectively, or the annual loads exceed 0. 2 - 0. 5 g and 5-10 g per m3, respectively, but many factors will influence the effect of such enrichment. Further research is needed to determine maximal permissible loads for nitrogen and phosphorus, the quantity of nutrients introduced by various sources, and the role of trace elements and organic growth factors. Elimination of nitrogen and phosphorus at present entering lakes through outfall sewers could improve conditions, but in many cases an equal quantity of nutrients enters the water from other sources, control of which would be difcult. A separate appendix provides brief details of current studies on eutrophication by the major European and American research organizations, and the literature consulted as a basis for the report is listed in a separate bibliography.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Transport of lycopodium spores and other small particles to rough surfaces

Author: Chamberlain, AC (1967) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and physical sciences 296:45-70. HERO ID: 3221921

[Less] Measurements have been made in the field and in a wind tunnel of the transport of Lycopodium spores . . . [More] Measurements have been made in the field and in a wind tunnel of the transport of Lycopodium spores to grass and other surfaces, and wind tunnel experiments also have been done with aerosols of various smaller particle sizes. The spores and other particles were made radioactive to enable the deposition of small numbers on rough surfaces to be detected. In principle the experiments in the wind tunnel were similar to those previously done with gases (Chamberlam 1966), but the mechanisms by which particles and gases are transported across the boundary layer are different. The velocity of deposition v$_g$ of the particle to the surface is equal to the terminal velocity v$_s$ if the wind speed is very small, but at higher speeds deposition by impaction on roughness elements becomes progressively more important. If the roughness elements are of a form which gives good impaction efficiency, and have a sticky surface, v$_g$ is determined by the rate of eddy diffusion in the turbulent boundary layer above the surface, and may equal or even exceed the analogous velocity of deposition of momentum. The effect of surface texture and stickiness was investigated by comparing the catch of particles on segments of real leaves with the catch on similarity shaped segments of PVC treated with adhesive. Stickiness is important in determining v$_g$ for particles of about 10 $\mu$m diameter upwards, but not for smaller particles. In the field experiments, the use of radioactive tagging enabled the presence of a few Lycopodium spores in several grams of grass or soil to be detected, and the deposition could be measured at ranges up to 100 m from the source. At low wind speeds, v$_g$ was only a little greater than v$_s$ but at higher speeds the contribution of impaction became evident. A particularly high value was obtained when the grass was wet after recent rain. The field results with Lycopodium give a ratio of velocity of deposition to wind speed of 0$\cdot$01, and this value is used to calculate the percentage of large spores or pollen grains which will travel various distances in normal meteorological conditions. It is found that the median range is about 1 km if the particles are liberated at a height of 50 cm, but 10 km if the height is 10 m. The relative importance of direct deposition to the ground and washout by ram of the air spora is considered, and is shown to depend on the effective height of the cloud of particles. For an effective height of 500 m, derived from vertical profiles of concentration observed from aircraft, it is calculated that about 25% of the total deposition of pollen grains may be in rain.