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Arsenic Susceptibility

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics links bioavailability for assessing arsenic uptake and toxicity in three aquaculture species

Authors: Chen, W-Y; Liao, C-M (In Press) Environmental Science and Pollution Research. HERO ID: 1248967

[Less] The purpose of this study was to link toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics (TK/TD) and bioavailability-based . . . [More] The purpose of this study was to link toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics (TK/TD) and bioavailability-based metal uptake kinetics to assess arsenic (As) uptake and bioaccumulation in three common farmed species of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), milkfish (Chanos chanos), and freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea). We developed a mechanistic framework by linking damage assessment model (DAM) and bioavailability-based Michaelis-Menten model for describing TK/TD and As uptake mechanisms. The proposed model was verified with published acute toxicity data. The estimated TK/TD parameters were used to simulate the relationship between bioavailable As uptake and susceptibility probability. The As toxicity was also evaluated based on a constructed elimination-recovery scheme. Absorption rate constants were estimated to be 0.025, 0.016, and 0.175 mL g-1 h-1 and As uptake rate constant estimates were 22.875, 63.125, and 788.318 ng g-1 h-1 for tilapia, milkfish, and freshwater clam, respectively. Here we showed that a potential trade-off between capacities of As elimination and damage recovery was found among three farmed species. Moreover, the susceptibility probability can also be estimated by the elimination-recovery relations. This study suggested that bioavailability-based uptake kinetics and TK/TD-based DAM could be integrated for assessing metal uptake and toxicity in aquatic organisms. This study is useful to quantitatively assess the complex environmental behavior of metal uptake and implicate to risk assessment of metals in aquaculture systems.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mitochondrial hormesis links low-dose arsenite exposure to lifespan extension

Authors: Schmeisser, S; Schmeisser, K; Weimer, S; Groth, M; Priebe, S; Fazius, E; Kuhlow, D; Pick, D; Einax, JW; Guthke, R; Platzer, M; Zarse, K; Ristow, M (In Press) Aging Cell. HERO ID: 1519026

[Less] Arsenite is one of the most toxic chemical substances known and is assumed to exert detrimental effects . . . [More] Arsenite is one of the most toxic chemical substances known and is assumed to exert detrimental effects on viability even at lowest concentrations. By contrast and unlike higher concentrations, we here find that exposure to low-dose arsenite promotes growth of cultured mammalian cells. In the nematode C. elegans, low-dose arsenite promotes resistance against thermal and chemical stressors, and extends lifespan of this metazoan, whereas higher concentrations reduce longevity. While arsenite causes a transient increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in C. elegans, co-exposure to ROS scavengers prevents the lifespan-extending capabilities of arsenite, indicating that transiently increased ROS levels act as transducers of arsenite effects on lifespan, a process known as mitohormesis. This requires two transcription factors, namely DAF-16 and SKN-1, which employ the metallothionein MTL-2 as well as the mitochondrial transporter TIN-9.1 to extend life span. Taken together, low-dose arsenite extends lifespan, providing evidence for non-linear dose-response characteristics of toxin-mediated stress resistance and longevity in a multicellular organism. © 2013 The Authors Aging Cell © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Genotype-phenotype matching analysis of 38 Lactococcus lactis strains using random forest methods

Authors: Bayjanov, JR; Starrenburg, MJ; van der Sijde, MR; Siezen, RJ; van Hijum, SA (In Press) BMC Microbiology. HERO ID: 1519029

[Less] BACKGROUND: Lactococcus lactis is used in dairy food fermentation and for the efficient production of . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Lactococcus lactis is used in dairy food fermentation and for the efficient production of industrially relevant enzymes. The genome content and different phenotypes have been determined for multiple L. lactis strains in order to understand intra-species genotype and phenotype diversity and annotate gene functions. In this study, we identified relations between gene presence and a collection of 207 phenotypes across 38 L. lactis strains of dairy and plant origin. Gene occurrence and phenotype data were used in an iterative gene selection procedure, based on the Random Forest algorithm, to identify genotype-phenotype relations. RESULTS: A total of 1388 gene-phenotype relations were found, of which some confirmed known gene-phenotype relations, such as the importance of arabinose utilization genes only for strains of plant origin. We also identified a gene cluster related to growth on melibiose, a plant disaccharide; this cluster is present only in melibiose-positive strains and can be used as a genetic marker in trait improvement. Additionally, several novel gene-phenotype relations were uncovered, for instance, genes related to arsenite resistance or arginine metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that genotype-phenotype matching by integrating large data sets provides the possibility to identify gene-phenotype relations, possibly improve gene function annotation and identified relations can be used for screening bacterial culture collections for desired phenotypes. In addition to all gene-phenotype relations, we also provide coherent phenotype data for 38 Lactococcus strains assessed in 207 different phenotyping experiments, which to our knowledge is the largest to date for the Lactococcus lactis species.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Differential modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor regulated enzymes by arsenite in the kidney, lung, and heart of C57BL/6 mice

Authors: Anwar-Mohamed, A; Abdelhamid, G; Amara, IEA; El-Kadi, AOS (In Press) Archives of Toxicology. HERO ID: 1070382

[Less] During the last couple of decades, efforts have been made to study the toxic effects of individual aryl . . . [More] During the last couple of decades, efforts have been made to study the toxic effects of individual aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR) ligands such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or heavy metals typified by arsenic As(III). However, little is known about the combined toxic effects of TCDD and As(III) in vivo. Previous reports from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that As(III), by itself or in the presence of AhR ligands, such as TCDD, is capable of differentially altering the expression of various phase I and phase II AhR-regulated genes in in vitro systems. Thus, the objective of the current study was to investigate whether or not similar effects would occur at the in vivo level. Therefore, we examined the effect of exposure to As(III) (12.5 mg/kg) in the absence and presence of TCDD (15 μg/kg) on the AhR-regulated genes using C57Bl/6 mice. Our results demonstrated that As(III) alone inhibited Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 in the kidney, while it induced their levels in the lung and did not affect their mRNA levels in the heart. As(III) also induced Nqo1 and Gsta1 in all tested tissues. Upon co-exposure to As(III) and TCDD, As(III) inhibited the TCDD-mediated induction of Cyp1a1 in the kidney and heart, Cyp1a2 in the kidney and heart, while it potentiated TCDD-mediated induction of Cyp1a1 in the lung, and Nqo1 and Gsta1 in the kidney and lung. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates for the first time that As(III) modulates constitutive and TCDD-induced AhR-regulated genes in a time-, tissue-, and AhR-regulated enzyme-specific manner.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Linking selenium biogeochemistry to the sulfur-dependent biological detoxification of arsenic

Authors: Couture, R-M; Sekowska, A; Fang, G; Danchin, A (In Press) Environmental Microbiology. HERO ID: 1070405

[Less] Geochemistry often reveals unexpected (anti)correlations. Arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) are cases in . . . [More] Geochemistry often reveals unexpected (anti)correlations. Arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) are cases in point. We explore the hypothesis that bacteria living in an As-replete environment recruited a biological process involving Se and sulfur to fulfil their need for As detoxification. In analogy with the formation of arsenolipids and arsenosugars, which are common non-toxic As metabolites derived from microbial and plant metabolism, we attempt to explain the prevalence of novel sulfur-containing As derivatives, in particular monothioarsenate, in the aqueous environment. Thiolated-As species have been overlooked so far mainly because of the difficulty of their identification. Based on comparative genomics, we propose a scenario where SelD and SelU proteins, commonly used to make selenophosphate and modify transfer RNA, have been recruited to make monothioarsenate, a relatively innocuous arsenical. This hypothesis is discussed in terms of the relative geochemical distribution of Se and As.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A survey of arsenic, manganese, boron, thorium, and other toxic metals in the groundwater of a West Bengal, India neighbourhood

Authors: Bacquart, T; Bradshaw, K; Frisbie, S; Mitchell, E; Springston, G; Defelice, J; Dustin, H; Sarkar, B (In Press) Metallomics. HERO ID: 1070432

[Less] Around 150 million people are at risk from arsenic-contaminated groundwater in India and Bangladesh. . . . [More] Around 150 million people are at risk from arsenic-contaminated groundwater in India and Bangladesh. Multiple metal analysis in Bangladesh has found other toxic elements above the World Health Organization (WHO) health-based drinking water guidelines which significantly increases the number of people at risk due to drinking groundwater. In this study, drinking water samples from the Bongaon area (North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal, India) were analyzed for multiple metal contamination in order to evaluate groundwater quality on the neighbourhood scale. Each sample was analyzed for arsenic (As), boron (B), barium (Ba), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and uranium (U). Arsenic was found above the WHO health-based drinking water guideline in 50% of these tubewells. Mn and B were found at significant concentrations in 19% and 6% of these tubewells, respectively. The maps of As, Mn, and B concentrations suggest that approximately 75% of this area has no safe tubewells. The concentrations of As, Mn, B, and many other toxic elements are independent of each other. The concentrations of Pb and U were not found above WHO health-based drinking water guidelines but they were statistically related to each other (p-value = 0.001). An analysis of selected isotopes in the Uranium, Actinium, and Thorium Radioactive Decay Series revealed the presence of thorium (Th) in 31% of these tubewells. This discovery of Th, which does not have a WHO health-based drinking water guideline, is a potential public health challenge. In sum, the widespread presence and independent distribution of other metals besides As must be taken into consideration for drinking water remediation strategies involving well switching or home-scale water treatment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Trichosanthes dioica fruit ameliorates experimentally Induced arsenic toxicity in male albino rats through the alleviation of oxidative stress

Authors: Bhattacharya, S; Haldar, PK (In Press) Biological Trace Element Research. HERO ID: 1015708

[Less] The present work was focused to evaluate the ameliorative property of aqueous extract of Trichosanthes . . . [More] The present work was focused to evaluate the ameliorative property of aqueous extract of Trichosanthes dioica fruit (AQ T. dioica fruit) against arsenic-induced toxicity in male Wistar albino rats. AQ T. dioica fruit was administered orally to rats at 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for 20 consecutive days prior to oral administration of sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg) for 10 days. Then the rats were sacrificed for the evaluation of body weights, organ weights, hematological profile, serum biochemical profile, and hepatic and renal antioxidative parameters viz. lipid peroxidation, reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and DNA fragmentation. Pretreatment with AQ T. dioica fruit at both doses markedly and significantly normalized body weights, organ weights, hematological profiles, and serum biochemical profile in arsenic-treated animals. Further, AQ T. dioica fruit pretreatment significantly modulated all the aforesaid hepatic and renal biochemical perturbations and reduced DNA fragmentation in arsenic-intoxicated rats. Therefore, from the present findings, it can be concluded that T. dioica fruit possessed remarkable value in amelioration of arsenic-induced hepatic and renal toxicity, mediated by alleviation of arsenic-induced oxidative stress by multiple mechanisms in male albino rats.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Distribution of Colonization and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Chicken

Authors: Thibodeau, A; Fravalo, P; Garneau, P; Masson, L; Laurent-Lewandowski, S; Quessy, S; Harel, J; Letellier, A (In Press) Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. HERO ID: 1519047

[Less] Abstract Campylobacter jejuni is an important worldwide foodborne pathogen commonly found as a commensal . . . [More] Abstract Campylobacter jejuni is an important worldwide foodborne pathogen commonly found as a commensal organism in poultry that can reach high numbers within the gut after colonization. Although information regarding some genes involved in colonization is available, little is known about their distribution in strains isolated specifically from chickens and whether there is a linkage between antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and colonization genes. To assess the distribution and relevance of genes associated with chicken colonization and AMR, a C. jejuni microarray was created to detect 254 genes of interest in colonization and AMR including variants. DNA derived from chicken-specific Campylobacter isolates collected in 2003 (n=29) and 2008 (n=28) was hybridized to the microarray and compared. Hybridization results showed variable colonization-associated gene presence. Acquired AMR genes were low in prevalence whereas chemotaxis receptors, arsenic resistance genes, as well as genes from the cell envelope and flagella functional groups were highly variable in their presence. Strains clustered into two groups, each linked to different control strains, 81116 and NCTC11168. Clustering was found to be independent of collection time. We also show that AMR weakly associated with the CJ0628 and arsR genes. Although other studies have implicated numerous genes associated with C. jejuni chicken colonization, our data on chicken-specific isolates suggest the opposite. The enormous variability in presumed colonization gene prevalence in our chicken isolates suggests that many are of lesser importance than previously thought. Alternatively, this also suggests that combinations of genes may be required for natural colonization of chicken intestines.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Predicting water consumption habits for seven arsenic-safe water options in Bangladesh

Authors: Inauen, J; Tobias, R; Molser, H-J (In Press) BMC Public Health. HERO ID: 1579244

[Less] BACKGROUND: In Bangladesh, 20 million people are at the risk of developing arsenicosis because of excessive . . . [More] BACKGROUND: In Bangladesh, 20 million people are at the risk of developing arsenicosis because of excessive arsenic intake. Despite increased awareness, many of the implemented arsenic-safe water options are not being sufficiently used by the population. This study investigated the role of social-cognitive factors in explaining the habitual use of arsenic-safe water options. METHODS: Eight hundred seventy-two randomly selected households in six arsenic-affected districts of rural Bangladesh, which had access to an arsenic-safe water option, were interviewed using structured face-to-face interviews in November 2009. Habitual use of arsenic-safe water options, severity, vulnerability, affective and instrumental attitudes, injunctive and descriptive norms, self-efficacy, and coping planning were measured. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regressions. RESULTS: Linear regression revealed that self-efficacy (B = 0.42, SE = .03, p < .001), the instrumental attitude towards the safe water option (B = 0.24, SE = .04, p < .001), the affective attitude towards contaminated tube wells (B = -0.04, SE = .02, p = .024), vulnerability (B = -0.20, SE = .02, p < .001), as well as injunctive (B = 0.08, SE = 0.04, p = .049) and descriptive norms (B = 0.34, SE = .03, p < .001) primarily explained the habitual use of arsenic-safe water options (R2 = 0.688). This model proved highly generalizable to all seven arsenic-safe water options investigated, even though habitual use of single options were predicted on the basis of parameters estimated without these options. CONCLUSIONS: This general model for the habitual use of arsenic-safe water options may prove useful to predict other water consumption habits. Behavior-change interventions are derived from the model to promote the habitual use of arsenic-safe water options.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Batch effects and pathway analysis: Two potential perils in cancer studies involving DNA methylation array analysis

Authors: Harper, KN; Peters, BA; Gamble, MV (In Press) Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. HERO ID: 1579252

[Less] Background: DNA methylation microarrays have become an increasingly popular means of studying the role . . . [More] Background: DNA methylation microarrays have become an increasingly popular means of studying the role of epigenetics in cancer, though the methods used to analyze these arrays are still being developed and existing methods are not always widely disseminated among microarray users. Methods: We investigated two problems likely to confront DNA methylation microarray users: 1) batch effects; and 2) the use of widely available pathway analysis software to analyze results. First, DNA taken from individuals exposed to low and high levels of drinking water arsenic were plated twice on Illumina's Infinium 450K humanmethylation array, once in order of exposure and again following randomization. Second, we performed simulations in which random CpG sites were drawn from the 450K array and subjected to pathway analysis using Ingenuity's IPA software. Results: The majority of differentially methylated CpG sites identified in Run One were due to batch effects; few sites were also identified in Run Two. In addition, the pathway analysis software reported many significant associations between our data, randomly drawn from the 450K array, and various diseases and biological functions. Conclusions: Data from our own laboratory illustrate the pitfalls of not properly controlling for chip-specific batch effects as well as using pathway analysis software created for gene expression arrays to analyze DNA methylation array data. Impact: We present evidence that 1) chip-specific effects can simulate plausible differential methylation results; and 2) popular pathway analysis software developed for expression arrays can yield spurious results when used in tandem with methylation microarrays.