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Arsenic Susceptibility

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of plant age on arsenic hyperaccumulation by Pteris vittata l

Authors: Gonzaga, MIS; Ma, LQ; Santos, JAG (2007) Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 186:289-295. HERO ID: 475260

[Less] Plant age affects its elemental uptake and biomass accumulation, which is important for the application . . . [More] Plant age affects its elemental uptake and biomass accumulation, which is important for the application of plants in phytoextraction. In this research, we evaluated the effects of plant age on arsenic accumulation by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata after growing in an arsenic-contaminated soil for 8 weeks. The study used a completely randomized design consisting of four plant ages (2, 4, 10 and 16 months) with four replications each. While the fronds of the 2 month old plants contained 36% more arsenic than those of the 4 and 16 month old plants, they were lower in roots. After 8 weeks of growth, the final frond biomass increased by 39, 6.9, 2.0 and 1.1 times compared to the initial frond biomass, from youngest to oldest, respectively. Higher phosphorus and iron accumulation in the roots of older plants may have affected the plant's efficiency to bioconcentrate and transfer arsenic from the roots to the fronds. Greater metabolic activity and higher rate of biomass production lead to higher As accumulation and removal by young plants. This research demonstrated that the use of young plants can be an effective strategy to reduce the time to remediate an As-contaminated site.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Partitioning, bioavailability and origin of heavy metals from the Nador Lagoon sediments (Morocco) as a basis for their management

Authors: Gonzalez, I; Aguila, E; Galan, E (2007) Environmental Geology 52:1581-1593. HERO ID: 475276

[Less] Nador Lagoon sediments show low trace element concentrations, and, in relation to the lagoon geochemical . . . [More] Nador Lagoon sediments show low trace element concentrations, and, in relation to the lagoon geochemical baseline, only some anomalies for As, Cd, Cu and Pb in the NW of the lagoon deserve to be outstanding. The distribution of major, minor and trace elements in the lagoon allows a breakdown in four zones. Between "Beni Ensar" and "Atelouane" (zone A), a quite confined zone rich in organic matter and S, the most important trace-element anomalies (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) were found, mainly around industry and old mining activities. In the surrounding of the city of Nador (zone B), the anomalies correspond to Mn, Cu and Zn. The coastal barrier and Kebdana channel (zone C) show moderately concentrations of Cd, Cr and Ni at specific sites. The less polluted area is the SE of the lagoon (zone D), with no outstanding anomaly. In lagoon sediments, metal bioavailability is very low. The metal partitioning patterns show that Cu, Pb and Zn present a low availability because they are bounded to the residual, non-mobile phases of the sediments. Only in some sites, the fraction was associated with organic matter, which could be liberated easily. Arsenic is concentrated in both the residual phases and the organic matter, the latter being more available. Cadmium is mainly concentrated in some samples in the interchangeable fraction, which could be considered as a potentially toxic element because it is easily released. Concerning the origin of these trace elements, those found in zone A correspond mostly to a natural source by weathering of mount Gourougou volcanic rocks (As, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn), and to an anthropogenic origin (Cd) owing to the presence of industry and old mines. In zone B, contributions of Cu and Zn enter the lagoon through soil weathering and river-borne, and as anthropogenic pollution from urban wastes. In zone C the most important pollutant is Cd deduced to be of anthropogenic origin from the close industry and intensive agriculture area. In spite of the intense socio-economic activities developed in the Nador Lagoon (agriculture, industry, fishing, tourism) trace element concentrations in the sediments are low and with scarce bioavailability. Only the NW sector is relativity polluted because of geogenic features.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Chemical-specific health consultation for chromated copper arsenate chemical mixture: Port of Djibouti

Authors: Chou, S; Colman, J; Tylenda, C; De Rosa, C (2007) Toxicology and Industrial Health 23:183-208. HERO ID: 734950

[Less] The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepared this health consultation to provide . . . [More] The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepared this health consultation to provide support for assessing the public health implications of hazardous chemical exposure, primarily through drinking water, related to releases of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in the port of Djibouti. CCA from a shipment, apparently intended for treating electric poles, is leaking into the soil in the port area. CCA is a pesticide used to protect wood against decay-causing organisms. This mixture commonly contains chromium(VI) (hexavalent chromium) as chromic acid, arsenic(V) (pentavalent arsenic) as arsenic pentoxide and copper (II) (divalent copper) as cupric oxide, often in an aqueous solution or concentrate. Experimental studies of the fate of CCA in soil and monitoring studies of wood-preserving sites where CCA was spilled on the soil indicate that the chromium(VI), arsenic and copper components of CCA can leach from soil into groundwater and surface water. In addition, at CCA wood-preserving sites, substantial concentrations of chromium(VI), arsenic and copper remained in the soil and were leachable into water four years after the use of CCA was discontinued, suggesting prolonged persistence in soil, with continued potential for leaching. The degree of leaching depended on soil composition and the extent of soil contamination with CCA. In general, leaching was highest for chromium(VI), intermediate for arsenic and lowest for copper. Thus, the potential for contamination of sources of drinking water exists. Although arsenic that is leached from CCA-contaminated soil into surface water may accumulate in the tissues of fish and shellfish, most of the arsenic in these animals will be in a form (often called fish arsenic) that is less harmful. Copper, which leaches less readily than the other components, can accumulate in tissues of mussels and oysters. Chromium is not likely to accumulate in the tissues of fish and shellfish. Limited studies of air concentrations during cleanup of CCA-contaminated soil at wood- preserving sites showed that air levels of chromium(VI), arsenic and copper were below the occupational standards. Workers directly involved in the repackaging, containment or cleanup of leaking containers of CCA or of soil saturated with CCA, however, may be exposed to high levels of CCA through direct dermal contact, inhalation of aerosols or particulates and inadvertent ingestion. Few studies have been conducted on the health effects of CCA. CCA as a concentrated solution is corrosive to the skin eyes and digestive tract. Studies of workers exposed to CCA in wood-preserving plants have not found adverse health effects in these workers, but the studies involved small numbers of workers and therefore are not definitive. People exposed to very high levels of CCA, from sawing wood that still had liquid CCA in it or from living in a home contaminated with ash containing high levels of chromium(VI), arsenic and copper, experienced serious health effects including nosebleeds, digestive system pain and bleeding, itching skin, darkened urine, nervous system effects such as tingling or numbness of the hands and feet and confusion, and rashes or thickening and peeling of the skin. These health effects of the mixture are at least qualitatively reflective of the health effects of the individual components of CCA (arsenic, chromium(VI) and copper). For a given mixture, the critical effects of the individual components are of particular concern, as are any effects in common that may become significant due to additivity or interactions among the components. Effects of concern for CCA, based on the known effects of the individual components, include cancer (arsenic by the oral route, arsenic and chromium(VI) by the inhalation route), irritant or corrosive effects (all three mixture components), the unique dermal effects of arsenic, neurologic effects (arsenic and chromium(VI), and hematologic, hepatic and renal effects (all three components). Because arsenic, chromium(VI), and copper components affect some of the same target organs, they may have additive toxicity toward those organs. Few studies have investigated the potential toxic interactions among the components (arsenic, chromium(VI) and copper) of CCA. The available interaction studies and also possible mechanisms of interaction were evaluated using a weight-of-evidence approach. The conclusion is that there is no strong evidence that interactions among the components of CCA will result in a marked increase in toxicity. This conclusion reflects a lack of well designed interaction studies as well as uncertainties regarding potential mechanisms of interaction. Confidence in the conclusion is low. Workers exposed to high levels of CCA during cleanup of leaking containers of CCA or soil heavily contaminated with CCA should wear protective clothing and respirators if air concentrations of arsenic are above 10 microg/m3. In addition, they should not eat, drink or use tobacco products during exposure to CCA, and should thoroughly wash after skin contact with CCA and before eating, drinking, using tobacco products or using restrooms. When protective clothing becomes contaminated with CCA, it should be changed, and the contaminated clothing should be disposed off in a manner approved for pesticide disposal. Workers should leave all protective clothing, including work shoes and boots, at the workplace, so that CCA will not be carried into their cars and homes, which would endanger other people. People not involved in the cleanup of the CCA and who are not wearing protective clothing should be prevented from entering contaminated areas. Leaking containers of CCA must be repackaged and contained to prevent direct exposure of on-site personnel; and contaminated soil needs to be removed to prevent the CCA from leaching into surface water and groundwater, thereby contaminating sources of drinking water.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Heavy metals and selenium in grebe feathers from Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge in northern Minnesota

Authors: Burger, J; Eichhorst, B (2007) Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 53:442-449. HERO ID: 456826

[Less] Metal levels in feathers can often be used as an indicator of exposure and of potential effects in birds. . . . [More] Metal levels in feathers can often be used as an indicator of exposure and of potential effects in birds. In previous work at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge, northwestern Minnesota, pied-billed grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) eggs had significantly higher levels of manganese and mercury and significantly lower levels of selenium than eared (Podiceps nigricollis) or red-necked grebes (Podiceps grisegena), but in 1999, pied-billed grebes had significantly higher levels of mercury, but lower levels of selenium and tin than the other grebes. This led us to examine whether these patterns held up in feathers of grebes as a function of age. The feathers of young birds represent local exposure. We collected feathers of flightless young and adult grebes from 1997 to 1999 in the marshes at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge. Regression models indicated that year, age, or species were significant factors accounting for variations in the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium, depending on the metal. Overall, there were significant intraspecific differences for all metals. Pied-billed grebes had the highest levels of arsenic, chromium, and selenium, and eared grebes had the highest levels of cadmium, manganese, and mercury. Pied-billed and western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) had the highest levels of lead. There were significant age-related differences in cadmium, chromium, and mercury for both eared and red-necked grebes, for arsenic in eared grebes, and for lead and manganese in red-necked grebes. Adults had higher levels of all metals, except young had higher levels of chromium. Mercury in the feathers of eared grebes were higher than found from other studies with a wide range of aquatic and marine birds and were above those known to cause adverse effects in laboratory studies, suggesting some cause for concern.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Combined administration of selenium and meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid on arsenic mobilization and tissue oxidative stress in chronic arsenic-exposed male rats

Authors: Modi, M; Mittal, M; Flora, SJS (2007) HERO ID: 1350453

[Less] Objective : The present study describes the effect of selenium either alone or in combination with . . . [More] Objective : The present study describes the effect of selenium either alone or in combination with meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) against chronic arsenic poisoning in rats. Materials and Methods : Male Wistar rats were exposed to 100 ppm sodium arsenite in drinking water for eight months and treated thereafter with DMSA (0.3 mmol/kg orally) either individually or in combination with selenium (Se, 6.3 or 12.6 mol/kg, intraperitoneally) once daily for five days. The effects of these treatments in influencing the arsenic (As)-induced changes in heme synthesis, hepatic, renal or brain oxidative stress were evaluated along with the As concentration in blood and soft tissues. Results : Exposure to As significantly altered biochemical parameters related to the heme synthesis pathway, blood and organ (liver, kidney and brain) oxidative stress while increasing body As burden in animals. Treatment with DMSA alone significantly reduced the adverse effects related to most of these biochemical parameters as well as the As concentration in blood and tissues. On the other hand, co-administration of Se with DMSA had only limited additional beneficial effects (particularly tissue oxidative stress) over the individual effect of DMSA. Conclusion : The above results suggest that Se administration during chelation affected by other agents had some beneficial effects on oxidative stress with no major additional beneficial effect on arsenic depletion.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

24-Hour provoked urine excretion test for heavy metals in children with autism and typically developing controls, a pilot study

Authors: Soden, SE; Lowry, JA; Garrison, CB; Wasserman, GS (2007) Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology 45:476-481. HERO ID: 523166

[Less] Introduction. The complementary and alternative medicine practice of prescribing chelators to children . . . [More] Introduction. The complementary and alternative medicine practice of prescribing chelators to children with autism is based on the premise that the chronic symptoms of autism can be ameliorated by reducing heavy metal body burden. However, there has not been definitive evidence, published to date, to support the assertion that children with autism are at increased risk of an excess chelatable body burden of heavy metals. The oral chelator meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) can be used diagnostically to mobilize heavy metals from extravascular pools, enhancing the identification of individuals who have a chelatable body burden. Methods. Seventeen children with autism and five typically developing children were enrolled in a pilot study to test for chelatable body burden of Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), and Mercury (Hg). Evaluation included a questionnaire regarding potential exposure to heavy metals, diet restrictions, a baseline 24-hour urine collection, and a DMSA-provoked urine collection. Urine collections were sent for As, Cd, Ph, and Hg quantification by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. Unprovoked reference ranges were used in the interpretation of all collections. Results. Fifteen autistic children and four typically developing children completed the study. Three autistic subjects excreted one metal in greater quantity during the provoked excretion than baseline. Two of these were very close to the limit of detection. In the third case, the provoked excretion of mercury was between the upper limit of normal and lower limit of the potentially toxic reference range. Fish was removed from this child's diet for greater than one month, and the provoked excretion test repeated. The repeat excretion of mercury was within the normal range. Conclusion. In the absence a proven novel mode of heavy metal toxicity, the proportion of autistic participants in this study whose DMSA provoked excretion results demonstrate an excess chelatable body burden of As, Cd, Pb, or Hg is zero. The confidence interval for this proportion is 0-22%.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Changes in gene expression profiles in response to selenium supplementation among individuals with arsenic-induced pre-malignant skin lesions

Authors: Kibriya, MG; Jasmine, F; Argos, M; Verret, WJ; Rakibuz-Zaman, M; Ahmed, A; Parvez, F; Ahsan, H (2007) Toxicology Letters 169:162-176. HERO ID: 627077

[Less] The molecular basis and downstream targets of oral selenium supplementation in individuals with elevated . . . [More] The molecular basis and downstream targets of oral selenium supplementation in individuals with elevated risk of cancer due to chronic exposure from environmental carcinogens has been largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated genome-wide differential gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from individuals with pre-malignant arsenic (As)-induced skin lesions before and after 6 months daily oral supplementation of 200 microg L-selenomethionine. The Affymetrix GeneChip Human 133A 2.0 array, containing probes for 22,277 gene transcripts, was used to assess gene expression. Three different normalization methods, RMA (robust multi-chip analysis), GC-RMA and PLIER (Probe logarithmic intensity error), were applied to explore differentially expressed genes. We identified a list of 28 biologically meaningful, significantly differentially expressed genes. Genes up-regulated by selenium supplementation included TNF, IL1B, IL8, SOD2, CXCL2 and several other immunological and oxidative stress-related genes. When mapped to a biological association network, many of the differentially expressed genes were found to regulate functional classes such as fibroblast growth factor, collagenase, matrix metalloproteinase and stromelysin-1, and thus, considered to affect cellular processes like apoptosis, proliferation and others. Many of the significantly up-regulated genes following selenium-supplementation were previously found by us to be down-regulated in a different set of individuals with As-induced skin lesions compared to those without. In conclusion, findings from this study may elucidate the biological effect of selenium supplementation in humans. Additionally, this study suggests that long-term selenium supplementation may revert some of the gene expression changes presumably induced by chronic As exposure in individuals with pre-malignant skin lesions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Activation of inflammation/NF-kappaB signaling in infants born to arsenic-exposed mothers

Authors: Fry, RC; Navasumrit, P; Valiathan, C; Svensson, JP; Hogan, BJ; Luo, M; Bhattacharya, S; Kandjanapa, K; Soontararuks, S; Nookabkaew, S; Mahidol, C; Ruchirawat, M; Samson, LD (2007) Pl o S Genetics 3:e207. HERO ID: 627166

[Less] The long-term health outcome of prenatal exposure to arsenic has been associated with increased mortality . . . [More] The long-term health outcome of prenatal exposure to arsenic has been associated with increased mortality in human populations. In this study, the extent to which maternal arsenic exposure impacts gene expression in the newborn was addressed. We monitored gene expression profiles in a population of newborns whose mothers experienced varying levels of arsenic exposure during pregnancy. Through the application of machine learning-based two-class prediction algorithms, we identified expression signatures from babies born to arsenic-unexposed and -exposed mothers that were highly predictive of prenatal arsenic exposure in a subsequent test population. Furthermore, 11 transcripts were identified that captured the maximal predictive capacity to classify prenatal arsenic exposure. Network analysis of the arsenic-modulated transcripts identified the activation of extensive molecular networks that are indicative of stress, inflammation, metal exposure, and apoptosis in the newborn. Exposure to arsenic is an important health hazard both in the United States and around the world, and is associated with increased risk for several types of cancer and other chronic diseases. These studies clearly demonstrate the robust impact of a mother's arsenic consumption on fetal gene expression as evidenced by transcript levels in newborn cord blood.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Grand rounds: nephrotoxicity in a young child exposed to uranium from contaminated well water

Authors: Magdo, HS; Forman, J; Graber, N; Newman, B; Klein, K; Satlin, L; Amler, RW; Winston, JA; Landrigan, PJ (2007) Environmental Health Perspectives 115:1237-1241. HERO ID: 1024682

[Less] CONTEXT: Private wells that tap groundwater are largely exempt from federal drinking-water . . . [More] CONTEXT: Private wells that tap groundwater are largely exempt from federal drinking-water regulations, and in most states well water is not subject to much of the mandatory testing required of public water systems. Families that rely on private wells are thus at risk of exposure to a variety of unmeasured contaminants.

CASE PRESENTATION: A family of seven--two adults and five children--residing in rural northwestern Connecticut discovered elevated concentrations of uranium in their drinking water, with levels measured at 866 and 1,160 microg/L, values well above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level for uranium in public water supplies of 30 microg/L. The uranium was of natural origin, and the source of exposure was found to be a 500-foot well that tapped groundwater from the Brookfield Gneiss, a geologic formation known to contain uranium. Other nearby wells also had elevated uranium, arsenic, and radon levels, though concentrations varied widely. At least one 24-hr urine uranium level was elevated (> 1 microg/24 hr) in six of seven family members (range, 1.1-2.5 microg/24 hr). To assess possible renal injury, we measured urinary beta-2-microglobulin. Levels were elevated (> 120 microg/L) in five of seven family members, but after correction for creatine excretion, the beta-2-microglobulin excretion rate remained elevated (> 40 microg/mmol creatinine) only in the youngest child, a 3-year-old with a corrected level of 90 microg/mmol creatinine. Three months after cessation of well water consumption, this child's corrected beta-2-microglobulin level had fallen to 52 microg/mmol creatinine.

SIGNIFICANCE: This case underscores the hazards of consuming groundwater from private wells. It documents the potential for significant residential exposure to naturally occurring uranium in well water. It highlights the special sensitivity of young children to residential environmental exposures, a reflection of the large amount of time they spend in their homes, the developmental immaturity of their kidneys and other organ systems, and the large volume of water they consume relative to body mass.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Gender differences in the disposition and toxicity of metals

Authors: Vahter, M; Akesson, A; Lidén, C; Ceccatelli, S; Berglund, M (2007) Environmental Research 104:85-95. [Review] HERO ID: 187069

[Less] There is increasing evidence that health effects of toxic metals differ in prevalence or are manifested . . . [More] There is increasing evidence that health effects of toxic metals differ in prevalence or are manifested differently in men and women. However, the database is small. The present work aims at evaluating gender differences in the health effects of cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury and arsenic. There is a markedly higher prevalence of nickel-induced allergy and hand eczema in women compared to men, mainly due to differences in exposure. Cadmium retention is generally higher in women than in men, and the severe cadmium-induced Itai-itai disease was mainly a woman's disease. Gender differences in susceptibility at lower exposure are uncertain, but recent data indicate that cadmium has estrogenic effects and affect female offspring. Men generally have higher blood lead levels than women. Lead accumulates in bone and increased endogenous lead exposure has been demonstrated during periods of increased bone turnover, particularly in women in pregnancy and menopause. Lead and mercury, in the form of mercury vapor and methylmercury, are easily transferred from the pregnant women to the fetus. Recent data indicate that boys are more susceptible to neurotoxic effects of lead and methylmercury following exposure early in life, while experimental data suggest that females are more susceptible to immunotoxic effects of lead. Certain gender differences in the biotransformation of arsenic by methylation have been reported, and men seem to be more affected by arsenic-related skin effect than women. Experimental studies indicate major gender differences in arsenic-induced cancer. Obviously, research on gender-related differences in health effects caused by metals needs considerable more focus in the future.