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Trimethylbenzenes (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

BnaC9.SMG7b functions as a positive regulator of number of seeds per silique in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) by regulating the formation of functional female gametophytes

Authors: Li, S; Chen, L; Zhang, L; Li, X; Liu, Y; Wu, Z; Dong, F; Wan, L; Liu, K; Hong, D; Yang, G (2015) HERO ID: 3044614

[Less] Number of seeds per silique (NSS) is an important determinant of seed yield potential in Brassicaceae . . . [More] Number of seeds per silique (NSS) is an important determinant of seed yield potential in Brassicaceae crops and is controlled by naturally occurring quantitative trait loci (QTLs). We previously mapped a major QTL, qSS.C9, on the C9 chromosome that controls NSS in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). To gain a better understanding of how qSS.C9 controls NSS in rapeseed, we isolated this locus through a map-based cloning strategy. qSS.C9 encodes a predicted small protein with 119 amino acids, designated as BnaC9.SMG7b, that shows homology with the Ever Shorter Telomere 1-tertratricopeptide repeats (EST-TPR) and EST-central domains (CD) of Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR WITH MORPHOGENETIC EFFECTS ON GENITALIA7 (SMG7). BnaC9.SMG7b plays a role in regulating the formation of functional female gametophyte, thus determining the formation of functional megaspores and then mature ovules. Natural loss or artificial knockdown of BnaC9.SMG7b significantly reduces the number of functional ovules per silique and thus results in decreased seed number, indicating that qSS.C9 is a positive regulator of NSS in B. napus. Sequence and function analyses show that BnaC9.SMG7b experiences a subfunctionalization process that causes loss of function in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), as in Arabidopsis SMG7. Haplotype analysis in 84 accessions showed that the favorable BnaC9.SMG7b alleles are prevalent in modern B. napus germplasms, suggesting that this locus has been a major selection target of B. napus improvement. Our results represent the first step toward unraveling the molecular mechanism that controls the natural variation of NSS in rapeseed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Total Synthesis of Crotophorbolone

Authors: Asaba, T; Katoh, Y; Urabe, D; Inoue, M (2015) HERO ID: 3044615

[Less] The complex ABC-tricyclic structure of crotophorbolone, a derivative of the tigliane diterpenoids, was . . . [More] The complex ABC-tricyclic structure of crotophorbolone, a derivative of the tigliane diterpenoids, was assembled by coupling of simple fragments. The six-membered C-ring fragment, having five contiguous stereocenters, was stereoselectively constructed from (R)-carvone. After attachment of the five-membered A-ring through the π-allyl Stille coupling reaction, the α-alkoxy bridgehead radical reaction effected the endo-cyclization of the seven-membered B-ring by forming the sterically congested bond at C9 and C10 stereospecifically and stereoselectively, respectively. Finally, the functional groups on the 5/7/6-membered ring system were manipulated by rhodium-catalyzed C2 olefin isomerization, C13 decarboxylative oxidation, and C4 hydroxylation, thus completing the first total synthesis of crotophorbolone.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Double Bond Position Plays an Important Role in Delta-9 Desaturation and Lipogenic Properties of Trans 18:1 Isomers in Mouse Adipocytes

Authors: Vahmani, P; Meadus, WJ; Mapiye, C; Duff, P; Rolland, DC; Dugan, ME (2015) HERO ID: 3044617

[Less] The objective of this research was to study the delta-9 desaturation of individual trans (t) fatty acids . . . [More] The objective of this research was to study the delta-9 desaturation of individual trans (t) fatty acids that can be found in ruminant fat or partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) and determine their effects on lipogenic gene expression in adipocytes. It was hypothesized that delta-9 desaturation and lipogenic properties of t-18:1 isomers depend on the position of double bond. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with 200 µM of t6-18:1, t9-18:1, t11-18:1, t13-18:1 or t16-18:1, cis (c)-9 18:1 or bovine serum albumin (BSA) vehicle control for 48 h. Cells were then harvested for fatty acid and gene expression analyses using gas chromatography and quantitative PCR respectively. Among t-18:1 isomers, t13-18:1 and t11-8:1 had the greatest percent delta-9 desaturation (44 and 41 % respectively) followed by t16-18:1 and t6-18:1 (32 and 17 % respectively), while c9-18:1 and t9-18:1 did not undergo delta-9 desaturation. Trans9-18:1 up-regulated (P < 0.05) the expression of lipogenic genes including fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (P < 0.05), whereas the expression of these genes were not affected with other t-18:1 isomers (P > 0.05). Consistent with gene expression results, t9-18:1 increased the de novo lipogenic index (16:0/18:2n-6) compared with control cells and increased delta-9 desaturation index (c9-16:1/18:0) compared to other t-18:1 isomers (P < 0.05). The current study provides further evidence that the predominant trans fatty acid in PHVO (t9-18:1) has isomer specific lipogenic properties.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phosphorylation and Internalization of Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptors LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3

Authors: Alcántara-Hernández, R; Hernández-Méndez, A; Campos-Martínez, GA; Meizoso-Huesca, A; García-Sáinz, JA (2015) HERO ID: 3044618

[Less] RESULTS: The lysophosphatidic acid receptors LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3 were individually . . . [More] RESULTS: The lysophosphatidic acid receptors LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3 were individually expressed in C9 cells and their signaling and regulation were studied. Agonist-activation increases intracellular calcium concentration in a concentration-dependent fashion. Phorbol myristate acetate markedly inhibited LPA1- and LPA3-mediated effect, whereas that mediated by LPA2 was only partially diminished; the actions of the phorbol ester were inhibited by bisindolylmaleimide I and by overnight incubation with the protein kinase C activator, which leads to down regulation of this protein kinase. Homologous desensitization was also observed for the three LPA receptors studied, with that of LPA2 receptors being consistently of lesser magnitude; neither inhibition nor down-regulation of protein kinase C exerted any effect on homologous desensitization. Activation of LPA1-3 receptors induced ERK 1/2 phosphorylation; this effect was markedly attenuated by inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activity, suggesting growth factor receptor transactivation in this effect. Lysophosphatidic acid and phorbol myristate acetate were able to induce LPA1-3 phosphorylation, in time- and concentration-dependent fashions. It was also clearly observed that agonists and protein kinase C activation induced internalization of these receptors. Phosphorylation of the LPA2 subtype required larger concentrations of these agents and its internalization was less intense than that of the other subtypes.

CONCLUSION: Our data show that these three LPA receptors are phosphoproteins whose phosphorylation state is modulated by agonist-stimulation and protein kinase C-activation and that differences in regulation and cellular localization exist, among the subtypes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Inflammatory immune response by lipopolysaccharide-responsive nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors in the Japanese pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes)

Authors: Biswas, G; Bilen, S; Kono, T; Sakai, M; Hikima, JI (2015) HERO ID: 3044619

[Less] Some of NOD-like receptors (NLRs), the cytosolic pattern recognition receptors form a multi-protein . . . [More] Some of NOD-like receptors (NLRs), the cytosolic pattern recognition receptors form a multi-protein complex, inflammasome consisting of one or more NLRs, the adaptor protein ASC and inflammatory caspase to generate mature inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. However, inflammasome-mediated inflammatory cascade involving any NLR member is unknown in a lower vertebrate like fish. Also, inflammatory cytokine induction pathway in response to a specific ligand, namely bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has not yet been clarified. Therefore, 13 predicted NLR sequences of the Japanese pufferfish, Fugu (Takifugu rubripes) were retrieved in silico and categorized as NLR-C1∼13. Expression analysis of these genes in Fugu head kidney (HK) cells stimulated with a heat-killed Lactobacillus paracasei spp. paracasei (Lpp), LPS, nigericin and a combination of nigericin + LPS showed consistent up-regulations of NLR-C1, 5, 7, 10 and 12 genes in both Lpp and LPS stimulations and NLR-C9 gene in LPS stimulation only. However, nigericin and nigericin + LPS caused an increased expression of NLR-C10 and 12 in HK cells and leukocytes. Fugu treated with Lpp and LPS (in vivo), and infected with Vibrio harveyi had an elevated expression of NLR-C10 and 12. Increased transcription of caspase-1, ASC, IL-1β and IL-18 was recorded in nigericin-stimulated HK cells and leukocytes. Results suggested activation of probable inflammasome-mediated inflammatory cytokine response in Fugu. Moreover, LPS may be a key ligand that induces some of the Fugu NLR-Cs (NLR-C9, 10 and 12). Further characterization and functional analysis of Fugu NLR-C10 and 12 for ligand sensing, and processing of pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β would elucidate the inflammasome evolution in fish.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Kinetics of Upgrading of Anisole with Hydrogen Catalyzed by Platinum Supported on Alumina

Authors: Saidi, M; Rostami, P; Rahimpour, HR; Fallah, M; Rahimpour, MR; Gates, BC; Raeissi, S (2015) Energy and Fuels 29:4990-4997. HERO ID: 3044632

[Less] Kinetics of the reactions of anisole, a model compound representative of lignin-derived bio-oils, with . . . [More] Kinetics of the reactions of anisole, a model compound representative of lignin-derived bio-oils, with H-2 catalyzed by Pt/Al2O3, were investigated with a fixed-bed tubular microflow reactor at 573-673 K, 8-14 bar, and space velocities in the range of 3-240 (g of anisole)/(g of catalyst x h). Selectivity conversion data were used as a basis to propose an approximate reaction network and estimate parameters in approximate rate equations. The reactions include the following: anisole conversion to phenol by hydrogenolysis, to 2-methylphenol by transalkylation, to 2,4-dimethylphenol, 2,4,6-trimethylphenol, and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylphenol by transalkylation and alkylation, to benzene by hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), and to hexamethylbenzene by HDO and alkylation. The primary reactions are satisfactorily represented with the approximation that each is first-order in the organic reactant. The apparent activation energy for the hydrogenolysis reaction that leads to phenol formation is approximately 25.3 kJ/mol, and the alkylation is the reaction class characterized by the highest apparent activation energy.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

BGA66 and BGA71 facilitate complement resistance of Borrelia bavariensis by inhibiting assembly of the membrane attack complex

Authors: Hammerschmidt, C; Klevenhaus, Y; Koenigs, A; Hallström, T; Fingerle, V; Skerka, C; Pos, KM; Zipfel, PF; Wallich, R; Kraiczy, P (2015) HERO ID: 3044636

[Less] Borrelia (B.) bavariensis exhibits a marked tropism for nervous tissues and frequently causes neurological . . . [More] Borrelia (B.) bavariensis exhibits a marked tropism for nervous tissues and frequently causes neurological manifestations in humans. The molecular mechanism by which B. bavariensis overcomes innate immunity, in particular, complement remains elusive. In contrast to other serum-resistant spirochetes, none of the B. bavariensis isolates investigated bound complement regulators of the alternative (AP) and classical pathway (CP) or proteolytically inactivated complement components. Focusing on outer surface proteins BGA66 and BGA71, we demonstrated that both molecules either inhibit AP, CP and terminal pathway (TP) activation, or block activation of the CP and TP respectively. Both molecules bind complement components C7, C8 and C9, and thereby prevent assembly of the terminal complement complex. This inhibitory activity was confirmed by the introduction of the BGA66 and BGA71 encoding genes into a serum-sensitive B. garinii strain. Transformed spirochetes producing either BGA66 or BGA71 overcome complement-mediated killing, thus indicating that both proteins independently facilitate serum resistance of B. bavariensis. The generation of C-terminally truncated proteins as well as a chimeric BGA71 protein lead to the localization of the complement-interacting binding site within the N-terminus. Collectively, our data reveal a novel immune evasion strategy of B. bavariensis that is directed against the activation of the TP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Identification of G and P genotype-specific motifs in the predicted VP7 and VP4 amino acid sequences

Author: Ma, Y (2015) HERO ID: 3044656

[Less] Equine rotavirus (ERV) strain L338 (G13P[18]) has a unique G and P genotype. However, the evolutionary . . . [More] Equine rotavirus (ERV) strain L338 (G13P[18]) has a unique G and P genotype. However, the evolutionary relationship of L338 with other ERVs is still unknown. Here whole genome analysis of the L338 ERV strain was independently performed. Its genotype constellations were determined as G13-P[18]-I6-R9-C9-M6-A6-N9-T12-E14-H11, confirming previous genotype assignments. The L338 strain only shared the P[18] and I6 genotypes with other ERVs. The nucleotide sequences of the other 9 RNA segments were different from those of cogent genes of all other group A rotavirus (RVA) strains including ERVs and formed unique phylogenetic lineages. The L338 evolutionary footprints were tentatively identified in both VP7 and VP4 amino acid sequences: two regions were found in VP7 and twelve in VP4. The conserved regions shared between L338 and other group A rotavirus strains (RVAs) indicated that L338 was more closely related genomically to animal and human RVAs other than ERVs, suggesting that L338 may not be an endogenous equine RV but have emerged as an interspecies reassortant with other RVA strains. Furthermore, genotype-specific motifs of all 27 G and 37 P types were identified in regions 7-1a (aa 91-100) of VP7 and regions 8-1 (aa146-151) and 8-3 (aa113-118 and 125-135) of VP4 (VP8*).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Bulged Invader probes: activated duplexes for mixed-sequence dsDNA recognition with improved thermodynamic and kinetic profiles

Authors: Guenther, DC; Karmakar, S; Hrdlicka, PJ (2015) HERO ID: 3044657

[Less] Double-stranded oligonucleotides with +1 interstrand zipper arrangements of intercalator-functionalized . . . [More] Double-stranded oligonucleotides with +1 interstrand zipper arrangements of intercalator-functionalized nucleotides are energetically activated for recognition of mixed-sequence double-stranded DNA. Incorporation of nonyl (C9) bulges at specific positions of these probes, results in more highly affine (>5-fold), faster (>4-fold) and more persistent dsDNA recognition relative to conventional Invader probes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON INJECTION AND MACROSCOPIC SPRAY CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHYL OLEATE, JET FUEL AND THEIR BLEND ON A DIESEL ENGINE COMMON RAIL SYSTEM

Authors: Duan, Y; Han, D; Li, P; Wang, C; Lin, He; Huang, Z (2015) HERO ID: 3044661

[Less] Injection and macroscopic spray characteristics of ethyl oleate, jet fuel, and ethyl oleate-jet fuel . . . [More] Injection and macroscopic spray characteristics of ethyl oleate, jet fuel, and ethyl oleate-jet fuel blend are investigated on a common rail injection system, with changed injection pressures and ambient pressures. The volumetric and mass injection rates, as well as the macroscopic spray parameters, such as the spray penetration distance, spray cone angle, projected spray area, spray front velocity, maximum spray width, and light intensity level of different test fuels, are analyzed in detail. It is found that fuel property places an important influence on injection characteristics. Similarly, the fuel physical properties also lead to some distinctions in the macroscopic spray parameters.